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  • On the path that American children travel to adulthood,

    美國兒童在成長的過程中,

  • two institutions oversee the journey.

    有兩種機構發揮著守望的功能:

  • The first is the one we hear a lot about: college.

    第一種是我們經常聽到的:大學。

  • Some of you may remember the excitement that you felt

    你們當中有些人可能還記得,

  • when you first set off for college.

    當你收到錄取通知書的那一刻, 自己有多麼興奮。

  • Some of you may be in college right now

    有些人可能現在正在上大學,

  • and you're feeling this excitement at this very moment.

    此刻你正感到無比的興奮。

  • College has some shortcomings.

    當然大學也有一些不足之處,

  • It's expensive; it leaves young people in debt.

    比如學費太貴,導致年輕人負债累累。

  • But all in all, it's a pretty good path.

    但是整體來說, 大學是一條相當不錯的道路。

  • Young people emerge from college with pride and with great friends

    年輕人從大學畢業,帶著自豪, 結交好朋友,

  • and with a lot of knowledge about the world.

    同時也學到許多有關世界的知識。

  • And perhaps most importantly,

    或許更重要的是,

  • a better chance in the labor market than they had before they got there.

    對找工作來說, 他們比上大學前有了更好的機會。

  • Today I want to talk about the second institution

    今天,我要談談另一種

  • overseeing the journey from childhood to adulthood in the United States.

    在美國守望著孩童成長過程的機構,

  • And that institution is prison.

    那就是監獄。

  • Young people on this journey are meeting with probation officers

    在監獄裡,年輕人遇到的是觀護人,

  • instead of with teachers.

    而不是老師。

  • They're going to court dates instead of to class.

    他們得按時去法院報到,而不是教室。

  • Their junior year abroad is instead a trip to a state correctional facility.

    別人在大三出國旅遊時, 他們的旅途是去州立感化院。

  • And they're emerging from their 20s

    當他們在20多歲時,

  • not with degrees in business and English,

    他們拿到的不是企管或英文的學位,

  • but with criminal records.

    而是犯罪前科紀錄。

  • This institution is also costing us a lot,

    這個機構也花費許多公帑,

  • about 40,000 dollars a year

    在紐澤西州, 將一個年輕人送進監獄的花費,

  • to send a young person to prison in New Jersey.

    大約是一年4萬美元,

  • But here, taxpayers are footing the bill

    但這筆錢是納稅人付的。

  • and what kids are getting is a cold prison cell

    而這些孩子得到的是冰冷的監獄牢房,

  • and a permanent mark against them when they come home

    以及在他們出獄返家後,或是找工作時,

  • and apply for work.

    無法抹除的永久印記。

  • There are more and more kids on this journey to adulthood

    在美國,有愈來愈多的孩子 步上這條成長的道路,

  • than ever before in the United States and that's because in the past 40 years,

    因為在過去的40年,

  • our incarceration rate has grown by 700 percent.

    我們的監禁率,成長了百分之七百。

  • I have one slide for this talk.

    我為這場演講製作了一張投影片。

  • Here it is.

    就是這張。

  • Here's our incarceration rate,

    這是我們的監禁率。

  • about 716 people per 100,000 in the population.

    每十萬人當中有716人入獄服刑。

  • Here's the OECD countries.

    這是OECD經濟合作暨發展組織 會員國的監禁率圖表。

  • What's more, it's poor kids that we're sending to prison,

    [圖表說明] 美國的監禁率全世界最高, 大約每十萬人有716人入獄服刑。

  • too many drawn from African-American and Latino communities

    更重要的是, 我們將貧窮的孩子們送進監獄。

  • so that prison now stands firmly between the young people trying to make it

    他們多數來自非裔美籍和拉丁裔社區。

  • and the fulfillment of the American Dream.

    現在,監獄阻擋了這些想要成功,

  • The problem's actually a bit worse than this

    以及實現美國夢的年輕人。

  • 'cause we're not just sending poor kids to prison,

    問題其實更為嚴重,

  • we're saddling poor kids with court fees,

    因為我們不只是將貧窮的孩子關起來,

  • with probation and parole restrictions,

    我們還讓這些孩子負擔法庭費用,

  • with low-level warrants,

    用緩刑和假釋來限制他們,

  • we're asking them to live in halfway houses and on house arrest,

    或是對他們發布輕度通緝。

  • and we're asking them to negotiate a police force

    我們讓他們住在中途之家 或是進行居家監禁。

  • that is entering poor communities of color,

    我們讓他們屈服於警察勢力

  • not for the purposes of promoting public safety,

    進入到有色人種的貧窮社區裏,

  • but to make arrest counts, to line city coffers.

    目的不是為了要加強公共安全,

  • This is the hidden underside to our historic experiment in punishment:

    而是為了讓逮捕人數達到要求, 以增加市政府收入。

  • young people worried that at any moment, they will be stopped, searched and seized.

    這是我們一直以來所進行的懲罰性實驗。 隱藏在背後的陰暗面是:

  • Not just in the streets, but in their homes,

    年輕人擔心,他們隨時可能 被攔下來、被搜查、被逮捕。

  • at school and at work.

    不只是在街上如此,在家裡、

  • I got interested in this other path to adulthood

    在學校、或在工作時都有可能。

  • when I was myself a college student

    我開始對這一條成長的道路感到興趣,

  • attending the University of Pennsylvania

    當我還是賓州大學學生的時候,

  • in the early 2000s.

    那時是在2000年年初。

  • Penn sits within a historic African-American neighborhood.

    賓州大學位於一個 歷史上非裔美人居住的地區。

  • So you've got these two parallel journeys going on simultaneously:

    在那裡,可以看到這兩條平行的成長道路:

  • the kids attending this elite, private university,

    一邊的孩子,進入精英的的私人大學就讀,

  • and the kids from the adjacent neighborhood,

    住在另一邊鄰近社區的孩子們,

  • some of whom are making it to college,

    雖然有一些也進了大學,

  • and many of whom are being shipped to prison.

    但是大多數的孩子卻被送進監獄裏。

  • In my sophomore year, I started tutoring a young woman who was in high school

    在我大二那年, 我開始為一個高中的女孩補習。

  • who lived about 10 minutes away from the university.

    她住在距離這個大學10分鐘路程的地方。

  • Soon, her cousin came home from a juvenile detention center.

    不久,他的一位表弟 從少年拘留所回到家裡。

  • He was 15, a freshman in high school.

    他當時15歲,剛就讀高中一年級。

  • I began to get to know him and his friends and family,

    我開始認識他、他的朋友以及家人。

  • and I asked him what he thought about me writing about his life

    我問他,我是否可以在大四的論文裡

  • for my senior thesis in college.

    描寫有關他的故事。

  • This senior thesis became a dissertation at Princeton

    這篇大四所寫的論文,後來也成為 我在普林斯頓大學的博士論文,

  • and now a book.

    以及我所寫的一本書。

  • By the end of my sophomore year,

    在我大二那年結束時,

  • I moved into the neighborhood and I spent the next six years

    我搬到那個社區居住, 在接下來的六年裏,

  • trying to understand what young people were facing as they came of age.

    我試著了解年輕人 在成長過程所要面對的事物。

  • The first week I spent in this neighborhood,

    我住在那裡的第一週,

  • I saw two boys, five and seven years old,

    我看到兩個男孩,分別是五歲和七歲,

  • play this game of chase,

    他們正在玩追逐遊戲。

  • where the older boy ran after the other boy.

    那個大男孩追著另一個男孩。

  • He played the cop.

    大男孩扮演警察。

  • When the cop caught up to the younger boy,

    當這個警察追到小男孩時,

  • he pushed him down,

    他將他推倒在地,

  • handcuffed him with imaginary handcuffs,

    假裝用手銬銬上他的手,

  • took a quarter out of the other child's pocket,

    從他的口袋拿出一個25分的硬幣,

  • saying, "I'm seizing that."

    他說:「我要拿走這個硬幣」。

  • He asked the child if he was carrying any drugs

    他問那個小孩是否身上有毒品,

  • or if he had a warrant.

    或者正在被通緝?

  • Many times, I saw this game repeated,

    我經常看到孩子們玩這個遊戲。

  • sometimes children would simply give up running,

    有時候,孩子會放棄逃跑,

  • and stick their bodies flat against the ground

    身體直直地趴在地上,

  • with their hands above their heads, or flat up against a wall.

    將手舉在頭上,或將手靠在牆壁上。

  • Children would yell at each other,

    孩子們會彼此大叫,

  • "I'm going to lock you up,

    「我要把你關起來。

  • I'm going to lock you up and you're never coming home!"

    我要把你關起來, 讓你永遠不能回家!」

  • Once I saw a six-year-old child pull another child's pants down

    有一次我看到一個六歲小孩 拉下另一個小孩的褲子,

  • and try to do a cavity search.

    試著對他做「體腔檢查」。

  • In the first 18 months that I lived in this neighborhood,

    我住在那個社區的前18個月,

  • I wrote down every time I saw any contact between police

    我紀錄下每一次我所看到

  • and people that were my neighbors.

    警察和我的鄰居之間的接觸過程。

  • So in the first 18 months,

    在那18個月當中,

  • I watched the police stop pedestrians or people in cars,

    我看著警察攔下行人 或是車子裡的人,

  • search people, run people's names,

    對他們搜查,問他們的名字,

  • chase people through the streets,

    在街上追著他們,

  • pull people in for questioning,

    將他們帶回去問話,或是逮捕他們。

  • or make an arrest every single day, with five exceptions.

    這些事每天都在上演, 只有五天平安無事。

  • Fifty-two times, I watched the police break down doors,

    總共有52次,我看到警察破門而入,

  • chase people through houses

    穿過房子追著人們,

  • or make an arrest of someone in their home.

    或者在他們的家裡抓人。

  • Fourteen times in this first year and a half,

    在一年半內有14次,

  • I watched the police punch, choke, kick, stomp on or beat young men

    我看到警察在逮捕年輕人後,

  • after they had caught them.

    對他們打、嗆、踢、踩或揍。

  • Bit by bit, I got to know two brothers,

    後來,我認識了兩兄弟,

  • Chuck and Tim.

    恰克 和 提姆。

  • Chuck was 18 when we met, a senior in high school.

    我遇到恰克時,他18歲, 就讀高中四年級。

  • He was playing on the basketball team and making C's and B's.

    他是籃球隊的隊員,成績有C有B。

  • His younger brother, Tim, was 10.

    他的弟弟提姆,那時10歲。

  • And Tim loved Chuck; he followed him around a lot,

    提姆很愛恰克, 他總是跟在恰克屁股後面,

  • looked to Chuck to be a mentor.

    視哥哥為偶像。

  • They lived with their mom and grandfather

    他們和母親、祖父居住在

  • in a two-story row home with a front lawn and a back porch.

    一座兩層樓的連棟房屋裡, 房屋前有草地,後有陽台。

  • Their mom was struggling with addiction all while the boys were growing up.

    在他們的成長過程裡, 他們的母親一直有吸毒問題。

  • She never really was able to hold down a job for very long.

    她沒有長期穩定的工作,

  • It was their grandfather's pension that supported the family,

    他們依靠祖父的退休金生活。

  • not really enough to pay for food and clothes

    那筆退休金並不足以支付 成長中男孩所需的食物和衣服,

  • and school supplies for growing boys.

    以及學費開銷。

  • The family was really struggling.

    那個家庭實在過得很幸苦。

  • So when we met, Chuck was a senior in high school.

    我認識他們時,恰克在讀高中四年級。

  • He had just turned 18.

    他剛滿18歲。

  • That winter, a kid in the schoolyard

    那個冬天,一個學校的孩子

  • called Chuck's mom a crack whore.

    辱罵恰克的母親是吸毒婊子。

  • Chuck pushed the kid's face into the snow

    恰克將那個孩子的臉壓到雪裡,

  • and the school cops charged him with aggravated assault.

    校警以重度攻擊罪名起訴他。

  • The other kid was fine the next day,

    那個被打的孩子,其實第二天就沒事了,

  • I think it was his pride that was injured more than anything.

    我想主要是他的自尊心受到傷害。

  • But anyway, since Chuck was 18,

    但是,由於恰克已經年滿18歲,

  • this agg. assault case sent him to adult county jail

    他因為重度攻擊罪名, 被關進郡立的成人監獄。

  • on State Road in northeast Philadelphia,

    這所監獄位於費城東北邊的州立公路上。

  • where he sat, unable to pay the bail -- he couldn't afford it --

    他因為無法付出假釋金而被關著 -- 他根本負擔不起 --

  • while the trial dates dragged on and on and on

    他的出庭日期被一拖再拖,

  • through almost his entire senior year.

    幾乎拖延了他整個高中四年級。

  • Finally, near the end of this season,

    最後,在這個季節快要結束前,

  • the judge on this assault case threw out most of the charges

    審理這個傷害案的法官 駁回了大多數的控告,

  • and Chuck came home

    恰克可以回家了,

  • with only a few hundred dollars' worth of court fees hanging over his head.

    卻也欠下數百美元的訴訟費債務。

  • Tim was pretty happy that day.

    提姆那天很高興。

  • The next fall, Chuck tried to re-enroll as a senior,

    隔年秋天,恰克要返校重讀高四,

  • but the school secretary told him that

    但是學校秘書告訴他,

  • he was then 19 and too old to be readmitted.

    由於他已經19歲了, 超過高四的就學年齡,無法復學。

  • Then the judge on his assault case issued him a warrant for his arrest

    接著,審理恰克傷害案的法官 對他發佈一份通緝,

  • because he couldn't pay the 225 dollars in court fees

    因為他沒有支付225美元的訴訟費用。

  • that came due a few weeks after the case ended.

    通緝令在他的案件審理結束後的 幾個星期發出。

  • Then he was a high school dropout living on the run.

    當時,他被高中退學, 而且還要躲避通緝,

  • Tim's first arrest came later that year

    提姆在那一年後期,第一次被警察逮捕,

  • after he turned 11.

    那時他才剛滿11歲。

  • Chuck had managed to get his warrant lifted

    恰克後來被解除通緝,

  • and he was on a payment plan for the court fees

    因為他用分期付款來支付訴訟費用。

  • and he was driving Tim to school in his girlfriend's car.

    有一天,他開著女朋友的車子 載提姆去學校,

  • So a cop pulls them over, runs the car,

    一位警察攔住他們,盤查他們的車,

  • and the car comes up as stolen in California.

    結果那是一輛在加州失竊的贓車。

  • Chuck had no idea where in the history of this car it had been stolen.

    恰克並不知道,這輛車曾經被偷,

  • His girlfriend's uncle bought it from a used car auction

    那是他的女朋友的叔叔,

  • in northeast Philly.

    在費城東北區向一位中古車商買的。

  • Chuck and Tim had never been outside of the tri-state,

    恰克和提姆從來沒有離開過 鄰近三個州的範圍,

  • let alone to California.

    更不用說到過加州。

  • But anyway, the cops down at the precinct

    但是,管轄當地的警察

  • charged Chuck with receiving stolen property.

    以收受贓物的罪名起訴恰克。

  • And then a juvenile judge, a few days later,

    接著幾天之後,一位主管少年案件的法官

  • charged Tim, age 11,

    起訴了11歲的提姆,

  • with accessory to receiving a stolen property

    罪名是收受贓物罪的共犯,

  • and then he was placed on three years of probation.

    並且判處三年的緩刑。

  • With this probation sentence hanging over his head,

    因為這個緩刑的判決,

  • Chuck sat his little brother down

    恰克開始教他的弟弟

  • and began teaching him how to run from the police.

    如何躲避警察。

  • They would sit side by side on their back porch

    他們比肩坐在家裡的後陽台,

  • looking out into the shared alleyway

    對著公共的巷道,

  • and Chuck would coach Tim how to spot undercover cars,

    恰克教提姆如何辨別便衣警察的車子,

  • how to negotiate a late-night police raid, how and where to hide.

    如何避開深夜警察的盤查, 以及去哪裡躲藏。

  • I want you to imagine for a second

    我要你們想像一下,

  • what Chuck and Tim's lives would be like

    恰克和提姆過著什麼樣的生活?

  • if they were living in a neighborhood where kids were going to college,

    如果他們居住在 孩子們都能上大學的地區,

  • not prison.

    而不是被送進監獄。

  • A neighborhood like the one I got to grow up in.

    就像是我從小到大所居住的社區。

  • Okay, you might say.

    好吧,你會說,

  • But Chuck and Tim, kids like them, they're committing crimes!

    但是像恰克和提姆這樣的孩子, 他們還是有犯罪啊!

  • Don't they deserve to be in prison?

    他們不應該關在監獄嗎?

  • Don't they deserve to be living in fear of arrest?

    他們害怕被逮捕,難道不是應得的嗎?

  • Well, my answer would be no.

    好,我的回答是:「不」。

  • They don't.

    他們不應該如此被對待。

  • And certainly not for the same things that other young people

    尤其他們所做的事,

  • with more privilege are doing with impunity.

    和那些住在優渥環境的年輕人一樣, 但是後者卻不會受罰。

  • If Chuck had gone to my high school,

    如果恰克進入我所就讀的高中,

  • that schoolyard fight would have ended there,

    他在學校內的打架事件,不會擴大到校外,

  • as a schoolyard fight.

    就只是當作校園事件處理。

  • It never would have become an aggravated assault case.

    這樣的行為並不會演變成重度傷害罪。

  • Not a single kid that I went to college with

    我有許多大學同學,

  • has a criminal record right now.

    到現在沒有任何一位有犯罪紀錄。

  • Not a single one.

    一個都沒有。

  • But can you imagine how many might have if the police had stopped those kids

    但是你可以想像: 如果警察把他們攔下來,

  • and searched their pockets for drugs as they walked to class?

    搜查他們的口袋是否有毒品, 會有多少人因此留下犯罪紀錄?

  • Or had raided their frat parties in the middle of the night?

    或者在半夜,到他們的聚會進行臨檢?

  • Okay, you might say.

    好,你可能會說,

  • But doesn't this high incarceration rate

    難道不是因為提高監禁率,

  • partly account for our really low crime rate?

    才降低了犯罪率嗎?

  • Crime is down. That's a good thing.

    能降低犯罪率,當然是件好事。

  • Totally, that is a good thing. Crime is down.

    總體而言,那是件好事,犯罪率降低了。

  • It dropped precipitously in the '90s and through the 2000s.

    在1990和2000年之間,犯罪率明顯地降低。

  • But according to a committee of academics

    但是,根據去年由美國國家科學院舉辦的

  • convened by the National Academy of Sciences last year,

    一場學術性會議結果,

  • the relationship between our historically high incarceration rates

    過去我們的高監禁率

  • and our low crime rate is pretty shaky.

    與低犯罪率之間的關係,非常微弱。

  • It turns out that the crime rate goes up and down

    也就是說,犯罪率的高低

  • irrespective of how many young people we send to prison.

    與年輕人被關在監獄的數量無關。

  • We tend to think about justice in a pretty narrow way:

    我們常常用狹隘的觀點來看待正義:

  • good and bad, innocent and guilty.

    只有好與壞,無辜和有罪。

  • Injustice is about being wrongfully convicted.

    錯誤判決並不等於正義。

  • So if you're convicted of something you did do,

    如果你是因為確實做了壞事而被判有罪,

  • you should be punished for it.

    你是應該受到懲罰。

  • There are innocent and guilty people,

    但是,有無辜的人和有罪的人,

  • there are victims and there are perpetrators.

    有被害人,有肇事者。

  • Maybe we could think a little bit more broadly than that.

    或許我們可以有更寬廣的思維。

  • Right now, we're asking kids who live in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods,

    現在,我們如何看待這些 住在最貧困環境裡的小孩?

  • who have the least amount of family resources,

    他們缺乏家庭的資源,

  • who are attending the country's worst schools,

    他們就讀郡裡最差的學校,

  • who are facing the toughest time in the labor market,

    他們在找工作時,面對最艱困的情境,

  • who are living in neighborhoods where violence is an everyday problem,

    他們所居住的環境,每天都有暴力事件,

  • we're asking these kids to walk the thinnest possible line --

    我們讓這些孩子, 走在最狹窄的道路上 --

  • to basically never do anything wrong.

    就是基本上,不可以犯任何過錯。

  • Why are we not providing support to young kids facing these challenges?

    這些孩子面臨困難時, 為何我們不給予支持?

  • Why are we offering only handcuffs, jail time and this fugitive existence?

    為什麼我們給他們的只是逮捕, 入獄,或是不斷逃亡的日子?

  • Can we imagine something better?

    難道我們不能想到更好的解決方式嗎?