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  • It's kind of unavoidable if you cut into a big juicy rare steak

    無可避免的,當你切一塊多汁的生牛排,

  • You're gonna get some juice. Watery, red liquid seeps out of the meat and on to the plate and it kind of looks like blood.

    會有些汁液流出。紅色的液體自肉滲到盤子上,看起來像血水。

  • But I have good news for people

    但我有個好消息給

  • who like to eat red meat but don't like to eat blood

    喜歡吃紅肉但不喜歡喝血的人們:

  • It's not blood.

    那不是血。

  • It's just water plus a handy protein called myoglobin.

    那是富含肌紅蛋白的水。

  • All meat is muscle but the muscle looks different

    所有可食肉類都是肌肉,看起來也不一樣

  • depending on what it's used for

    不過根據用途不同

  • White meats like turkey and chicken come from muscles

    像火雞或雞這種白肉是來自

  • that are used in short spurts every so often

    它們不時需要衝刺而且需要移動快速的肌肉

  • but have to get moving quickly

    快速移動

  • Think of the chicken breasts

    想想看雞胸

  • They don't actually use their wings very often

    它們並不常使用翅膀像是牛、羊、豬等紅肉來自它們用於強力活動的肌肉

  • Red meats like beef, lamb and even pork come from muscles used for long strenuous activities

    像是牛、羊、豬等紅肉來自它們用於強力活動的肌肉

  • like carrying a huge cow around all the time

    例如扛著一隻巨大的母牛

  • Before cooking,

    烹調之前,

  • these meats are a pinky, reddish color.

    這些肉會是偏粉紅的顏色。

  • Holding up a heavy cow is some serious work.

    扛著一隻母牛是很吃力的工作。

  • Work that requires a lot of oxygen for fuel

    並且需要很多的氧氣作為身體的燃料

  • which is where myoglobin comes in

    肌紅蛋白的原理就是在這邊

  • Myoglobin is a special protein

    肌紅蛋白是一種特別的蛋白質

  • with an iron atom at its center,

    在其中央有一個鐵原子,

  • which bonds with, then stores and delivers oxygen to muscle cells

    鐵原子會跟氧連在一起,並且儲存和運送這些氧到肌肉細胞

  • It works together with hemoglobin, another oxygen carrier

    它和血紅蛋白,也就是另外一種氧氣攜帶者,一起運作

  • to get oxygen to the cells that needed.

    讓細胞可以得到所需的氧氣。

  • The difference between red meat and white meat

    紅肉和白肉之間的差異

  • comes from the levels of myoglobin in the muscle.

    來自肌肉中肌紅蛋白的多寡。

  • And myoglobin protein itself is red

    肌紅蛋白本身是紅色的

  • so the more myoglobin in the cells the redder the meat appears.

    所以細胞中有越多肌紅蛋白,肉看起來就會越紅。

  • And that juice that's spilling out of your meat?

    那從你的肉流出來的汁液呢?

  • That's a combination of water and myoglobin.

    那是由水和肌紅蛋白組成的。

  • The animal's blood was removed when the meat was processed.

    肉在處理過程中就會放血了。

  • Beef is around 0.8% myoglobin and lamb has a little less at 0.6%.

    牛肉有 0.8% 的肌紅蛋白,羊肉少一點點,是在 0.6%。

  • And all of those ads have been lying to you

    而且所有的廣告其實都騙了你

  • because at 0.2% myoglobin

    因為含有0.2%的肌紅蛋白

  • pork is generally considered red meat too.

    豬肉應該也是紅肉。

  • Chicken only has about a quarter of that amount

    雞肉只含有大概四分之一的量

  • But what about humans?

    那麼人類呢?

  • Well, our flesh is about as red as red meat can get

    嗯,我們的肌肉跟吃的肉其實差不多紅

  • at 2% myoglobin.

    含有2%的肌紅蛋白。

  • If you have been like steak

    如果你喜歡牛排

  • but you don't want red juice

    但不喜歡紅色的汁液

  • you have options.

    你有新選擇啦!

  • Myoglobin is red when it's bonded with oxygen.

    肌紅蛋白跟氧氣結合時才會是紅色的。

  • When meat is cooked rare,

    當肉煮熟,

  • up to about 60 degrees Celsius,

    大概到攝氏60度時,

  • the color stays

    顏色會保持

  • Above that temperature,

    超過這個溫度之後,

  • the iron atom in myoglobin loses an electron,

    肌紅蛋白中的鐵原子會失去電子,

  • and therefore its ability to bind with oxygen.

    也因此同時失去攜氧能力。

  • Instead, the myoglobin forms a new molecule

    肌紅蛋白會改為形成一種新的分子

  • called hemichrome

    叫做高鐵血色原

  • that gives medium and well done meet its brown gray color

    這會給半熟或全熟的肉一種棕灰色

  • Myoglobin will also turn brown

    肌紅蛋白也會變成棕色的

  • if it's exposed to air for long enough,

    當在空氣中暴露過久,

  • because that makes the iron atoms lose an electron too.

    因為鐵原子也會失去電子。

  • Which is why checking the color

    所以檢查顏色

  • can be a handy way to tell

    可以作為一個簡易的方法

  • if your store-bought meat is still fresh

    辨別你從商店買回來的肉是不是新鮮的

  • It doesn't always work though,

    不過這不會總是有用,

  • because some meat producers add compounds

    因為有些肉商會在肉中加入複合物

  • that keep the meat red and the color can last way past the expiration date.

    可以讓肉保持紅色顏色甚至可以維持到過保存期限。

  • But if you do end up buying that red meat and cooking it rare,

    但如果你真的買了這樣的肉,

  • I hope you enjoy your oxygen rich protein water.

    我希望你喜歡你富含氧氣的蛋白質汁液!

  • Thanks for asking and thanks especially to all of our patrons on Patreon who keep these answers coming

    謝謝提問也謝謝 Patreon 的夥伴持續給我們答案。

  • If you'd like to submit questions to be answered,

    如果你想提問並被回復,

  • or get these quick questions a few days before everyone else

    或者是更快速的得到答案

  • go to patreon.com/scishow.

    到 patreon.com/scishow。

  • And don't forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe.

    也別忘了看我們的頻道並且訂閱它喔!

It's kind of unavoidable if you cut into a big juicy rare steak

無可避免的,當你切一塊多汁的生牛排,

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B1 中級 美國腔 紅肉 肌肉 氧氣 汁液 紅色 顏色

為什麼肉是紅色的?(Why is Red Meat ... Red?

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    Ruby Lu 發佈於 2016 年 08 月 31 日
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