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  • I'm here to recruit men to support gender equality.

    我在此邀請男士們支持性別平等。

  • (Cheers)

    (歡呼聲)

  • Wait, wait. What?

    等等、等等,什麼?

  • What do men have to do with gender equality?

    男士們和性別平等有什麼關係?

  • Gender equality is about women, right?

    性別平等只和女性有關,對吧?

  • I mean, the word gender is about women.

    我是說,性別這個詞和女性有關。

  • Actually, I'm even here speaking as a middle class white man.

    事實上,我以一位 中產階級男性的身分在此演講。

  • Now, I wasn't always a middle class white man.

    但我並非一直都是 中產階級的白人男性。

  • It all happened for me about 30 years ago when I was in graduate school,

    這件事是大約30年前 我在讀研究所時發生的,

  • and a bunch of us graduate students got together one day,

    有一天,我們一群研究生聚在一起,

  • and we said, you know, there's an explosion

    我們說,

  • of writing and thinking in feminist theory,

    女性主義理論的文章和思想 正如爆炸般蔓延,

  • but there's no courses yet.

    卻還沒有人開設相關課程。

  • So we did what graduate students typically do in a situation like that.

    所以我們做了研究生 一般在此情況下會做的事,

  • We said, OK, let's have a study group.

    我們說,好,我們來成立一個讀書會,

  • We'll read a text, we'll talk about it,

    一起讀點文章、然後討論,

  • we'll have a potluck dinner.

    當然還有一些晚餐聚會。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So every week, 11 women and me got together.

    所以每星期,我都和 11位女性聚在一起。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • We would read some text in feminist theory and have a conversation about it.

    我們會讀一些女性主義理論 的文章,然後討論。

  • And during one of our conversations,

    在其中一次討論中,

  • I witnessed an interaction that changed my life forever.

    我看到一個從此改變我一生 的一個互動。

  • It was a conversation between two women.

    那是兩個女性間的談話。

  • One of the women was white, and one was black.

    其中一位是白人,另一位則是黑人。

  • And the white woman said --

    白人女性說 -

  • this is going to sound very anachronistic now --

    現在聽起來會覺得非常不合時宜 -

  • the white woman said, "All women face the same oppression as women.

    白人女性說:「所有女人 都因女人的身分受到同樣的壓迫。

  • All women are similarly situated in patriarchy,

    所有女人在父權社會下都有類似處境,

  • and therefore all women have a kind of intuitive solidarity or sisterhood."

    因此所有女人都出於直覺地 有種團結或姐妹意識。」

  • And the black woman said, "I'm not so sure.

    那位黑人女性說:「這我可不確定。

  • Let me ask you a question."

    我問你一個問題。」

  • So the black woman says to the white woman,

    所以那位黑人女性對那位白人女性說:

  • "When you wake up in the morning and you look in the mirror,

    「當你早上起來,往鏡子裡看,

  • what do you see?"

    你看到什麼?」

  • And the white woman said, "I see a woman."

    白人女性說:「我看到一個女人。」

  • And the black woman said, "You see, that's the problem for me.

    黑人女性說:「你看,對我而言, 那就是問題所在。

  • Because when I wake up in the morning and I look in the mirror," she said,

    因我當我早上起來時,我往鏡子裡看,

  • "I see a black woman.

    我看到的是一個女黑人。

  • To me, race is visible. But to you, race is invisible. You don't see it."

    對我來說,種族是看得見的。 但對你來說,種族是隱形的。你看不見。」

  • And then she said something really startling.

    然後她接下來說的更令人吃驚。

  • She said, "That's how privilege works.

    她說,「特權就是這樣運作的,

  • Privilege is invisible to those who have it."

    擁有特權的人看不到它。」

  • It is a luxury, I will say to the white people sitting in this room,

    我要對在座的白人說, 你們不用在生活中的每個時刻

  • not to have to think about race every split second of our lives.

    思考種族這回事,是件很奢侈的事。

  • Privilege is invisible to those who have it.

    特權對於擁有者來說,是隱形的。

  • Now remember, I was the only man in this group,

    記得嗎?我是這個團體唯一的男人,

  • so when I witnessed this, I went, "Oh no."

    當我目擊這一切時, 我心想:「喔,糟了。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And somebody said, "Well what was that reaction?"

    有人問:「你為什麼會有這種反應?」

  • And I said, "Well, when I wake up in the morning and I look in the mirror,

    我回答:「嗯...因為當我 早上起來照鏡子時,

  • I see a human being.

    我看到的是一個人。

  • I'm kind of the generic person.

    我只是一個普通的人。

  • You know, I'm a middle class white man. I have no race, no class, no gender.

    我是一個中產階級白人, 沒有種族、沒有階級、沒有性別。

  • I'm universally generalizable."

    是個舉世通用的身分。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So I like to think that was the moment I became a middle class white man,

    所以我喜歡這麼想:在那個時刻 我才成為一個中產階級白人,

  • that class and race and gender were not about other people,

    階級、種族和性別不是只和別人有關,

  • they were about me.

    它們也跟我有關。

  • I had to start thinking about them,

    我必須開始思考這些問題,

  • and it had been privilege that had kept it invisible to me for so long.

    因為特權讓我長久以來 一直看不見它們。

  • Now, I wish I could tell you this story ends 30 years ago

    現在,我倒希望這個故事 就結束在30年前的

  • in that little discussion group,

    那個討論小組,

  • but I was reminded of it quite recently at my university where I teach.

    但最近又在我任教的大學被提醒了。

  • I have a colleague, and she and I both teach the sociology of gender course

    我有個同事, 她和我教同一堂性別社會學的課,

  • on alternate semesters.

    開設在不同學期。

  • So she gives a guest lecture for me when I teach.

    所以她在我的課上擔任客座講師,

  • I give a guest lecture for her when she teaches.

    我也在她的課上擔任客座講師。

  • So I walk into her class to give a guest lecture,

    某次我走進她的班級當客座講師,

  • about 300 students in the room,

    教室裡大約有300個學生,

  • and as I walk in, one of the students looks up and says,

    而我走進去時,一個學生看到我就說,

  • "Oh, finally, an objective opinion."

    「喔,終於有客觀的意見了。」

  • All that semester, whenever my colleague opened her mouth,

    那整個學期,我同事無論何時開口,

  • what my students saw was a woman.

    都提到她的學生看到的是一個女人。

  • I mean, if you were to say to my students,

    我意思是,如果你對我的學生說:

  • "There is structural inequality based on gender in the United States,"

    「美國在性別上有結構性的不平等,」

  • they'd say, "Well of course you'd say that.

    他們會說:「當然你會這麼說,

  • You're a woman. You're biased."

    因為你是女人,你有偏見。」

  • When I say it, they go, "Wow, is that interesting.

    當我說的時候,他們會說, 「哇,這很有趣,

  • Is that going to be on the test? How do you spell 'structural'?"

    那會出現在考題嗎? 『結構性』怎麼拼?」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So I hope you all can see,

    所以我希望你們都可以看到,

  • this is what objectivity looks like.

    客觀大概就長這樣。

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    (笑聲)(掌聲)

  • Disembodied Western rationality.

    我代表了無形的西方理性。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And that, by the way, is why I think men so often wear ties.

    順便提一下,我想那是男人經常打領帶的原因。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Because if you are going to embody disembodied Western rationality,

    因為如果你要體現無形的西方理性,

  • you need a signifier,

    你需要一個信物,

  • and what could be a better signifier of disembodied Western rationality

    而對無形的西方理性而言,還有什麼比這個更好的信物 -

  • than a garment that at one end is a noose and the other end points to the genitals?

    把一端打結成絞索,另一端則指著生殖器的東西?

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    (笑聲)(掌聲)

  • That is mind-body dualism right there.

    這就是身心二元論。

  • So making gender visible to men

    讓男人看到性別

  • is the first step to engaging men to support gender equality.

    是讓他們支持男女平等的第一步。

  • Now, when men first hear about gender equality,

    當男人第一次聽到性別平等,

  • when they first start thinking about it,

    當他們開始思考這個議題,

  • they often think, many men think,

    他們通常認為 - 許多男人認為,

  • well, that's right, that's fair, that's just,

    對啊,那樣才對,那是公平、公正,

  • that's the ethical imperative.

    那是道德義務。

  • But not all men.

    但並非所有男人。

  • Some men think -- the lightning bolt goes off,

    有些男人認為 - 閃電熄滅了,

  • and they go, "Oh my God, yes, gender equality,"

    他們會想:「我的天,對,性別平等」

  • and they will immediately begin to mansplain to you your oppression.

    然後立刻開始搬出男性至上的觀點 對你們進行壓迫。

  • They see supporting gender equality something akin to the calvary,

    他們認為支持性別平等等同苦難,

  • like, "Thanks very much for bringing this to our attention, ladies,

    他們會想,「女士們,感謝你們 提出這個引起我們的注意,

  • we'll take it from here."

    我們會看著辦。」

  • This results in a syndrome that I like to call 'premature self-congratulation.'

    形成一種我喜歡稱為 「過早沾沾自喜」的症狀。

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    (笑聲)(掌聲)

  • There's another group, though, that actively resists gender equality,

    當然還有一群人,積極打壓性別平等,

  • that sees gender equality as something that is detrimental to men.

    他們將性別平等視為一種對男人有害的東西。

  • I was on a TV talk show opposite four white men.

    我曾在一個電視談話節目面對四個白人男性。

  • This is the beginning of the book I wrote, 'Angry White Men.'

    這是日後我寫下《憤怒的白人男性》 這本書的起源。

  • These were four angry white men

    四個憤怒的白人男性,

  • who believed that they, white men in America,

    相信他們這些美國白人男性,

  • were the victims of reverse discrimination in the workplace.

    是工作場合裡逆向性別歧視的受害者。

  • And they all told stories about how they were qualified for jobs,

    他們訴說自己如何勝任一些工作、

  • qualified for promotions,

    擁有升遷的資格,

  • they didn't get them, they were really angry.

    卻沒有得到機會,他們非常生氣。

  • And the reason I'm telling you this is I want you to hear the title

    我之所以告訴各位這件事,是想讓大家聽聽

  • of this particular show.

    這個節目的名稱。

  • It was a quote from one of the men,

    那是引述自其中一位的話,

  • and the quote was,

    而這句話是:

  • "A Black Woman Stole My Job."

    「一個女黑人偷了我的工作。」

  • And they all told their stories,

    他們每個都訴說自己的故事,

  • qualified for jobs, qualified for promotions,

    如何勝任工作、如何有資格升遷

  • didn't get it, really angry.

    卻得不到,非常生氣。

  • And then it was my turn to speak,

    然後輪到我說話,

  • and I said, "I have just one question for you guys,

    我說:「我對你們只有一個問題,

  • and it's about the title of the show,

    就是這個節目的名稱,

  • 'A Black Woman Stole My Job.'

    『一個女黑人偷了我的工作』

  • Actually, it's about one word in the title.

    實際上,我的問題在其中一個詞。

  • I want to know about the word 'my.'

    我想知道的是『我的』這個詞,

  • Where did you get the idea it was your job?

    你為什麼會認為這是你的工作?

  • Why isn't the title of the show, 'A Black Woman Got the Job?'

    為什麼節目名稱不是 『一位黑人女性得到那份工作』?

  • or 'A Black Woman Got A Job?'"

    或是『一位黑人女性得到一份工作』?

  • Because without confronting men's sense of entitlement,

    因為如果不是和男人的權力感有所衝突,

  • I don't think we'll ever understand why so many men resist gender equality.

    我不認為我們真能了解為何這麼多人打壓性別平等。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Look, we think this is a level playing field,

    請注意,我們認為這樣才是公平的競爭環境,

  • so any policy that tilts it even a little bit,

    所以任何政策只要讓它偏移一點,

  • we think, "Oh my God, water's rushing uphill.

    我們就想:「我的天,水往上流了。

  • It's reverse discrimination against us."

    這是對我們的逆向歧視。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So let me be very clear:

    所以我要非常明白地說:

  • white men in Europe and the United States

    在歐洲和美國的白人男性,

  • are the beneficiaries of the single greatest affirmative action program

    是全世界的歷史上最大的

  • in the history of the world.

    平權活動中的受益者。

  • It is called "the history of the world."

    這說的是「全世界的歷史」。

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    (笑聲)(掌聲)

  • So, now I've established some of the obstacles to engaging men,

    所以,現在我已經製造了一些吸引男性的阻礙,

  • but why should we support gender equality?

    但為什麼我們應該支持性別平等?

  • Of course, it's fair, it's right and it's just.

    當然,那才公平,那是正確的、正義的事。

  • But more than that,

    但不僅如此,

  • gender equality is also in our interest as men.

    性別平等也對男人有利。

  • If you listen to what men say about what they want in their lives,

    如果你聽聽男人談論自己在生命中想要的東西,

  • gender equality is actually a way for us to get the lives we want to live.

    性別平等其實是給予我們理想生活的一種方式。

  • Gender equality is good for countries.

    性別平等對國家有利。

  • It turns out, according to most studies,

    根據大多數研究的結果,

  • that those countries that are the most gender equal

    性別最平等的國家

  • are also the countries that score highest on the happiness scale.

    同時也是快樂指數最高的國家。

  • And that's not just because they're all in Europe.

    而且不是因為他們都在歐洲。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Even within Europe, those countries that are more gender equal

    即使在歐洲的國家中,性別比較平等的國家

  • also have the highest levels of happiness.

    也是快樂指數最高的。

  • It is also good for companies.

    對公司也有好處。

  • Research by Catalyst and others has shown conclusively

    由 Catalyst 和其他機構所做的研結果確切顯示

  • that the more gender-equal companies are,

    公司越是性別平等,

  • the better it is for workers,

    對員工的結果越好,

  • the happier their labor force is.

    因為他們的員工會越快樂。

  • They have lower job turnover. They have lower levels of attrition.

    他們的流動率較低、工作摩擦較少。

  • They have an easier time recruiting.

    他們也比較容易招募到員工。

  • They have higher rates of retention, higher job satisfaction,

    他們擁有較高的 員工留職率、工作滿意度、

  • higher rates of productivity.

    生產力也較高。

  • So the question I'm often asked in companies is,

    所以企業經理人常常問我的問題是:

  • "Boy, this gender equality thing, that's really going to be expensive, huh?"

    「性別平等啊,那要花很多錢,是吧?」

  • And I say, "Oh no, in fact, what you have to start calculating

    然後我說:「喔不,事實上, 你得開始算算

  • is how much gender inequality is already costing you.

    不這麼做已經花了你們多少錢,

  • It is extremely expensive."

    那才是最貴的花費。」

  • So it is good for business.

    所以性別平等對企業是有利的。

  • And the other thing is, it's good for men.

    另一個好處是,它也對男人有利。

  • It is good for the kind of lives we want to live,

    它有利於我們想要過的生活,

  • because young men especially have changed enormously,

    因為現在的年輕男人 和過去有很大的不同,

  • and they want to have lives that are animated

    他們渴望和孩子擁有很棒的親子關係,

  • by terrific relationships with their children.

    來達成美好而動人的生活。

  • They expect their partners, their spouses, their wives,

    他們期待他們的伴侶、配偶、妻子

  • to work outside the home

    外出工作,

  • and be just as committed to their careers as they are.

    和他們一樣專注於事業。

  • I was talking, to give you an illustration of this change --

    現在給各位一個 能說明這個轉變的案例 -

  • Some of you may remember this.

    你們有些人可能記得這個。

  • When I was a lot younger, there was a riddle that was posed to us.

    在我年輕許多時,曾被問過一個謎題,

  • Some of you may wince to remember this riddle.

    有些人可能會皺起眉頭、不太記得,

  • This riddle went something like this.

    但這個謎題是這樣的。

  • A man and his son are driving on the freeway,

    一個男人和他兒子行駛於高速公路上,

  • and they're in a terrible accident,

    他們出了一場嚴重車禍,

  • and the father is killed,

    父親當場死亡,

  • and the son is brought to the hospital emergency room,

    兒子被送到一家醫院的急診室,

  • and as they're bringing the son into the hospital emergency room,

    而當他們將兒子推進急診室時,

  • the emergency room attending physician sees the boy and says,

    急診室的值班醫師看了這個男孩後說,

  • "Oh, I can't treat him, that's my son."

    「哦,我不能治療他,他是我兒子。」

  • How is this possible?

    這怎麼可能呢?

  • We were flummoxed by this.

    這個謎題讓我們非常困惑,

  • We could not figure this out.

    我們無法找出答案。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Well, I decided to do a little experiment with my 16-year old son.

    所以,我決定對16歲的兒子進行一個小實驗,

  • He had a bunch of his friends hanging out at the house

    最近某天他和一群朋友待在家裡,

  • watching a game on TV recently.

    看著電視裡的一場最近的比賽,

  • So I decided I would pose this riddle to them,

    我決定要問他們這個謎題,

  • just to see, to gauge the level of change.

    純粹為了測量一下這個轉變的程度。

  • Well, 16-year-old boys,

    結果,這些16歲的男孩們,

  • they immediately turned to me and said, "It's his mom." Right?

    立即對我說:「那是他媽媽,對吧?」

  • No problem. Just like that.

    毫無猶豫、就那樣回答。

  • Except for my son, who said, "Well, he could have two dads."

    除了我兒子,他說:「喔,他也可能有兩個爸爸。」

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    (笑聲)(掌聲)

  • That's an index, an indicator of how things have changed.

    這是一個指標,說明事情的轉變。

  • Younger men today expect to be able to balance work and family.

    今天的年輕男人希望能在工作和家庭間取得平衡。

  • They want to be dual-career, dual-carer couples.

    他們想要兩人都有事業、都能顧家的伴侶關係。

  • They want to be able to balance work and family with their partners.

    他們想要和伴侶一起取得工作和家庭的平衡。

  • They want to be involved fathers.

    他們想當陪著孩子長大的父親。

  • Now, it turns out

    現在,結果發現,

  • that the more egalitarian our relationships,

    我們的關係越平等,

  • the happier both partners are.

    伴侶之間就越快樂。

  • Data from psychologists and sociologists are quite persuasive here.

    對此,心理學家和社會學家的數據相當有說服力。

  • I think we have the persuasive numbers, the data, to prove to men

    我認為我們已頗具說服力的數字、數據,來對男人證明

  • that gender equality is not a zero-sum game, but a win-win.

    性別平等不是一個零和遊戲、而是雙贏局面。

  • Here's what the data show.

    以下是數據告訴我們的:

  • Now, when men begin the process of engaging

    當男人開始參與這個

  • with balancing work and family,

    平衡工作和家庭的過程,

  • we often have two phrases that we use to describe what we do.

    我們經常用兩個詞語描繪該做的事-

  • We pitch in and we help out.

    努力貢獻、好好幫忙。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And I'm going to propose something a little bit more radical,

    現在我要提一個更激進的,

  • one word: "share."

    一個詞:「分擔」