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  • For the last 50 years,

    過去50年來,

  • a lot of smart, well-resourced people -- some of you, no doubt --

    很多聰明又富足的人...... 無疑在座某些人

  • have been trying to figure out how to reduce poverty

    不斷努力得尋找方法降低

  • in the United States.

    美國的貧窮問題

  • People have created and invested millions of dollars

    人們創立非營利組織

  • into non-profit organizations

    投入了數百萬美元

  • with the mission of helping people who are poor.

    背負著濟貧的使命

  • They've created think tanks

    他們建立了知識庫

  • that study issues like education, job creation and asset-building,

    研究關於敎育、創造就業機會 和資產建立等的問題

  • and then advocated for policies to support our most marginalized communities.

    支持政府輔助邊緣化族群

  • They've written books and columns and given passionate speeches,

    他們編撰書籍、專欄 和情緒激昂的演說

  • decrying the wealth gap that is leaving more and more people

    抨擊財富差距使愈來愈多人

  • entrenched at the bottom end of the income scale.

    無法擺脫薪水不高的情況

  • And that effort has helped.

    那些努力有幫助

  • But it's not enough.

    但是不夠

  • Our poverty rates haven't changed that much in the last 50 years,

    在過去50年來,我們的貧困指數

  • since the War on Poverty was launched.

    在抗貧計畫後沒有大幅變化

  • I'm here to tell you

    我在這裡告訴你們

  • that we have overlooked the most powerful and practical resource.

    我們輕忽了最強大而有效的資源

  • Here it is:

    請看這裡

  • people who are poor.

    貧困的人

  • Up in the left-hand corner is Jobana, Sintia and Bertha.

    在左上角的是喬邦納、辛蒂亞、柏莎

  • They met when they all had small children,

    他們都在有了小孩後,

  • through a parenting class at a family resource center

    在舊金山一間

  • in San Francisco.

    家庭資源中心親職教育課程而認識

  • As they grew together as parents and friends,

    既是家長又是朋友的他們一同成長

  • they talked a lot about how hard it was

    他們談論很多關於

  • to make money when your kids are little.

    兼顧孩童和賺錢是多麼困難

  • Child care is expensive,

    照顧小孩不便宜

  • more than they'd earn in a job.

    超過他們所能賺的

  • Their husbands worked,

    她們丈夫有在上班

  • but they wanted to contribute financially, too.

    但他們也想在財務上有所貢獻

  • So they hatched a plan.

    所以他們想到一個計畫

  • They started a cleaning business.

    他們開始清掃事業

  • They plastered neighborhoods with flyers

    他們在鄰近地區張貼傳單

  • and handed business cards out to their families and friends,

    遞出名片給他們的家人與朋友

  • and soon, they had clients calling.

    不久,客戶上門了

  • Two of them would clean the office or house

    其中兩個人清理辦公室或房子

  • and one of them would watch the kids.

    其中一人照顧小孩

  • They'd rotate who'd cleaned and who'd watch the kids.

    他們輪流清理和照顧孩子

  • (Laughs) It's awesome, right?

    (笑聲)很厲害,對吧?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And they split the money three ways.

    然後他們分攤酬勞

  • It was not a full-time gig,

    這不是全職的工作

  • no one could watch the little ones all day.

    沒有人一整天都在照顧小孩

  • But it made a difference for their families.

    然而這讓他們的家庭變得不一樣

  • Extra money to pay for bills when a husband's work hours were cut.

    在丈夫工時縮短的時候 有額外的錢支付帳單

  • Money to buy the kids clothes as they were growing.

    有錢買小孩子的新衣服

  • A little extra money in their pockets

    口袋裡的閒錢

  • to make them feel some independence.

    讓他們覺得獨立一些

  • Up in the top-right corner is Theresa and her daughter, Brianna.

    在右上角的是泰蕾莎和她女兒布里安娜

  • Brianna is one of those kids

    布里安娜是其中一位

  • with this sparkly, infectious, outgoing personality.

    充滿活力、 有影響力、個性外向的孩子

  • For example, when Rosie,

    舉例來說,

  • a little girl who spoke only Spanish, moved in next door,

    只會說西班牙話的 小女孩羅西剛搬到隔壁

  • Brianna, who spoke only English,

    只會說英文的布里安娜

  • borrowed her mother's tablet and found a translation app

    向她媽媽借了平板電腦 發現一個翻譯程式

  • so the two of them could communicate.

    以便他們兩個人可以聊天

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I know, right?

    我知道,對吧?

  • Rosie's family credits Brianna with helping Rosie to learn English.

    羅西的家人很感謝布里安娜 教導羅西學習英文

  • A few years ago,

    幾年前

  • Brianna started to struggle academically.

    布里恩娜在學業上遇到瓶頸

  • She was growing frustrated and kind of withdrawn

    在上課時愈來癒挫折

  • and acting out in class.

    似乎有點沉默寡言表現不佳

  • And her mother was heartbroken over what was happening.

    她母親為此而心痛

  • Then they found out that she was going to have to repeat second grade

    後來他們知道她女兒需要重讀二年級

  • and Brianna was devastated.

    布里安娜痛不欲生

  • Her mother felt hopeless and overwhelmed and alone

    她母親深受打擊感到孤獨無助

  • because she knew that her daughter was not getting the support she needed,

    因為知道她女兒得不到必要的協助

  • and she did not know how to help her.

    她不知道如何幫助她

  • One afternoon, Theresa was catching up with a group of friends,

    有一天下午,泰蕾莎遇上一群朋友

  • and one of them said,

    其中有人說:

  • "Theresa, how are you?"

    『泰蕾莎,你好嗎?』

  • And she burst into tears.

    她突然哭了

  • After she shared her story, one of her friends said,

    在說完她的遭遇後,其中一位朋友說:

  • "I went through the exact same thing with my son about a year ago."

    『一年前我兒子和你的一樣, 遭遇到同樣的情況』

  • And in that moment,

    那時泰蕾莎了解一點

  • Theresa realized that so much of her struggle

    她真正的困難

  • was not having anybody to talk with about it.

    就是沒有人可以聽她訴苦

  • So she created a support group for parents like her.

    所以她組了個互助會 幫助像她一樣遭遇的父母

  • The first meeting was her and two other people.

    剛開始會面只有她和另外兩人

  • But word spread, and soon 20 people, 30 people

    但消息傳得很快,不久就二十、三十人

  • were showing up for these monthly meetings that she put together.

    來參加這些他舉辦的集會

  • She went from feeling helpless

    她從感到無助

  • to realizing how capable she was of supporting her daughter,

    到發現幫助她女兒的能力

  • with the support of other people who were going through the same struggle.

    有著那些正在經歷同樣苦難的人的幫助

  • And Brianna is doing fantastic -- she's doing great academically

    現在的布里安娜很厲害

  • and socially.

    在學業和社交方面都表現得不錯

  • That in the middle is my man Baakir,

    在中間的是我的人巴基爾

  • standing in front of BlackStar Books and Caffe,

    站在紐奧良的一家 BlackStar咖啡廳前

  • which he runs out of part of his house.

    是他房子的一部分

  • As you walk in the door,

    一走進門,

  • Baakir greets you with a "Welcome black home."

    巴基爾會說:『歡迎來到黑屋』

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Once inside, you can order some Algiers jerk chicken,

    進去可以點一些阿爾及爾香辣烤雞

  • perhaps a vegan walnut burger,

    或是素核桃漢堡

  • or jive turkey sammich.

    或是捷舞火雞山姆明治

  • And that's sammich -- not sandwich.

    是山姆明治不是三明治

  • You must finish your meal with a buttermilk drop,

    你一定要配白脫牛奶醬

  • which is several steps above a donut hole

    白脫牛奶醬是淋在甜甜圈球上

  • and made from a very secret family recipe.

    而且是家族秘方

  • For real, it's very secret, he won't tell you about it.

    真的很神秘,他不會告訴你

  • But BlackStar is much more than a café.

    然而BlackStar不僅是一家咖啡廳

  • For the kids in the neighborhood,

    對於住在附近的孩童來說

  • it's a place to go after school to get help with homework.

    是一個課後輔導的場所

  • For the grown-ups, it's where they go

    對於成年人來說

  • to find out what's going on in the neighborhood

    在那可以了解當地的時事

  • and catch up with friends.

    和朋友見面

  • It's a performance venue.

    而且是表演場所

  • It's a home for poets, musicians and artists.

    作為詩人、音樂家以及藝術家的聚集處

  • Baakir and his partner Nicole,

    巴基爾和他的另一半妮可

  • with their baby girl strapped to her back,

    背著他們的女兒

  • are there in the mix of it all,

    跟大家混在一起

  • serving up a cup of coffee,

    提供咖啡、

  • teaching a child how to play Mancala,

    教小孩玩 《播棋》

  • or painting a sign for an upcoming community event.

    或是為即將舉辦的團體活動描繪標誌

  • I have worked with and learned from people just like them

    我和像他們的人一樣

  • for more than 20 years.

    一起合作學習超過二十年

  • I have organized against the prison system,

    我招集人馬反對監獄體制

  • which impacts poor folks,

    影響了貧困的人

  • especially black, indigenous and Latino folks,

    特別是黑人、本土人、拉丁美洲人

  • at an alarming rate.

    而且是以驚人的速度

  • I have worked with young people who manifest hope and promise,

    我和一群年輕人合作 他們滿懷希望,對未來有所憧憬

  • despite being at the effect of racist discipline practices in their schools,

    儘管他們受到校園裡種族岐視的處分

  • and police violence in their communities.

    與生活中的警察暴力

  • I have learned from families

    我從各個家庭學到

  • who are unleashing their ingenuity and tenacity

    他們的別出心裁與堅定

  • to collectively create their own solutions.

    使他們一同打造自己的解決辦法

  • And they're not just focused on money.

    他們不只有賺錢

  • They're addressing education, housing, health, community --

    他們改善教育、居住、健康及社區的問題

  • the things that we all care about.

    改善我們所關懷的事情

  • Everywhere I go,

    每到一個地方

  • I see people who are broke but not broken.

    我看到那些口袋沒錢四肢健全的人

  • I see people who are struggling to realize their good ideas,

    我看到那些人陷於無法想到好點子

  • so that they can create a better life for themselves,

    以便給他們自己、

  • their families, their communities.

    家庭與社會開創一片天

  • Jobana, Sintia, Bertha, Theresa and Baakir are the rule,

    喬邦納、辛蒂亞、柏莎、 泰蕾莎和巴基爾的事情很常見

  • not the shiny exception.

    沒什麼特別的

  • I am the exception.

    我不一樣

  • I was raised by a quietly fierce single mother in Rochester, New York.

    在紐約州羅徹斯特,我被一位表面深沉 內心澎湃的單親媽媽培育長大

  • I was bussed to a school in the suburbs, from a neighborhood

    我搭校車從住區到郊區一座學校上課

  • that many of my classmates and their parents considered dangerous.

    很多同學和父母認為那住區很危險

  • At eight, I was a latchkey kid.

    八歲的我放學後一個人在家

  • I'd get myself home after school every day and do homework and chores,

    每天回家做功課和家事

  • and wait for my mother to come home.

    等待母親回來

  • After school, I'd go to the corner store

    下課後,我會到街角超商

  • and buy a can of Chef Boyardee ravioli,

    買一罐柏亞迪廚師義大利方餃

  • which I'd heat up on the stove as my afternoon snack.

    在爐子上加熱作為下午的點心

  • If I had a little extra money, I'd buy a Hostess Fruit Pie.

    如果有還有錢,我會買女主人水果派

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Cherry.

    櫻桃口味的

  • Not as good as a buttermilk drop.

    但不像白脫牛奶那麼好吃

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • We were poor when I was a kid.

    小時候我們很窮

  • But now, I own a home in a quickly gentrifying neighborhood

    但現在,我在加州奧克蘭

  • in Oakland, California.

    新興開發地區擁有一棟房子

  • I've built a career.

    我有自己的事業

  • My husband is a business owner.

    我丈夫是公司負責人

  • I have a retirement account.

    我有個退休金帳戶

  • My daughter is not even allowed to turn on the stove

    除非大人在家

  • unless there's a grown-up at home

    不然我女兒不准使用爐火

  • and she doesn't have to,

    她不必煮東西

  • because she does not have to have the same kind of self-reliance

    因為不用像我小時候一樣

  • that I had to at her age.

    要自立更生

  • My kids' raviolis are organic

    我孩子的義大利方餃是有機食品

  • and full of things like spinach and ricotta,

    富含類似食材菠菜、瑞可達起司的食材

  • because I have the luxury of choice

    因為對於孩子的飲食

  • when it comes to what my children eat.

    我能夠擁有不同的選擇

  • I am the exception,

    我不一樣

  • not because I'm more talented than Baakir

    不是因為我比巴基爾更有才華

  • or my mother worked any harder than Jobana, Sintia or Bertha,

    不是我媽比喬邦納、辛蒂亞、柏莎更勤勞工作

  • or cared any more than Theresa.

    也不是比泰蕾莎更照顧自己的孩子

  • Marginalized communities are full of smart, talented people,

    邊緣化族群充滿著聰明、才華洋溢的人

  • hustling and working and innovating,

    他們每日工作很忙碌,富有創新的思維

  • just like our most revered and most rewarded CEOs.

    就像受各位尊敬、獲獎無數的執行長

  • They are full of people tapping into their resilience

    邊緣化族群充滿著適應力強的人

  • to get up every day, get the kids off to school

    每天醒來,送孩子上學

  • and go to jobs that don't pay enough,

    到薪水不高的地方上班

  • or get educations that are putting them in debt.

    或是被受教育而身陷負債

  • They are full of people applying their savvy intelligence

    邊緣化族群充滿著崇高智慧的人

  • to stretch a minimum wage paycheck,

    他們讓自己的最低工資最大限度得其所用

  • or balance a job and a side hustle to make ends meet.

    或是兼顧正職與副業得以維持生計

  • They are full of people doing for themselves and for others,

    邊緣化族群充滿著為自己與大家想的人

  • whether it's picking up medication for an elderly neighbor,

    無論是幫年長的鄰居取藥

  • or letting a sibling borrow some money to pay the phone bill,

    或是借兄弟姊妹一些錢繳電話費

  • or just watching out for the neighborhood kids

    或是照看

  • from the front stoop.

    在門廊前的鄰居小孩

  • I am the exception because of luck and privilege,

    我不一樣 是因為我的運氣和榮幸

  • not hard work.

    而不是努力工作

  • And I'm not being modest or self-deprecating --

    我沒有謙虛或自卑

  • I am amazing.

    我很了不起

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But most people work hard.

    然而大多人工作很勤奮

  • Hard work is the common denominator in this equation,

    努力工作是大家所公認的事

  • and I'm tired of the story we tell

    我厭倦大家所說的

  • that hard work leads to success,

    努力工作就能成功

  • because that allows --

    因為那讓...

  • Thank you.

    謝謝各位

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • ... because that story allows those of us who make it to believe we deserve it,

    因為這樣說來 那些成功的人認為我們可以成功

  • and by implication,

    也意味著

  • those who don't make it don't deserve it.

    那些失敗的人不會成功

  • We tell ourselves, in the back of our minds,

    我們不自覺地告訴自己

  • and sometimes in the front of our mouths,

    而且有時候在大家面前告訴自己

  • "There must be something a little wrong with those poor people."

    這些貧窮的人必定有什麼地方錯了

  • We have a wide range of beliefs

    對於錯誤的事情,

  • about what that something wrong is.

    大家有不同的想法

  • Some people tell the story that poor folks are lazy freeloaders

    有些人說窮人是好吃懶做的寄生蟲

  • who would cheat and lie to get out of an honest day's work.

    他們善用欺騙和謊言 來擺脫腳踏實地的工作

  • Others prefer the story that poor people are helpless

    其他人相信窮人很無助

  • and probably had neglectful parents that didn't read to them enough,

    而且可能沒有父母的陪伴 沒有父母為他們說故事

  • and if they were just told what to do

    如果有人告訴他們該做的事

  • and shown the right path,

    指引正確的道路

  • they could make it.

    他們便得以功成名遂

  • For every story I hear demonizing low-income single mothers

    每個故事中,我都聽到

  • or absentee fathers,

    糟糕的低薪單親媽媽與不負責任的父親

  • which is how people might think of my parents,

    可能大家覺得是我父母的樣子

  • I've got 50 that tell a different story about the same people,

    我聽到五十個人用不同的方式 談論同一群人

  • showing up every day and doing their best.

    他們每天出現各說各話

  • I'm not saying that some of the negative stories aren't true,

    我並不是說有些負面的故事不正確

  • but those stories allow us to not really see who people really are,

    而是那些故事不是真的 讓我們了解到真實面貌

  • because they don't paint a full picture.

    因為那些故事沒有鉅細靡遺的刻畫出來

  • The quarter-truths and limited plot lines have us convinced

    那些一知半解的事實讓我們相信

  • that poor people are a problem that needs fixing.

    窮人是需要改善的問題

  • What if we recognized that what's working is the people

    要是我們了解人在做

  • and what's broken is our approach?

    但方法不對呢?

  • What if we realized that the experts we are looking for,

    要是我們知道我們要找的專家

  • the experts we need to follow,

    與建議

  • are poor people themselves?

    是從窮人他們本身呢?

  • What if, instead of imposing solutions,

    要是我們沒有解決問題

  • we just added fire

    只是在本身的情況上

  • to the already-burning flame that they have?

    火上加油呢?

  • Not directing --

    沒有得到效果

  • not even empowering --

    更不要說改善

  • but just fueling their initiative.

    而就他們提議給予幫助

  • Just north of here,

    就在這北方

  • we have an example of what this could look like:

    大家有個例子可以看到這樣的情況

  • Silicon Valley.

    矽谷