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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    在開始之前我想問大家一個問題

  • Allow me to start this talk with a question to everyone.

    你知道全世界的人 都在為自己爭取自由

  • You know that all over the world,

    你知道全世界的人 都在為自己爭取自由

  • people fight for their freedom,

    爭取權益

  • fight for their rights.

    有些人是跟強制的政府抗爭

  • Some battle oppressive governments.

    有些人所對抗的 是強勢的社會體制

  • Others battle oppressive societies.

    你認為哪個比較難對付

  • Which battle do you think is harder?

    我將會用接下來的時間 來試著回答這個問題

  • Allow me to try to answer this question

    我將會用接下來的時間 來試著回答這個問題

  • in the few coming minutes.

    請讓我帶大家回到兩年前

  • Let me take you back two years ago in my life.

    那是我兒子 Aboody 晚上睡覺前

  • It was the bedtime of my son, Aboody.

    他當時五歲

  • He was five at the time.

    就在準備上床睡覺前

  • After finishing his bedtime rituals,

    他看著我並問了一個問題

  • he looked at me and he asked a question:

    "媽媽, 我們是壞人嗎?"

  • "Mommy, are we bad people?"

    我著實嚇了一跳

  • I was shocked.

    "你怎麼會這麼說呢, Aboody?"

  • "Why do you say such things, Aboody?"

    那天下午他放學回家時 我發現他臉上有些瘀青

  • Earlier that day, I noticed some bruises

    那天下午他放學回家時 我發現他臉上有些瘀青

  • on his face when he came from school.

    他原本不願意告訴我發生了什麼事

  • He wouldn't tell me what happened.

    [但那當下] 他想告訴我了

  • [But now] he was ready to tell.

    "今天學校裡有兩個男生打我

  • "Two boys hit me today in school.

    他們告訴我說: "我們在臉書上看見你媽媽

  • They told me, 'We saw your mom on Facebook.

    你跟你媽媽都應該被抓去關"

  • You and your mom should be put in jail.'"

    我從來沒有隱瞞過 Aboody 任何事情

  • I've never been afraid to tell Aboody anything.

    對於我的成就我總是相當自豪

  • I've been always a proud woman of my achievements.

    但那天我兒子看著我的質疑眼神

  • But those questioning eyes of my son

    是我不得不面對事實的時候

  • were my moment of truth,

    是我不得不面對事實的時候

  • when it all came together.

    我是個曾經坐過牢的阿拉伯婦女

  • You see, I'm a Saudi woman who had been put in jail

    因為我在一個

  • for driving a car in a country

    不允許女性開車的國家裡開了車

  • where women are not supposed to drive cars.

    而我的親哥哥被拘留了兩次

  • Just for giving me his car keys,

    只因為他把他的車鑰匙給了我

  • my own brother was detained twice,

    甚至因為他不斷地被騷擾

  • and he was harassed to the point he had

    他不得不辭去他地理學家的工作

  • to quit his job as a geologist,

    並帶著他的妻子 跟兩歲大的孩子遠走他鄉

  • leave the country with his wife and two-year-old son.

    我的父親則必須參加 禮拜五的一場伊斯蘭教聚會

  • My father had to sit in a Friday sermon

    聽伊瑪目(伊斯蘭教對領袖之尊稱) 指責開過車的女性

  • listening to the imam condemning women drivers

    並在許多來參加聚會的人面前 聽他用妓女來稱呼她們

  • and calling them prostitutes

    並在許多來參加聚會的人面前 聽他用妓女來稱呼她們

  • amongst tons of worshippers,

    當中不乏是我父親的朋友或甚至是家人

  • some of them our friends and family of my own father.

    我當時所面對的 是一連串有組織性的毀謗

  • I was faced with an organized defamation campaign

    包括當地媒體報出了可能是親戚 或街坊鄰居謠傳的不實報導

  • in the local media combined with false rumors

    包括當地媒體報出了可能是親戚 或街坊鄰居謠傳的不實報導

  • shared in family gatherings, in the streets

    就連在學校裡也不得平靜

  • and in schools.

    在在地都打擊了我

  • It all hit me.

    我知道那些孩子 並不是故意要對我兒子動粗

  • It came into focus that those kids

    我知道那些孩子 並不是故意要對我兒子動粗

  • did not mean to be rude to my son.

    他們只是被週遭的大人給影響了

  • They were just influenced by the adults around them.

    而那也不是針對我個人

  • And it wasn't about me, and it wasn't a punishment

    或對我開車這個舉動的一個懲罰

  • for taking the wheel and driving a few miles.

    而是針對我竟敢挑戰 並違反了社會規範的處罰

  • It was a punishment for daring to challenge

    而是針對我竟敢挑戰 並違反了社會規範的處罰

  • the society's rules.

    但是這個故事並未就此打住

  • But my story goes beyond this moment of truth of mine.

    請讓我繼續跟各位說明

  • Allow me to give you a briefing

    這整個故事的全貌

  • about my story.

    那是 2011 年的五月

  • It was May, 2011,

    我在跟一個工作上的同事抱怨

  • and I was complaining to a work colleague

    提到了我所在面對的惱人的事

  • about the harassments I had to face

    只為了可以搭個便車回家

  • trying to find a ride back home,

    雖然我明明自己就有台車 跟一張國際通用的駕照

  • although I have a car and an international driver's license.

    就我所了解的

  • As long as I've known, women in Saudi Arabia

    所有在沙烏地阿拉伯的女性 都對這個禁令很感冒

  • have been always complaining about the ban,

    但是二十幾年來都是如此

  • but it's been 20 years since anyone

    老一輩的人也就這麼過了 現在又能怎麼辦呢

  • tried to do anything about it,

    老一輩的人也就這麼過了 現在又能怎麼辦呢

  • a whole generation ago.

    他當著我的面說了這個 不知算好還算壞的消息

  • He broke the good/bad news in my face.

    "反正又沒有明文規定你不能開車"

  • "But there is no law banning you from driving."

    我抬起了頭,他說得對

  • I looked it up, and he was right.

    沙烏地阿拉伯並沒有這麼一條法律

  • There wasn't an actual law in Saudi Arabia.

    這不過是一個傳統在被神聖化之後 便成了一道不可違背的教令

  • It was just a custom and traditions

    這不過是一個傳統在被神聖化之後 便成了一道不可違背的教令

  • that are enshrined in rigid religious fatwas

    而且是「女性限定版」

  • and imposed on women.

    這個領悟促成了六月十七號的活動發想

  • That realization ignited the idea of June 17,

    我們鼓勵所有的女性在當天開車

  • where we encouraged women to take the wheel

    而且是開上街頭

  • and go drive.

    幾個禮拜之後 我們開始接到這類的警告

  • It was a few weeks later, we started receiving all these

    "妳要是開車出門 小心男性之狼找上妳"

  • "Man wolves will rape you if you go and drive."

    有位勇敢的女性 她的名字是 Najla Hariri

  • A courageous woman, her name is Najla Hariri,

    她住在沙烏地阿拉伯的吉達

  • she's a Saudi woman in the city of Jeddah,

    她公開表示自己開了車

  • she drove a car and she announced

    但她並沒有錄影下來

  • but she didn't record a video.

    我們需要有東西可以證實

  • We needed proof.

    所以我就開車出去 並且在 YouTube 上面上傳了一段影片

  • So I drove. I posted a video on YouTube.

    令我驚訝的是

  • And to my surprise,

    影片上傳的第一天就有上萬人點閱

  • it got hundreds of thousands of views the first day.

    可想而知接下來會發生什麼事呢?

  • What happened next, of course?

    我開始受到威脅跟恐嚇

  • I started receiving threats

    說他們要殺了我或強暴我 為的就是讓我不再進行這個活動

  • to be killed, raped, just to stop this campaign.

    當時沙國的相關當局一直保持沉默

  • The Saudi authorities remained very quiet.

    但我們反而越挫越勇

  • That really creeped us out.

    我與其他的一些行動主義份子 我們當中不乏女性或甚至男性參與

  • I was in the campaign with other Saudi women

    我與其他的一些行動主義份子 我們當中不乏女性或甚至男性參與

  • and even men activists.

    我們想要知道

  • We wanted to know how the authorities

    要是女人真的都開車出門 政府究竟會如何回應當天的行動

  • would respond on the actual day, June 17,

    要是女人真的都開車出門 政府究竟會如何回應當天的行動

  • when women go out and drive.

    所以我找了我的哥哥

  • So this time I asked my brother

    跟我一起 不過我們坐的是警車

  • to come with me and drive by a police car.

    一切都發生的如此迅速 我們先是被逮捕

  • It went fast. We were arrested,

    發誓不會再開車之後就被釋放

  • signed a pledge not to drive again, released.

    但很快又被抓了 他被拘留了一個晚上

  • Arrested again, he was sent to detention for one day,

    而我則是直接進了監牢

  • and I was sent to jail.

    其實我不太清楚我怎麼會被關起來的

  • I wasn't sure why I was sent there,

    因為在我被問訊的時候 並沒有任何的指控

  • because I didn't face any charges in the interrogation.

    但我可以肯定的是 我並沒有犯任何的罪

  • But what I was sure of was my innocence.

    我並沒有犯法 我的衣著也是符合規條的

  • I didn't break a law, and I kept my abaya

    就是沙烏地阿拉伯的女性出門 必須穿的一件黑色外衣

  • it's a black cloak we wear in Saudi Arabia before we leave the house

    跟我關在一起的人 不斷地叫我把它脫下來

  • and my fellow prisoners kept asking me to take it off,

    但我清楚知道自己是清白的 我只有不斷地說

  • but I was so sure of my innocence, I kept saying,

    "不, 我今天就可以離開這裡的"

  • "No, I'm leaving today."

    在監獄的外頭 全國上下都陷入了一陣狂熱

  • Outside the jail, the whole country went into a frenzy,

    有些人氣急敗壞地攻擊我

  • some attacking me badly,

    也有些支持我的人開始進行連署

  • and others supportive and even collecting signatures

    希望沙國國王可以釋放我

  • in a petition to be sent to the king to release me.

    九天之後我被放出來

  • I was released after nine days.

    到了六月十七號這一天

  • June 17 comes.

    街頭上到處都是警車

  • The streets were packed with police cars

    也有伊斯蘭教警車

  • and religious police cars,

    但仍是有上百名無懼的阿拉伯婦女

  • but some hundred brave Saudi women

    在那天打破了規條開車出門

  • broke the ban and drove that day.

    而且沒有一個人被捕 我們打破了這個禁忌

  • None were arrested. We broke the taboo.

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    所以我想到目前為止 各位都知道了我們不能開車出門

  • So I think by now, everyone knows that we can't drive,

    或者沙烏地阿拉伯的女性不能開車出門

  • or women are not allowed to drive, in Saudi Arabia,

    但或許沒幾個人知道到底為什麼

  • but maybe few know why.

    我想我可以為大家回答這個問題

  • Allow me to help you answer this question.

    有一份在沙國諮議會中 提出的官方研究報告

  • There was this official study

    有一份在沙國諮議會中 提出的官方研究報告

  • that was presented to the Shura Council --

    諮議會是由沙國國王欽定的

  • it's the consultative council appointed

    諮議會是由沙國國王欽定的

  • by the king in Saudi Arabia

    這個調查是由一位當地的教授完成的

  • and it was done by a local professor,

    他是位大學教授

  • a university professor.

    他表示這份研究報告 是參考一份聯合國文教會的報告寫成

  • He claims it's done based on a UNESCO study.

    而報告指出

  • And the study states,

    性侵事件、婚外情、私生子 甚至濫用藥物或賣淫的比例

  • the percentage of rape, adultery,

    性侵事件、婚外情、私生子 甚至濫用藥物或賣淫的比例

  • illegitimate children, even drug abuse,

    在女性可以開車的國家裡 比女性不能開車的國家還要高

  • prostitution in countries where women drive

    在女性可以開車的國家裡 比女性不能開車的國家還要高

  • is higher than countries where women don't drive.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    我知道 我也是不敢相信

  • I know, I was like this, I was shocked.

    我想:除了我們也沒有別的國家 女性是不能開車了啊

  • I was like, "We are the last country in the world

    我想:除了我們也沒有別的國家 女性是不能開車了啊

  • where women don't drive."

    所以如果你看這張世界地圖

  • So if you look at the map of the world,

    也就只有兩種國家

  • that only leaves two countries:

    沙烏地阿拉伯 跟世界上的其他國家

  • Saudi Arabia, and the other society is the rest of the world.

    我們在推特上發了一篇 嘲諷這個研究報告的文章

  • We started a hashtag on Twitter mocking the study,

    那篇文章上了國際頭版

  • and it made headlines around the world.

    [BBC新聞: 沙國宗教人士警告 "女性若開車恐貞節不保"]

  • [BBC News: 'End of virginity' if women drive, Saudi cleric warns]

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    我們也才驚覺

  • And only then we realized it's so empowering

    原來嘲諷對手 可以帶來這麼大的影響力

  • to mock your oppressor.

    因為那使他們的最後武器「恐懼」失效

  • It strips it away of its strongest weapon: fear.

    這整個制度是建立在 極端保守的傳統跟習俗上

  • This system is based on ultra-conservative

    這整個制度是建立在 極端保守的傳統跟習俗上

  • traditions and customs

    並視女性為次等的

  • that deal with women as if they are inferior

    女性也是需要被管束的

  • and they need a guardian to protect them,

    所以終其一生女性都必須受這規範管束

  • so they need to take permission from this guardian,

    無論那規範是成文還是不成文的

  • whether verbal or written, all their lives.

    哪怕到死女人的地位都是無舉足輕重的

  • We are minors until the day we die.

    一旦規範成了神聖的宗教規條 那情形就更加嚴重

  • And it becomes worse when it's enshrined in religious fatwas

    而且往往是錯誤地解讀了伊斯蘭教教法

  • based on wrong interpretation of the sharia law,

    或其他宗教法律

  • or the religious laws.

    最糟的是如果這些規條 進一步地被訂定成法律

  • What's worst, when they become codified

    最糟的是如果這些規條 進一步地被訂定成法律

  • as laws in the system,

    就連女性也相信自己是次等的

  • and when women themselves believe in their inferiority,

    還反對其他人對這些條例提出質疑

  • and they even fight those who try

    還反對其他人對這些條例提出質疑

  • to question these rules.

    所以對我來說 真正難的不是那些攻擊

  • So for me, it wasn't only about these attacks I had to face.

    而是要面對針對我個人 兩種完全截然不同的觀點

  • It was about living two totally different

    而是要面對針對我個人 兩種完全截然不同的觀點

  • perceptions of my personality, of my person --

    在我自己的國家裡 我被視為過街老鼠

  • the villain back in my home country,

    但是一旦離開了 卻又成了別人眼中的英雄

  • and the hero outside.

    就拿前兩年發生的兩個小插曲來說吧

  • Just to tell you, two stories happened in the last two years.

    其中一個是當我被關起來的時候

  • One of them is when I was in jail.

    我可以非常確定 當我被關的時候

  • I'm pretty sure when I was in jail,

    這是我被關的那九天裡 各大國際媒體版上的標題 (較正面)

  • everyone saw titles in the international media

    這是我被關的那九天裡 各大國際媒體版上的標題 (較正面)

  • something like this during these nine days I was in jail.

    但在我自己的國家裡 可就完全不是這麼一回事了

  • But in my home country, it was a totally different picture.

    比較多是這樣寫的

  • It was more like this:

    "Manal al-Sharif 被指控 擾亂公共秩序並煽動女性開車"

  • "Manal al-Sharif faces charges of disturbing public order

    "Manal al-Sharif 被指控 擾亂公共秩序並煽動女性開車"

  • and inciting women to drive."

    我不訝異

  • I know.

    "Manal al-Sharif 退出這波宣傳活動"

  • "Manal al-Sharif withdraws from the campaign."

    這也還好啦 下面這個是我最喜歡的

  • Ah, it's okay. This is my favorite.

    "Manal al-Sharif 崩潰並承認

  • "Manal al-Sharif breaks down and confesses:

    「我是受到其他國家指使的」"

  • 'Foreign forces incited me.'"

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    情勢越演越烈 甚至還公開受審跟受到鞭刑

  • And it goes on, even trial and flogging me in public.

    情況真的很不一樣

  • So it's a totally different picture.

    去年我受邀在奧斯陸的自由論壇上演講

  • I was asked last year to give a speech

    去年我受邀在奧斯陸的自由論壇上演講

  • at the Oslo Freedom Forum.

    我感受到從四面八方而來的愛跟支持

  • I was surrounded by this love

    我感受到從四面八方而來的愛跟支持

  • and the support of people around me,

    人們視我為一個正面的鼓勵

  • and they looked at me as an inspiration.

    但同個時間點 當我回到我自己的國家

  • At the same time, I flew back to my home country,

    他們簡直是痛恨我的那場演講

  • they hated that speech so much.

    他們說那是:對沙國國家跟人民的背叛之舉

  • The way they called it: a betrayal to the Saudi country

    他們說那是:對沙國國家跟人民的背叛之舉

  • and the Saudi people,

    他們甚至開始在推特上面下了一個 名為#奧斯陸叛國者的標題

  • and they even started a hashtag called #OsloTraitor on Twitter.

    大概有一萬多個人推了那個標題吧

  • Some 10,000 tweets were written in that hashtag,

    另外還有一個#奧斯陸英雄的標題

  • while the opposite hashtag, #OsloHero,

    推的人就寥寥無幾了

  • there was like a handful of tweets written.

    甚至還有人做了一個問卷調查

  • They even started a poll.

    有一萬三千多個人回覆了這個問卷

  • More than 13,000 voters answered this poll:

    問題是聽完我的演講後 他們認為我究竟是不是個叛國賊

  • whether they considered me a traitor or not after that speech.

    百分之九十的受訪者說 是, 她是是個叛國賊

  • Ninety percent said yes, she's a traitor.

    這就是我剛提到的針對我 兩種截然不同的觀點

  • So it's these two totally different perceptions

    這就是我剛提到的針對我 兩種截然不同的觀點

  • of my personality.

    對我來說 我以身為沙國婦女感到驕傲

  • For me, I'm a proud Saudi woman,

    我也深愛著我的國家

  • and I do love my country,

    也就是因為我愛我的國家 我才會這麼做

  • and because I love my country, I'm doing this.

    因為我相信如果一個社會中的女人沒有自由 那個社會就也不可能會自由

  • Because I believe a society will not be free

    因為我相信如果一個社會中的女人沒有自由 那個社會就也不可能會自由

  • if the women of that society are not free.

    (鼓掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    謝謝大家

  • Thank you.

    (鼓掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    謝謝, 謝謝

  • Thank you, thank you, thank you, thank you.

    (鼓掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    謝謝

  • Thank you.

    但你也是可以從這些事情中學到些東西

  • But you learn lessons from these things that happen to you.

    比方我學到要親自參與在當中

  • I learned to be always there.

    我從監獄裡出來之後做的第一件事

  • The first thing, I got out of jail,

    當然是先洗了個澡啦 我就立刻上網

  • of course after I took a shower, I went online,

    我連上我的推特帳戶跟臉書

  • I opened my Twitter account and my Facebook page,

    並且我學會保持尊重

  • and I've been always very respectful

    即使是面對那些批評我的人

  • to those people who are opining to me.

    我會去聽他們在說什麼

  • I would listen to what they say,

    我也不會光用言論來捍衛我自己

  • and I would never defend myself with words only.

    我會實際付出行動 當他們說我應該要退出的時候

  • I would use actions. When they said I should withdraw from the campaign,

    我對交警處提了第一個訴訟

  • I filed the first lawsuit against the general directorate

    因為他們不發駕照給我

  • of traffic police for not issuing me a driver's license.

    還有其他許多人

  • There are a lot of people also --

    都非常地支持我

  • very big support, like those 3,000 people

    就像那些連署要求釋放我的三千多個人

  • who signed the petition to release me.

    我們送了一份請願書給沙國諮議會

  • We sent a petition to the Shura Council

    希望沙國女性不能開車的禁令可以鬆綁

  • in favor of lifting the ban on Saudi women,

    總共有三千五百多位民眾 跟我們有一樣的信念

  • and there were, like, 3,500 citizens who believed in that

    他們加入了這個連署

  • and they signed that petition.

    其中還有些人 我這裡舉幾個例子

  • There were people like that, I just showed some examples,

    他們不光只是認同 沙烏地阿拉伯婦女所應當享有的權利

  • who are amazing, who are believing in women's rights in Saudi Arabia,

    甚至因為嘗試發聲或說出他們的觀點 而因此遭到不友善的對待

  • and trying, and they are also facing a lot of hate

    甚至因為嘗試發聲或說出他們的觀點 而因此遭到不友善的對待

  • because of speaking up and voicing their views.

    直到今天在提升婦女權益這塊 沙烏地阿拉伯確實有進步一點

  • Saudi Arabia today is taking small steps

    直到今天在提升婦女權益這塊 沙烏地阿拉伯確實有進步一點

  • toward enhancing women's rights.

    由沙國國王 Abdullah 所任命的諮議會

  • The Shura Council that's appointed by the king,

    由沙國國王 Abdullah 所任命的諮議會

  • by royal decree of King Abdullah,

    去年諮議會中有三十位女性議員

  • last year there were 30 women assigned to that Council,

    大約是百分之二十的比例

  • like 20 percent.

    佔了整個諮議會的百分之二十 (掌聲)

  • 20 percent of the Council. (Applause)

    在我們送交了女性開車的請願書 四次都被駁回之後

  • The same time, finally, that Council,

    在我們送交了女性開車的請願書 四次都被駁回之後

  • after rejecting our petition four times for women driving,

    去年的二月他們總算通過了

  • they finally accepted it last February.

    (掌聲)