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  • For most of our history, human technology consisted of our brains, fire, and sharp sticks

    從我們的歷史來看,人類的科技大都建立在腦、火與尖銳的棒子上

  • While fire and sharp sticks became power plants and nuclear weapons

    當火和尖銳棒狀物變成發電廠和核武時

  • The biggest upgrade has happened to our brains

    腦的大進化已經開始發生

  • Since the 1960's, the power of our brain machines has kept growing exponentially

    自從 1960 年來,電腦的運算能力呈獻指數性的成長

  • allowing computers to get smaller and more powerful at the same time

    使得電腦愈來愈小,同時愈來愈強大

  • But this process is about to meet its physical limits

    但是演化已經快碰到了物理上的極限

  • Computer parts are approaching the size of an atom

    電腦元件尺寸正在趨近於原子的大小

  • To understand why this is a problem, we have to clear up some basics

    為了說明這為什麼是個問題,我們必須要先講解一些基本知識

  • In a Nutshell -By Kurzgesagt

  • A computer is made up of very simple components

    電腦是由執行簡單功能的簡單元件所組合而成

  • doing very simple things

    電腦是由執行簡單功能的簡單元件所組合而成

  • Representing data, the means of processing it, and control mechanisms

    以呈獻數據,意思就是運算並控制機械

  • Computer chips contains modules which contains logic gates, which contains transistors

    晶片包含模組,模組包含邏輯閘,邏輯閘包含電晶體

  • A transistor is the simplest form of a data processor in computers

    電晶體代表著電腦的處理器裡一個最簡單的型態

  • basically a switch that can either block, or open the way for information coming through

    簡單說是個可以阻擋、通過資訊的開關

  • This information is made up of bits

    而此資訊是由位元構成

  • Which can be set to either 0 or 1

    它可以設為 0 或者 1

  • Combinations of several bits are used to represent more complex information

    多個位元的組合通常代表著更複雜的資訊

  • Transistors are combined to create logic gates which still do very simple stuff

    將電晶體組合後會變成邏輯閘,它還是只有簡單的功能

  • For example, an AND Gate sends an output of 1 if all of its inputs are 1 and a output of 0 otherwise

    例如,一個 AND 閘只有在輸入值皆為 1 時才會輸出 1,否則就會輸出 0

  • Combinations of logic gates finally form meaningful modules say for adding two numbers

    最終組合不同的邏輯閘形成了有意義的模組,比方說加法的功能模組

  • Once you can add, you can also multiple

    一旦你能夠使用加法,你也可以使用乘法

  • and once you can multiple, you can basically do anything

    一旦可以使用乘法,基本上什麼都可以做了

  • Since all basic operations are literally simpler than first grade math

    既然所有基本運算都比一年級的數學簡單

  • You can imagine a computer as a group of 7 year old answering really basic math questions

    你可將電腦想像為一群在回答基礎數學題的 7 歲小孩

  • A large enough bunch of them could compute anything

    足夠數量的小孩可以計算所有的東西

  • from astrophysics to zelda

    不論是天文物理或薩爾達傳說

  • However, with parts getting tinier and tinier

    然而隨著元件愈變愈小

  • Quantum physics are making things tricky

    量子力學讓事情變得很詭異

  • In a nutshell, a transistor is just a electric switch

    簡而言之,一個電晶體只是一個電流開關

  • Electricity is electrons moving from one place to another

    電流表示電子由一端流向另一端

  • So, a switch is a passage that can block electrons from moving in one direction

    所以開關就是可決定是否讓電子流過的單向通道

  • Today, a typical scale for Transistors is 14 nanometers

    現今的電晶體尺寸大約是 14 奈米

  • Which is about 8 time less than a HIV virus' diameter

    是 HIV 病毒(愛滋病是其中之一)直徑的 1/8 倍

  • and 500 times smaller than a red blood cells

    然後是紅血球的 1/500 倍

  • As transistors are shrinking to the size of only a few atoms

    當電晶體小到僅幾顆原子大的尺寸時

  • Electrons may just transfer them to the other side of a blocked passage

    電子會無視阻擋將自己傳送到另一端

  • viral process called Quantum Tunneling

    這現象稱作量子穿隧效應

  • In the quantum realm, physic works quite differently from the predictable way were used to

    在量子世界裡,物理運作方式和我們平常看到的不太一樣

  • and traditional computers just stop making sense

    而傳統的電腦就開始沒邏輯了

  • We are approaching a real physical barrier for our technological progress

    我們的科技正一步步接近物理的極限

  • To solve this problem

    為了解決這問題

  • scientist are trying to use these unusual quantum properties to their advantage

    科學家嘗試利用量子物理不尋常的特性中的優點

  • by building quantum computers

    方法就是製造台量子電腦

  • In normal computers, bits are the smallest unit of information

    在一般電腦中,位元代表著資訊的最小單位

  • Quantum computers use Qubits which can also be set to one of two values

    量子電腦使用的是量子位元

  • A qubit can be any two level quantum system

    一個量子位元可以是任何二階的量子系統

  • such as a spin and a magnetic field or a single photon

    像是自旋和磁場,或是單一的光子

  • 0 and 1 are the system's possible states

    0 和 1 是系統中可能存在的狀態

  • like the photons horizontal or vertical polarization

    就像是光子橫向或縱向的偏振

  • In the quantum world, the qubit doesn't have to be just one of those

    在量子世界裡,量子位元不一定是這兩種狀態之一

  • It can be any proportions of both states at once

    他可以在他們間同時表現出所有的偏振狀態

  • This is called Superposition

    這被稱作為量子疊加

  • But as soon as you test its value say by sending the photon through a filter

    但當你想把一個光子送到濾波器做測試時

  • It has to decide to be either vertically or horizontally polarized

    它必須決定自己是縱向或橫向偏振

  • So as long as it's unobserved

    所以當它被觀測之前

  • The qubit is in a superposition of probabilities for 0 and 1 and you can't predit which it'll be

    量子位元就代表著 1 和 0 間所有可能的疊加狀態,你無法預期是哪個狀態

  • But the instant you measure it

    但當你測量它的瞬間

  • It collapses into on of the definit states

    它將會塌陷為一個固定的狀態

  • superposition is a game changer

    量子疊加狀態改變了遊戲的規則

  • Four classical bits can be in one of two to the power of four different configurations at a time

    四個傳統位元中,每個位元各自表示兩種狀態中的一種

  • that's 16 possible combinations at which you can use just one

    這共包含了 16 種不同的組合,但只能使用其的一組

  • Four qubits in superposition however, can be in all of those 16 combinations at once

    四個量子位元則可以同時代表著 16 種狀態

  • This number grows exponentially with each extra qubit

    每增加額外的量子位元,組合數將會是指數性的成長

  • 20 of them can already store a million values in parallel

    20 個量子位元就可以平行儲存 100 萬個數值

  • A really wired and uninsured property qubits can have is Entanglement

    量子位元還有一個詭異並不確定性的特性,那就是量子糾纏

  • A close connection that makes each of the qubits react to a change in the other state instantaneously

    他使另一組糾纏狀態的量子位元呈獻與自己相反的狀態

  • no matter how far they are apart

    就算他們之間被分開多遠都一樣

  • This means when measuring just one entangled qubit, you can directly to use property of it's partner's

    這意味著只要測量其中一個糾纏態的量子位元,利用這特性就能不用觀測而得知另一組結果

  • without having to look

    這意味著只要測量其中一個糾纏態的量子位元,利用這特性就能不用觀測而得知另一組結果

  • Qubit Manipulation is a mind bender as well

    操控量子位元就像是腦筋急轉彎

  • A normal logic gate gets a simple set of inputs and produce one definite output

    一個普通的邏輯閘有著單純的輸入並產生一個固定的輸出

  • A quantum gate manipulates an input of superposition rotates probabilities

    量子閘輸入一個疊加,旋轉他改變機率

  • and produces another superposition as its output

    輸出另一個疊加

  • So a quantum computer sets up some qubits, apply quantum gates to entangle them and manipulate probabilities

    所以一台量子電腦操作部份的量子閘產生糾纏

  • then finally measures the outcome collapsing superposition to an actual seqence of 0s and 1s

    並控制機率,最後測量輸出讓疊加狀態崩潰後,得出最後結果的 0 和 1

  • What this means is you get entire lot of calculations that are possible with your setup all done at the same time

    這意味著你可以將這麼多種可能性同時進行運算

  • Ultimately you can only measure one of the results and it'll only probably be the one you want

    最終你只會測量到一個結果,而這結果只是有很高的機率可能就是你要的

  • So you might have to double check and try again

    所以你可能要多計算幾次以檢查結果

  • But by cleverly exploiting superposition and entanglement

    但巧妙地運用疊加和量子糾纏

  • this can be exponentially more efficient than would ever be possible on a normal computer

    效率相比一般電腦將會是指數性的成長

  • So, while quantum computers will not probably not replace our home computers

    所以量子電腦雖然無法取代現在的電腦

  • in some areas, they are vastly superior

    在某些領域他們是非常優越的

  • One of them is database searching

    其中之一就是資料庫搜尋

  • to find something in a database, a normal computer may have to test every single one of its entries

    一般電腦再資料庫中搜尋可能要搜尋每一份資料

  • Quantum algorithms need only the square root of that time

    量子演算法只需要原來運算時間開根號的時間

  • which for large databases, is a huge difference

    這在大型資料庫上會有著極大的差距

  • The most famous use of quantum computers is ruining IT sercity

    量子電腦中最著名的用法就是破解資訊安全機制

  • right now you are browsing email and banking data is being kept secure by an encryption safety system

    現在你瀏覽的銀行郵件還是被加密系統給保護著

  • in which you give everyone a public key to encode messages only you can decode

    藉由你給其它使用者不同組的公鑰,來加密只有你能解密的訊息

  • The problem is that this public key can actually be used to calculate your secret private key

    問題是拿到公鑰的人可以計算出你的密鑰

  • Luckily, doing the necessary math on any normal computer would literally take years of try and error

    幸運的是使用一般的電腦必須花上數年運算,不斷地嘗試錯誤才有辦法解開

  • But a quantum computer with exponential speed-up could do it in a breath

    但對於量子電腦,由於運算速率是指數性的成長,可能只是小菜一碟

  • Another really exciting new use is simulations

    另一個著名的用法就是當作模擬器

  • Simulations of the quantum world are very intense on resources

    模擬量子環境非常地吃資源

  • and even for bigger structures such as molecules they often lack accuracy

    更或者一些巨大的結構體,例如分子結構,他們通常缺乏精準度

  • So why not simulate quantum physics with actual quantum physics

    所以為何不用真實的量子電腦來模擬量子物理環境呢?

  • Quantum simulations could provide new insights on proteins that might revolutionize medicine

    模擬量子環境可能讓我們更了解蛋白質的組成,這可能讓我們醫學大大地進步

  • Right now we don't know if quantum computers will be just a specallized tool

    目前我們並不清楚量子電腦會是個專門用途的工具

  • or a big revolution for humanity

    還是為人類大來大進化

  • We have no idea where the limits of technology are

    我們還不清楚科技的極限在哪裡

  • and there's only one way to find out

    然而只有一種方法可以找出答案

  • This video is supported by the Australian Academy of Science

    這部影片是由澳洲科學院支援

  • which promotes and supports excellence in science

    他們推廣並支持科學的進步

  • Learn more about this topic and others like it at nova.org.au

    到nova.org.au學習更多有關這個和其他類似的主題

  • It was a blast to work with them, so go check out their site!

    跟他們合作很愉快,所以快去看看他們的網站吧!

  • Our video are also made possible by your support on patreon.com

    我們的影片也是有你們在 patreon.com 上的支持才能呈現

  • If you want to support us and become part of the Kurzgesagt bird army, check out our Patreon page!

    如果你想支持我們並成為 Kurzgesagt 團隊的一份子,去看看我們的贊助頁面吧!

  • Subtitles by James Zhang [revisioned by Pietro Pasquero]

For most of our history, human technology consisted of our brains, fire, and sharp sticks

從我們的歷史來看,人類的科技大都建立在腦、火與尖銳的棒子上

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B2 中高級 中文 英國腔 量子 電腦 狀態 電晶體 運算 物理

量子計算機解釋--人類技術的極限 (Quantum Computers Explained – Limits of Human Technology)

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    mommy 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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