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  • He was one of the most fearsome warlords who ever lived,

    他史上最讓人 不寒而栗的軍閥之一

  • waging an unstoppable conquest across the Eurasian continent.

    征服歐亞大陸簡直是 所向披靡

  • But was Genghis Khan a vicious barbarian

    但成吉思汗到底是個 冷酷無情的野蠻之徒呢?

  • or a unifier who paved the way for the modern world?

    還是統一蒙古 為未來奠定基礎的明君?

  • We'll see in "History vs. Genghis Khan."

    一起來看看"歷史vs成吉思汗"怎麼說

  • "Order, order. Now who's the defendant today?

    肅靜,肅靜。被告是誰?

  • Khan!"

    汗!

  • "I see Your Honor is familiar with Genghis Khan,

    看來庭上對成吉思汗 有所了解,

  • the 13th century warlord whose military campaigns killed millions

    一個13世紀時帶領軍隊 殺戮百萬

  • and left nothing but destruction in their wake."

    離去後只見瘡痍滿目 的軍閥。

  • "Objection. First of all, it's pronounced Genghis Kahn."

    反對!首先,他的名字是念成: 成吉思汗(非『更其思可汗』)

  • "Really?"

    是嗎?

  • "In Mongolia, yes.

    在蒙古的話, 是的,沒錯。

  • Regardless, he was one of the greatest leaders in human history.

    無論如何, 他是人類歷史上最偉大的領導者之一

  • Born Temüjin, he was left fatherless and destitute as a child

    原名鐵木真 幼時喪父 一無所有

  • but went on to overcome constant strife to unite warring Mongol clans

    爾後化解蒙古族之間的衝突 統一蒙古

  • and forge the greatest empire the world had seen,

    並造就了 史上最偉大的帝國

  • eventually stretching from the Pacific to Europe's heartland."

    從太平洋以至於歐洲中心地帶 最終臣服於他的腳下。

  • "And what was so great about invasion and slaughter?

    那入侵和殺戮 有什麼了不起?

  • Northern China lost 2/3 of its population."

    中國北方死了 三分之二的人口呢。

  • "The Jin Dynasty had long harassed the northern tribes,

    金朝長期侵擾北方民族

  • paying them off to fight each other and periodically attacking them.

    以金錢誘使他們互相殘殺 並且定期攻打他們

  • Genghis Khan wasn't about to suffer the same fate

    身為最後一個嘗試著統一蒙古人的大汗,成吉思汗

  • as the last Khan who tried to unite the Mongols,

    不願遭受一樣的命運

  • and the demographic change may reflect poor census keeping,

    而且人口數的變化 可能是因為人口統計落實不良所致。

  • not to mention that many peasants were brought into the Khan's army."

    再說許多農民 都加入了汗的軍隊。

  • "You can pick apart numbers all you want,

    你可以任意 挑選數據,

  • but they wiped out entire cities, along with their inhabitants."

    但事實就是他們 殲滅城市 屠殺居民。

  • "The Khan preferred enemies to surrender and pay tribute,

    汗喜是喜歡敵人 投降獻貢

  • but he firmly believed in loyalty and diplomatic law.

    但他深信忠誠和外交法律

  • The cities that were massacred were ones that rebelled after surrendering,

    那些被他屠殺的城市 皆為先前投降後再反叛

  • or killed as ambassadors.

    或殺死他的使者的。

  • His was a strict understanding of justice."

    他崇尚嚴酷的法治。

  • "Multiple accounts show his army's brutality going beyond justice:

    很多的說法證明 他軍隊的殘酷超越了正義範疇:

  • ripping unborn children from mothers' wombs,

    殺取孕婦腹中的孩子,

  • using prisoners as human shields,

    把囚犯當做盾牌使用,

  • or moat fillers to support siege engines,

    或拿來填滿護城河 支撐攻城器械,

  • taking all women from conquered towns--"

    將被征服的城中 所有的女人--

  • "Enough! How barbaric!"

    夠了!有夠野蠻!

  • "Is that really so much worse than other medieval armies?"

    這樣真的比中世紀的軍隊更好嗎?

  • "That doesn't excuse Genghis Khan's atrocities."

    這並不能免除成吉思汗的惡性。

  • "But it does make Genghis Khan unexceptional for his time

    但卻能證明成吉思汗 是當代的傑出者

  • rather than some bloodthirsty savage.

    好過一些只會殺戮的野人。

  • In fact, after his unification of the tribes abolished bride kidnapping,

    事實上,當他統一所有部落時, 他廢除搶親(蒙古習俗),

  • women in the Mongol ranks had it better than most.

    蒙古婦女的地位也因此而提升。

  • They controlled domestic affairs,

    她們掌握國內事務的權利,

  • could divorce their husbands,

    可以休掉丈夫,

  • and were trusted advisors.

    而且還是 值得信任的大臣。

  • Temüjin remained with his first bride all his life,

    鐵木真只有原配,沒有娶妾,

  • even raising her possibly illegitimate son as his own."

    還把有可能不是親生的兒子 視如己出。

  • "Regardless, Genghis Khan's legacy was a disaster:

    無論如何, 成吉思汗的豐功偉業純屬禍害:

  • up to 40 million killed across Eurasia during his descendents' conquests.

    他的後代為了征服歐亞大陸 殺了4億以上的人

  • 10% of the world population.

    10%的世界人口呢!

  • That's not even counting casualties from the Black Plague

    這還沒把當年欽察汗國 攻打卡法時

  • brought to Europe by the Golden Horde's Siege of Kaffa."

    把黑死病帶到歐洲 死傷的人數啊!

  • "Surely that wasn't intentional."

    這一定是無心之禍吧!

  • "Actually, when they saw their own troops dying of the Plague,

    其實,當他們看到 自己的部隊死於瘟疫,

  • they catapulted infected bodies over the city walls."

    他們把感染的屍體 投射進城中。

  • "Blech."

    噁(發音詞)

  • "The accounts you're referencing

    你參考的文獻

  • were written over a hundred years after the fact.

    都是事實百年 才寫成文字的。

  • How reliable do you think they are?

    你認為這些有多可靠?

  • Plus, the survivors reaped the benefits of the empire Genghis Khan founded."

    而且,倖存者從成吉思汗 建立的帝國得到了好處。

  • "Benefits?"

    好處?

  • "The Mongol Empire practiced religious tolerance among all subjects,

    蒙古帝國是個 宗教寬容的國家,

  • they treated their soldiers well, promoted based on merit, rather than birth,

    他們善待士兵, 按照功勳,而不是族群晉升士兵,

  • established a vast postal system,

    確立了龐大的郵政系統

  • and inforced universal rule of law,

    實行了統一的法律,

  • not to mention their contribution to culture."

    更不用說他們對文化發展的貢獻。

  • "You mean like Hulagu Khan's annihilation of Baghdad,

    你是指旭烈兀殲滅巴格達,

  • the era's cultural capital?

    當代的文化之都這件事嗎?

  • Libraries, hospitals and palaces burned, irrigation canals buried?"

    圖書館、醫院和宮殿都被燒毀 灌溉溝渠皆被填滿?

  • "Baghdad was unfortunate,

    巴格達確實不幸,

  • but its Kalif refused to surrender,

    但那是因為哈里發拒絕投降

  • and Hulagu was later punished by Berke Khan for the wanton destruction.

    而且旭烈兀之後也被伯克汗 以肆意破壞的罪名遭受懲罰。

  • It wasn't Mongol policy to destroy culture.

    破壞文化並不是蒙古的政策

  • Usually they saved doctors, scholars and artisans from conquered places,

    他們通常保護征服地的醫生、 學者和藝術家,

  • and transferred them throughout their realm,

    遣派各地,

  • spreading knowledge across the world."

    讓他們的知識四處傳播。

  • "What about the devastation of Kievan Rus,

    你怎麼解釋基輔羅斯的毀滅

  • leaving its people in the Dark Ages

    搞到當地人在復興時期 傳遍西歐時

  • even as the Renaissance spread across Western Europe?"

    還淪陷於黑暗時代當中?

  • "Western Europe was hardly peaceful at the time.

    當時的西歐並不安寧。

  • The stability of Mongol rule made the Silk Road flourish once more,

    絲綢之路因為蒙古的穩固 而再次蓬勃,

  • allowing trade and cultural exchange between East and West,

    促進了東西的文化與貿易 之間的交流

  • and its legacy forged Russia and China from warring princedoms

    留下的勢力也讓 四分五裂的中國和俄羅斯

  • into unified states.

    變成了統一的國家。

  • In fact, long after the Empire,

    事實上,百年以來,

  • Genghis Khan's descendants could be found

    成吉思汗的子孫

  • among the ruling nobility all over Eurasia."

    散落在歐亞權貴家族之中。

  • "Not surprising that a tyrant would inspire further tyrants."

    暴君啟發暴君,不意外啊!

  • "Careful what you call him. You may be related."

    注意你的用詞 你可能是他們的一份子

  • "What?"

    "什麼鬼?"

  • "16 million men today are descended from Genghis Khan.

    至今,1600萬男生是成吉思汗的後代。

  • That's one in ever 200."

    每200人就有1人。

  • For every great conqueror, there are millions of conquered.

    每一個的征服者 都有上百萬臣服於他的人。

  • Whose stories will survive?

    是誰會被寫入歷史?

  • And can a leader's historical or cultural significance

    統治者在歷史和文化中的影響

  • outweigh the deaths they caused along the way?

    能夠蓋過他們造成的傷亡嗎?

  • These are the questions that arise when we put history on trial.

    這都是我們在審視歷史會出現的疑問。

He was one of the most fearsome warlords who ever lived,

他史上最讓人 不寒而栗的軍閥之一

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 成吉思汗 蒙古 統一 征服 軍隊

【TED-Ed】歷史 vs 成吉思汗 (History vs. Genghis Khan - Alex Gendler)

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    Ann 發佈於 2015 年 12 月 20 日
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