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  • These are grim economic times,

    現在是嚴峻的經濟時期

  • fellow TEDsters, grim economic times indeed.

    各位TED的朋友,十分嚴峻的經濟時期

  • And so, I would like to cheer you up

    所以,我想鼓舞大家一下

  • with one of the great, albeit largely unknown,

    用一個不為眾人所熟知的

  • commercial success stories

    成功的商業故事

  • of the past 20 years.

    故事發生在20年前

  • Comparable, in its own very peculiar way,

    與微軟與Google的成就相比

  • to the achievements of Microsoft or Google.

    它另有一番特殊的成就

  • And it's an industry which has bucked the current recession

    而且,它正默默地振興當前的

  • with equanimity.

    經濟危機

  • I refer to organized crime.

    我指的是「組織犯罪」

  • Now organized crime has been around

    組織犯罪已經發生在我們周遭很久了,

  • for a very long time, I hear you say,

    就像你知道的那樣

  • and these would be wise words, indeed.

    這麼說真的一點都沒錯

  • But in the last two decades,

    不過,過去二十年間

  • it has experienced an unprecedented expansion,

    它以不可預料的程度擴張著

  • now accounting for roughly 15 percent

    現今佔了將近百分之十五

  • of the world's GDP.

    全世界的國民生產毛額

  • I like to call it the Global Shadow Economy,

    我想把它改稱為「全球黑經濟」

  • or McMafia, for short.

    或簡稱為 McMafia 麥克黑手黨(擬:全球都有的麥當勞)

  • So what triggered this extraordinary growth

    倒底是什麼引起這個跨國性犯罪組織

  • in cross-border crime?

    驚人的成長?

  • Well, of course, there is globalization,

    當然,要提到全球化、

  • technology, communications, all that stuff,

    科技進步、通訊發達等種種因素

  • which we'll talk about a little bit later.

    待會,我們再回來談這些

  • But first, I would like to take you back

    首先,我想讓你們回顧

  • to this event:

    這個事件

  • the collapse of communism.

    東歐共產主義解體

  • All across Eastern Europe, a most momentous episode

    是二次大戰後,整個東歐

  • in our post-war history.

    最重要的事件

  • Now it's time for full disclosure.

    現在是時候來好好檢視

  • This event meant a great deal to me personally.

    這件事對我來說非常重要

  • I had started smuggling books across the Iron Curtain

    我曾經走私書籍進入鐵幕

  • to Democratic opposition groups in Eastern Europe,

    給東歐的民主反對黨

  • like Solidarity in Poland,

    像是波蘭的團結工會

  • when I was in my teens.

    當我還是青少年的時候

  • I then started writing about Eastern Europe,

    然後我開始以東歐為主題開始寫作

  • and eventually I became the BBC's chief correspondent for the region,

    最後也順理成章的成為BBC該地區特派員的主管

  • which is what I was doing in 1989.

    這些是我在1989年的事情

  • And so when 425 million people

    所以,當四億兩千五百萬人民

  • finally won the right

    終於掙到了選擇

  • to choose their own governments,

    自己要的政府的權力

  • I was ecstatic,

    我欣喜若狂

  • but I was also a touch worried

    但又感到擔憂

  • about some of the nastier things

    一些更醜陋的事情

  • lurking behind the wall.

    潛藏在鐵幕後

  • It wasn't long, for example,

    舉例來說

  • before ethnic nationalism

    南斯拉夫的民族主義份子

  • reared its bloody head

    在他們血腥上台之前並沒有

  • in Yugoslavia.

    經歷很長的時間

  • And amongst the chaos,

    在一團混亂當中

  • amidst the euphoria,

    瀰漫著一種興奮

  • it took me a little while to understand

    我花了些時間才了解

  • that some of the people who had wielded power

    那些在1989年前的東歐

  • before 1989, in Eastern Europe,

    已經掌握特權的人

  • continued to do so after the revolutions there.

    在革命之後持續掌權

  • Obviously there were characters like this.

    顯然有些是有頭有臉的人物,像是...

  • But there were also some more unexpected people

    不過也有一些我們想不到的人物

  • who played a critical role in what was going on in Eastern Europe.

    正影響著當時東歐的改變

  • Like this character. Remember these guys?

    像這位先生,大家還記得他嗎?

  • They used to win the gold medals in weightlifting

    他們曾經贏得舉重的金牌

  • and wrestling, every four years in the Olympics,

    還有角力,每四年一次的奧運

  • and they were the great celebrities of communism,

    在共產國家,他們是社會名流

  • with a fabulous lifestyle to go with it.

    擁有奢華的生活

  • They used to get great apartments in the center of town,

    在市中心擁有高檔的公寓

  • casual sex on tap,

    酩酒美人

  • and they could travel to the West very freely,

    可以自由的到西方國家旅行

  • which was a great luxury at the time.

    在當時簡直是奢華到了極點

  • It may come as a surprise, but they played a critical role

    這事情也許令人驚訝,他們扮演一個重要的角色

  • in the emergence of the market economy

    市場經濟慢慢浮現

  • in Eastern Europe.

    在東歐

  • Or as I like to call them, they are

    或者換成我自己的說法:他們是

  • the midwives of capitalism.

    資本主義的助產士

  • Here are some of those same weightlifters

    這是那些舉重選手

  • after their 1989 makeover.

    在1989年的變化之後

  • Now in Bulgaria --

    現今在保加利亞

  • this photograph was taken in Bulgaria --

    這些照片是在保加利亞拍的

  • when communism collapsed all over Eastern Europe,

    當東歐共產國家一一垮台

  • it wasn't just communism;

    垮的不只是共產主義

  • it was the state that collapsed as well.

    政府的機制也垮了

  • That means your police force wasn't working.

    意味著你的警察治安沒了

  • The court system wasn't functioning properly.

    法院的系統無法正常運作

  • So what was a business man in the brave new world

    一個勇敢的生意人面對這新世界

  • of East European capitalism going to do

    在東歐的資本主義市場該做什麼

  • to make sure that his contracts would be honored?

    確定自己的合約還是有效?

  • Well, he would turn to people who were called, rather prosaically

    這樣會被人家稱之為毫無創意

  • by sociologists, privatized law enforcement agencies.

    尤其是在民營化法治單位社會學家眼裏

  • We prefer to know them as the mafia.

    後來我們知道這些人成了黑道

  • And in Bulgaria, the mafia was soon joined

    在保加利亞黑道人數激增

  • with 14,000 people

    到了一萬四千人之多

  • who were sacked from their jobs in the security services

    很多是在法治單位丟了工作的人

  • between 1989 and 1991.

    在1989到1991年間

  • Now, when your state is collapsing,

    當你的國家制度瓦解

  • your economy is heading south at a rate of knots,

    你們的經濟往南邊發展而且打了結

  • the last people you want coming on to the labor market

    你最不該求職的工作就是勞工市場

  • are 14,000 men and women whose chief skills

    一萬四千名具有主管資格的男女

  • are surveillance,

    被留置

  • are smuggling, building underground networks

    做起走私、建立地下經濟的骨幹

  • and killing people.

    而且還涉及謀殺

  • But that's what happened all over Eastern Europe.

    這不只發生在一地,而是全東歐

  • Now, when I was working in the 1990s,

    1990年代我的工作

  • I spent most of the time covering

    花了很多時間揭發

  • the appalling conflict in Yugoslavia.

    南斯拉夫的衝突

  • And I couldn't help notice

    我不得不注意

  • that the people who were perpetrating the appalling atrocities,

    那些犯下殘暴犯罪的人們

  • the paramilitary organizations,

    的準軍事機構(軍閥)

  • were actually the same people running

    就是那同一組人

  • the organized criminal syndicates.

    也正運作著犯罪組織

  • And I came to think that behind the violence

    我思考到這些暴力的背後

  • lay a sinister criminal enterprise.

    有著這邪惡的犯罪企業集團

  • And so I resolved to travel around the world

    因此我開始在世界各地旅行

  • examining this global criminal underworld

    檢視這個世界的地下犯罪

  • by talking to policemen,

    跟警察探尋資訊

  • by talking to victims, by talking to consumers

    跟受害者交談,跟消費者交談

  • of illicit goods and services.

    了解非法的物資與勞務

  • But above all else, by talking to the gangsters themselves.

    除此之外,我還直接跟歹徒對談

  • And the Balkans was a fabulous place to start.

    巴爾幹半島是最佳的起點

  • Why? Well of course

    為什麼?

  • there was the issue of law and order collapsing,

    這裡的法治蕩然無存

  • but also, as they say in the retail trade,

    此外,就像零售業所說的

  • it's location, location, location.

    最重要的就是店面、店面、店面

  • And what I noticed at the beginning of my research

    一開始我注意的是

  • that the Balkans had turned into a vast transit zone

    巴爾幹已經轉型成為一個大型的轉運區

  • for illicit goods and services coming from all over the world.

    非法的貨物與勞務從世界各地而來

  • Heroin, cocaine,

    海洛因、古柯鹼

  • women being trafficked into prostitution

    女人被人蛇賣到賣淫集團

  • and precious minerals.

    稀有的貴金屬

  • And where were they heading?

    那麼他們去了哪裡?

  • The European Union, which by now

    現在的目的地是歐盟

  • was beginning to reap the benefits of globalization,

    也開始因為全球化而開始獲利

  • transforming it into

    犯罪轉型成為

  • the most affluent consumer market in history,

    歷史上最具影響力的消費者市場

  • eventually comprising some 500 million people.

    最後組成了一個接近五億人口

  • And a significant minority

    關鍵的少數

  • of those 500 million people

    這五億人口

  • like to spend some of their leisure time and spare cash

    喜歡渡假、花錢

  • sleeping with prostitutes,

    找妓女

  • sticking 50 Euro notes up their nose

    把五十歐元捲起塞在鼻孔裏(吸毒)

  • and employing illegal migrant laborers.

    雇用非法的勞工

  • Now, organized crime in a globalizing world

    現在組織犯罪已經是個全球化的事件

  • operates in the same way as any other business.

    跟大企業經營一般的運作

  • It has zones of production,

    他們有生產的區塊

  • like Afghanistan and Columbia.

    像是阿富汗(海洛因)和哥倫比亞(古柯鹼)

  • It has zones of distribution,

    有配銷的區塊

  • like Mexico and the Balkans.

    像是墨西哥和巴爾幹半島

  • And then, of course, it has zones of consumption,

    當然,也有消費的區塊

  • like the European Union, Japan

    像是歐盟、日本

  • and of course, the United States.

    當然,還有美國

  • The zones of production and distribution

    生產的區塊和配銷的區塊

  • tend to lie in the developing world,

    通常都分佈在開發中國家

  • and they are often threatened by appalling violence

    而且大多受到暴力恐怖的威脅

  • and bloodshed.

    經常發生流血事件

  • Take Mexico, for example.

    以墨西哥為例

  • Six thousand people killed there in the last 18 months

    過去的十八個月,共有六千人被殺

  • as a direct consequence of the cocaine trade.

    死亡的背後多半跟古柯鹼的買賣有關

  • But what about the Democratic Republic of Congo?

    那我們來看看剛果共和國

  • Since 1998, five million people have died there.

    1998年到現在一共死了五百萬人

  • It's not a conflict you read about much in the newspapers,

    這樣的衝突事件可能不會出現在你的報紙上

  • but it's the biggest conflict on this planet

    不過卻是目前地球上最大的衝突

  • since the Second World War.

    在二次大戰之後

  • And why is it? Because mafias from all around the world

    為什麼?因為來自世界各地的黑道

  • cooperate with local paramilitaries

    跟當地的軍閥合作

  • in order to seize the supplies

    取得貨物的持續供應

  • of the rich mineral resources

    就是剛果豐富的礦產

  • of the region.

    以當地而言

  • In the year 2000, 80 percent of the world's coltan

    2000年全世界80%的鈳鉭鐵礦出自這裡

  • was sourced to the killing fields

    也是這場殺戮戰場的原因

  • of the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    戰場就在剛果共和國的東部

  • Now, coltan you will find in almost every mobile phone,

    現在鈳鉭鐵礦幾乎可以在任何一支手機上

  • in almost every laptop

    任何一台筆電上

  • and games console.

    還有遊戲機上被看到

  • The Congolese war lords were selling this stuff to the mafia

    剛果的軍閥將這金屬賣給黑道

  • in exchange for weapons,

    來換得武器

  • and the mafia would then sell it on to Western markets.

    黑道卻把貴金屬賣給了西方的市場

  • And it is this Western desire

    這貴金屬是西方物質慾望

  • to consume

    消費

  • that is the primary driver

    這就是最原始的驅動力

  • of international organized crime.

    導致國際化的組織犯罪行為

  • Now, let me show you some of my friends in action,

    現在,讓大家看一下我的朋友在追緝行動中的畫面

  • caught conveniently on film by the Italian police,

    義大利警方記錄下的影片

  • and smuggling duty-not-paid cigarettes.

    走私未稅的香煙

  • Now, cigarettes out the factory gate are very cheap.

    香煙出廠的時候是非常便宜的

  • The European Union then imposes the highest taxes on them in the world.

    歐盟國家在香煙上打了世界上最昂貴的稅金

  • So if you can smuggle them into the E.U.,

    所以你要是走私香煙進歐盟

  • there are very handsome profits to be made,

    就會賺取極高的利潤

  • and I want to show you this to demonstrate

    我現在要展示給各位看的

  • the type of resources available to these groups.

    走私集團有什麼樣的工具

  • This boat is worth one million Euros when it's new.

    這艘船的造價是一百萬歐元

  • And it's the fastest thing on European waters.

    在歐洲沒有船跑得比他快

  • From 1994, for seven years,

    從1994年算起七年

  • 20 of these boats

    20艘這樣的船

  • made the trip across the Adriatic,

    通過亞德里亞海

  • from Montenegro to Italy, every single night.

    每天晚上從蒙特內哥羅共和國到義大利

  • And as a consequence of this trade,

    這樣的非法走私交易

  • Britain alone lost eight billion dollars in revenue.

    每年英國損失八十億美金

  • And instead that money went to underwrite the wars in Yugoslavia

    而這些沒有記錄的錢後來卻跑到了南斯拉夫的戰爭去了

  • and line the pockets of unscrupulous individuals.

    還有一群無恥的商人口袋裡面

  • Now Italian police, when this trade started,

    這種交易剛剛開始的時候義大利的警方

  • had just two boats which could go at the same speed.

    只有兩艘警艇可以跟他們跑得一樣快

  • And this is very important, because the only way you can catch these guys

    這非常重要,因為唯一逮到這些傢伙的方法

  • is if they run out of gas.

    就是讓他們跑到沒汽油了

  • Sometimes the gangsters would bring with them

    有時候歹徒還會另外偷運其他物品

  • women being trafficked into prostitution,

    女人也用這個方式運送賣淫

  • and if the police intervened, they would hurl

    如果發現警方追緝他們就

  • the women into the sea

    把女人拋入海中

  • so that the police had to go and save them from drowning,

    警察忙著救人免於溺斃

  • rather than chasing the bad guys.

    歹徒就趁機逃逸

  • So I have shown you this to demonstrate

    我給各位看這段影片

  • how many boats, how many vessels it takes

    多少船、多少警艇

  • to catch one of these guys.

    來追緝一艘歹徒所開的船

  • And the answer is six vessels.

    答案是六艘

  • And remember, 20 of these speed boats

    請各位記住有20艘這樣的快船

  • were coming across the Adriatic

    來回通過亞德里亞海

  • every single night.

    在每一個晚上

  • So what were these guys doing with all the money they were making?

    這些歹徒到底怎麼花他們賺來的這一堆錢?

  • Well, this is where we come to globalization,

    這裡就要帶大家進入全球化議題

  • because that was not just the deregulation of global trade.

    因為這不但將全球國際貿易規範摧毀

  • It was the liberalization of international financial markets.

    同時他將全球金融市場自由化了

  • And boy, did that make it easy

    我的天啊!怎麼如此容易

  • for the money launderers.

    對於洗錢的人來說

  • The last two decades have been the champagne era

    過去的20年簡直就是天堂

  • for dirty lucre.

    漂白了髒錢

  • In the 1990s, we saw financial centers around the world

    1990我們看到全世界的金融中心

  • competing for their business,

    爭奪他們的生意

  • and there was simply no effective mechanism

    而當時完全沒有任何方法

  • to prevent money laundering.

    來防治洗錢

  • And a lot of licit banks were also happy

    而且很多合法的銀行也樂於

  • to accept deposits

    接受存款

  • from very dubious sources

    甚至十分可以的金錢來源

  • without questions being asked.

    根本不問任何問題

  • But at the heart of this, is the offshore banking network.

    這個問題的核心是海外的銀行網路

  • Now these things

    現在這些問題

  • are an essential part of the money laundering parade,

    成為國際洗錢的最重要的部份

  • and if you want to do something about illegal tax evasion

    如果要矯正規避合法的稅金

  • and transnational organized crime, money laundering,

    國際犯罪組織、洗錢

  • you have to get rid of them.

    一定要去除這些問題

  • On a positive note, we at last have someone in the White House

    一個正面的消息,我們有一位人士在美國白宮

  • who has consistently spoken out

    經常的大聲疾呼

  • against these corrosive entities.

    反對這些腐化的實體

  • And if anyone is concerned about what I believe

    如果有任何人跟我一樣關心這樣的問題

  • is the necessity for

    最重要的事情是

  • new legislation, regulation, effective regulation,

    新的立法、法規,有效的法規

  • I say, let's take a look at Bernie Madoff,

    我們就來看看 Bernie Madoff (柏尼馬多夫)

  • who is now going to be spending the rest of his life in jail.

    他將要關在監獄裡面一輩子

  • Bernie Madoff stole 65 billion dollars.

    Bernie Madoff 偷走了六百五十億美金

  • That puts him up there on the Olympus of gangsters

    這讓他跟那些歹徒可以一起開個「壞人奧林匹克」

  • with the Colombian cartels

    參加的有哥倫比亞的毒販