Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • When I got my current job, I was given a good piece of advice,

    當我得到現在這份工作時,有人給了我一份忠告

  • which was to interview three politicians every day.

    一天訪問三個政治人物

  • And from that much contact with politicians,

    從這麼密集的接觸中

  • I can tell you they're all emotional freaks of one sort or another.

    我可以告訴你他們都是某種情緒怪人

  • They have what I called "logorrhea dementia,"

    我形容他們的病徵為多語症

  • which is they talk so much they drive themselves insane.

    簡單來說就是他們多話到自己都抓狂

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But what they do have is incredible social skills.

    但他們的社交能力真的很好

  • When you meet them, they lock into you,

    當他們見到你

  • they look you in the eye,

    他們用眼神鎖死你

  • they invade your personal space,

    他們侵犯你的私人空間

  • they massage the back of your head.

    他們按摩你的後腦勺

  • I had dinner with a Republican senator several months ago

    幾個月前我和一個共和黨議員共進晚餐

  • who kept his hand on my inner thigh

    他一直把手放在我大腿內側

  • throughout the whole meal -- squeezing it.

    整個晚餐都這樣捏我

  • I once -- this was years ago --

    幾年前

  • I saw Ted Kennedy and Dan Quayle meet in the well of the Senate.

    我見到 Ted 甘乃迪和 Dan Quayle 在議會池相遇

  • And they were friends, and they hugged each other

    他們是好朋友,他們互相擁抱

  • and they were laughing, and their faces were like this far apart.

    他們笑著,臉靠這麼近

  • And they were moving and grinding

    他們磨蹭著移動著

  • and moving their arms up and down each other.

    在彼此身上上下其手

  • And I was like, "Get a room. I don't want to see this."

    我想“拜託你們幹嘛不去開個房間,看不下去了”

  • But they have those social skills.

    但他們就是有這種社交手腕

  • Another case:

    另一個例子:

  • Last election cycle,

    上次大選

  • I was following Mitt Romney around New Hampshire,

    我跟著 Mitt Romney 到新罕布夏去

  • and he was campaigning with his five perfect sons:

    他五個完美的兒子

  • Bip, Chip, Rip, Zip, Lip and Dip.

    畢普、齊普、瑞普、吉普、立普和帝普

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And he's going into a diner.

    他走進一個快餐店

  • And he goes into the diner, introduces himself to a family

    他向一個家庭自我介紹

  • and says, "What village are you from in New Hampshire?"

    他說“你從新罕布夏那個小城來的?”

  • And then he describes the home he owned in their village.

    然後他描述他在那個小城裡有的那個房子

  • And so he goes around the room,

    他就這樣走來走去

  • and then as he's leaving the diner,

    到他離開快餐店的時候

  • he first-names almost everybody he's just met.

    他可以叫出所有人的名字

  • I was like, "Okay, that's social skill."

    我心想“這就是真正的社交手腕了。”

  • But the paradox is,

    矛盾的是

  • when a lot of these people slip into the policy-making mode,

    當這些人進入立法模式時

  • that social awareness vanishes

    這些社會敏感度就消失了

  • and they start talking like accountants.

    他們開始用會計師的語調說話

  • So in the course of my career,

    在我的從業生涯中

  • I have covered a series of failures.

    我描寫過一系列的失敗

  • We sent economists in the Soviet Union

    我們把經濟學家送到解體後的蘇聯

  • with privatization plans when it broke up,

    給他們私有化的計劃

  • and what they really lacked was social trust.

    但他們缺乏的是社會信任

  • We invaded Iraq with a military

    我們派兵侵略伊拉克

  • oblivious to the cultural and psychological realities.

    毫不理會他們文化與心理的現狀

  • We had a financial regulatory regime

    我們的金融管制機構

  • based on the assumptions

    把制度建立在

  • that traders were rational creatures

    交易員完全理性

  • who wouldn't do anything stupid.

    不會做任何傻事的預設

  • For 30 years, I've been covering school reform

    三十年來,我報導教育改革

  • and we've basically reorganized the bureaucratic boxes --

    我們重整所有官僚體系的黑箱

  • charters, private schools, vouchers --

    特許證、私立學校、證件

  • but we've had disappointing results year after year.

    但每年的成績仍然教人失望

  • And the fact is, people learn from people they love.

    事實是,人們從所愛的人身上學習

  • And if you're not talking about the individual relationship

    如果你不討論老師與學生

  • between a teacher and a student,

    之間的關係

  • you're not talking about that reality.

    這便偏離了真實狀態

  • But that reality is expunged

    但這些真實被排除在

  • from our policy-making process.

    我們的立法程序以外

  • And so that's led to a question for me:

    於是我心中油然生出這個問題:

  • Why are the most socially-attuned people on earth

    為甚麼地球上最人情練達的一群人

  • completely dehumanized

    一想到法令

  • when they think about policy?

    就變得如此不人性?

  • And I came to the conclusion,

    我的結論是

  • this is a symptom of a larger problem.

    這是一個更大的問題造成的症狀

  • That, for centuries, we've inherited a view of human nature

    幾世紀以來我們沿襲一種對人性的看法

  • based on the notion

    我們認為

  • that we're divided selves,

    我們都是分開的個體

  • that reason is separated from the emotions

    理性和感性各自分開

  • and that society progresses

    社會進步到一個程度以後

  • to the extent that reason can suppress the passions.

    理性就能壓抑激情

  • And it's led to a view of human nature

    我們對人性的觀點就是

  • that we're rational individuals

    我們是理性的個體

  • who respond in straightforward ways to incentives,

    這些看法直接變成獎勵方法

  • and it's led to ways of seeing the world

    也變成了我們看世界的角度

  • where people try to use the assumptions of physics

    當人們嘗試用物理的假設

  • to measure how human behavior is.

    去衡量人類的行為舉止

  • And it's produced a great amputation,

    便刪除了許多重要的部份

  • a shallow view of human nature.

    形成了一種對人性的膚淺看法

  • We're really good at talking about material things,

    我們很會談論物質

  • but we're really bad at talking about emotions.

    但談到情緒便顯得笨拙

  • We're really good at talking about skills

    我們很會談論技能

  • and safety and health;

    安全和健康

  • we're really bad at talking about character.

    但我們不擅討論人格

  • Alasdair MacIntyre, the famous philosopher,

    著名哲學家 Alasdair Maclntyre

  • said that, "We have the concepts of the ancient morality

    說,”我們仍有古老的道德概念

  • of virtue, honor, goodness,

    美德、榮譽、良善

  • but we no longer have a system

    但我們沒有一個制度

  • by which to connect them."

    來聯繫它們。“

  • And so this has led to a shallow path in politics,

    這不但讓政治走上一條膚淺的道路,

  • but also in a whole range of human endeavors.

    也影響了各種層面的做法

  • You can see it in the way we raise our young kids.

    你可以從我們撫養孩子的方式中窺其一二

  • You go to an elementary school at three in the afternoon

    下午三點到小學去

  • and you watch the kids come out,

    看孩子出來

  • and they're wearing these 80-pound backpacks.

    他們背著八十磅重的背包

  • If the wind blows them over, they're like beetles stuck there on the ground.

    一陣風吹來,他們就會像甲蟲一樣翻倒在地

  • You see these cars that drive up --

    你看見這些豪華轎車

  • usually it's Saabs and Audis and Volvos,

    可能是 Saab、奧迪或富豪

  • because in certain neighborhoods it's socially acceptable to have a luxury car,

    這些好車在某些社區被接受

  • so long as it comes from a country hostile to U.S. foreign policy --

    只要不是來自那些抵觸美國外交政策的國家

  • that's fine.

    就可以

  • They get picked up by these creatures I've called uber-moms,

    他們被這些我稱作超級母親的生物接走

  • who are highly successful career women

    這些生物不但事業成功

  • who have taken time off to make sure all their kids get into Harvard.

    也不忘拿出時間確保她的孩子進哈佛

  • And you can usually tell the uber-moms

    你很容易辨識出超級母親

  • because they actually weigh less than their own children.

    因為她們通常比孩子還瘦

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So at the moment of conception,

    在生產的當下

  • they're doing little butt exercises.

    她們擺擺屁股

  • Babies flop out,

    嬰兒滑出

  • they're flashing Mandarin flashcards at the things.

    她們拿出中文字卡要他們學習

  • Driving them home, and they want them to be enlightened,

    載孩子回家的路上,她們希望孩子變得懂事

  • so they take them to Ben & Jerry's ice cream company

    於是帶他們去吃 Ben & Jerry 冰淇淋

  • with its own foreign policy.

    也算一種政治態度

  • In one of my books,

    我在一本書裡嘲弄

  • I joke that Ben & Jerry's should make a pacifist toothpaste --

    說 Ben & Jerry's 應該製造和平主義牙膏

  • doesn't kill germs, just asks them to leave.

    不殺菌,溫和地請它們離開

  • It would be a big seller.

    會大賣

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And they go to Whole Foods to get their baby formula,

    他們去 Whole Foods 買嬰兒食品

  • and Whole Foods is one of those progressive grocery stores

    Whole Foods 是一種比較進步的大雜貨店

  • where all the cashiers look like they're on loan from Amnesty International.

    店員

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • They buy these seaweed-based snacks there

    他們去那裡買海藻作成的零食

  • called Veggie Booty with Kale,

    叫甘藍寶貝菜

  • which is for kids who come home and say,

    因為家裡的孩子會說

  • "Mom, mom, I want a snack that'll help prevent colon-rectal cancer."

    “媽!我要那些能預防冒號直腸癌的零食!“

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And so the kids are raised in a certain way,

    這些孩子跳過一個又一個的訓練圈

  • jumping through achievement hoops of the things we can measure --

    都是些可衡量的成績

  • SAT prep, oboe, soccer practice.

    SAT考試、雙簧管、足球練習

  • They get into competitive colleges, they get good jobs,

    進好學校、有好工作

  • and sometimes they make a success of themselves

    有時候靠著自己的力量得到膚淺的成功

  • in a superficial manner, and they make a ton of money.

    賺許多許多錢

  • And sometimes you can see them at vacation places

    你會在度假勝地看到他們

  • like Jackson Hole or Aspen.

    各種豪華滑雪度假村

  • And they've become elegant and slender --

    他們更優雅、更修長

  • they don't really have thighs;

    他們沒有大腿

  • they just have one elegant calve on top of another.

    只有一條優雅的小腿疊在另一條優雅的小腿上

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • They have kids of their own,

    他們有了自己的孩子

  • and they've achieved a genetic miracle by marrying beautiful people,

    以娶嫁美麗人士達成基因奇蹟

  • so their grandmoms look like Gertrude Stein,

    奶奶看上去像女作家斯泰因

  • their daughters looks like Halle Berry -- I don't know how they've done that.

    女兒卻像女明星荷莉貝瑞 - 我不知道他們怎麼辦到的

  • They get there and they realize

    他們到了滑雪勝地發現

  • it's fashionable now to have dogs a third as tall as your ceiling heights.

    有條像樓層三分之一高的狗很時尚

  • So they've got these furry 160-pound dogs --

    於是他們買來那些一百六十磅的毛毛狗

  • all look like velociraptors,

    看上去像迅猛龍

  • all named after Jane Austen characters.

    給牠們取珍奧絲汀書裡的小說人名

  • And then when they get old, they haven't really developed a philosophy of life,

    當他們逐漸老去,也沒有發展出甚麼人生哲學

  • but they've decided, "I've been successful at everything;

    但他們想“我已達成了所有成功

  • I'm just not going to die."

    我不死了。”

  • And so they hire personal trainers;

    於是他們請私人教練

  • they're popping Cialis like breath mints.

    吃犀利士像吃口香糖

  • You see them on the mountains up there.

    他們就在那些山上

  • They're cross-country skiing up the mountain

    他們滑遍各處的山

  • with these grim expressions

    帶著那樣冰冷的神情

  • that make Dick Cheney look like Jerry Lewis.

    嚴肅的政治人物與其相比根本就是諧星

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And as they whiz by you,

    當他們從你身邊滑過

  • it's like being passed by a little iron Raisinet

    就像有塊鋼鐵小餅乾

  • going up the hill.

    從你身邊無聲飛過

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And so this is part of what life is,

    這的確是人生的一部分

  • but it's not all of what life is.

    但不是人生的全部

  • And over the past few years,

    過去幾年

  • I think we've been given a deeper view of human nature

    我們開始看到一些有關人性的深層研究

  • and a deeper view of who we are.

    有關我們究竟是誰

  • And it's not based on theology or philosophy,

    不是來自神學或哲學

  • it's in the study of the mind,

    而是來自思想研究

  • across all these spheres of research,

    從不同層次的學術界

  • from neuroscience to the cognitive scientists,

    從神經科學到認知科學

  • behavioral economists, psychologists,

    行為經濟學、心理學

  • sociology,

    社會學

  • we're developing a revolution in consciousness.

    這是意識的革命

  • And when you synthesize it all,

    當你縱觀以上全部

  • it's giving us a new view of human nature.

    它給我們一種新的角度看人性

  • And far from being a coldly materialistic view of nature,

    不只是冷冰冰的維物觀

  • it's a new humanism, it's a new enchantment.

    而是一種新的人道主義

  • And I think when you synthesize this research,

    當你整合這些研究

  • you start with three key insights.

    你會有三種理解

  • The first insight is

    第一

  • that while the conscious mind writes the autobiography of our species,

    當意識為我族類寫下自傳

  • the unconscious mind does most of the work.

    潛意識卻做了大部分的工作

  • And so one way to formulate that is

    簡單說來

  • the human mind can take in millions of pieces of information a minute,

    人腦一分鐘可以處理百萬個細節

  • of which it can be consciously aware of about 40.

    但意識到的大概有40個

  • And this leads to oddities.

    許多怪事由此發生

  • One of my favorite is that people named Dennis

    我最喜歡的是許多叫丹尼的成了牙醫

  • are disproportionately likely to become dentists,

    (英語的丹尼音近牙醫)

  • people named Lawrence become lawyers,

    叫羅倫斯的成了律師

  • because unconsciously we gravitate toward things

    只因潛意識裡我們傾向和音似的事物

  • that sound familiar,

    靠近

  • which is why I named my daughter President of the United States Brooks.

    這就是我把女兒取名做美國總彤的原因

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Another finding is that the unconscious,

    另外一個發現是

  • far from being dumb and sexualized,

    潛意識不如人們想的那樣愚笨與飢渴

  • is actually quite smart.

    事實上它很聰明

  • So one of the most cognitively demanding things we do is buy furniture.

    舉例來說,買傢具一直是件困難的事

  • It's really hard to imagine a sofa, how it's going to look in your house.

    我們很難想像新沙發在房子裡看上去會是甚麼模樣

  • And the way you should do that

    解決方法是,

  • is study the furniture,

    仔細看清傢具的模樣

  • let it marinate in your mind, distract yourself,

    把它沈浸在腦海,先別想它

  • and then a few days later, go with your gut,

    幾天以後,以你的直覺去買

  • because unconsciously you've figured it out.

    因為潛意識已經為你解決了這個問題

  • The second insight

    第二

  • is that emotions are at the center of our thinking.

    情緒是我們思考的中心

  • People with strokes and lesions

    中風和在在情緒處理部份

  • in the emotion-processing parts of the brain

    發生機能損害的人

  • are not super smart,

    並不聰明

  • they're actually sometimes quite helpless.

    事實上他們很無助

  • And the "giant" in the field is in the room tonight

    研究這領域的巨人就在我們當中

  • and is speaking tomorrow morning -- Antonio Damasio.

    Antonio Damasio - 他的演講在明天早上

  • And one of the things he's really shown us

    他的研究告訴我們

  • is that emotions are not separate from reason,

    情緒並不和理性分開

  • but they are the foundation of reason

    情緒其實是理性的基礎

  • because they tell us what to value.

    它告訴我們甚麼是重要的

  • And so reading and educating your emotions

    理解和訓練你的情緒

  • is one of the central activities of wisdom.

    是通往智慧的道路

  • Now I'm a middle-aged guy.

    身為一個中年男子

  • I'm not exactly comfortable with emotions.

    我並不喜歡談論我的情緒

  • One of my favorite brain stories described these middle-aged guys.

    我最喜歡的腦故事便以中年男子為例

  • They put them into a brain scan machine --

    把中年男子放進腦掃描機器裡

  • this is apocryphal by the way, but I don't care --

    這沒甚麼根據,但無所謂

  • and they had them watch a horror movie,

    讓這些中年男子看恐怖電影

  • and then they had them describe their feelings toward their wives.

    再讓他們敘述他們面對妻子的感受

  • And the brain scans were identical in both activities.

    兩者的腦掃描結果是一樣的

  • It was just sheer terror.

    絕對的恐懼

  • So me talking about emotion

    讓我們談情緒

  • is like Gandhi talking about gluttony,

    就像叫甘地談論暴食

  • but it is the central organizing process

    但情緒幫助我們

  • of the way we think.

    整理思緒

  • It tells us what to imprint.

    它告訴我們應該記得甚麼

  • The brain is the record of the feelings of a life.

    大腦紀錄我們一生經歷過的感受

  • And the third insight

    第三是