Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Someone who looks like me walks past you in the street.

    當看見像我一樣的人走在路上,

  • Do you think they're a mother,

    你會想到她們是母親,

  • a refugee

    難民,

  • or a victim of oppression?

    又或者是某種壓迫的受害人?

  • Or do you think they're a cardiologist,

    又或者是心臟病學家,

  • a barrister

    律師,

  • or maybe your local politician?

    或是當地的政客?

  • Do you look me up and down,

    你從頭到尾的看我,

  • wondering how hot I must get

    在猜我會有多熱,

  • or if my husband has forced me to wear this outfit?

    是不是我的丈夫強迫我穿這套衣服?

  • What if I wore my scarf like this?

    如果我將圍巾圍成這樣呢?

  • I can walk down the street in the exact same outfit

    我穿著同樣的衣服走在街上,

  • and what the world expects of me and the way I'm treated

    這個世界對我有什麽期待和它怎麽對待我

  • depends on the arrangement of this piece of cloth.

    決定於我如何戴這條圍巾。

  • But this isn't going to be another monologue about the hijab

    不過這不是一場有關 穆斯林婦女頭巾的獨白,

  • because Lord knows, Muslim women are so much more than the piece of cloth

    因為上主知道, 穆斯林婦女不會受限於一塊

  • they choose, or not, to wrap their head in.

    她們選擇戴或不戴的頭巾。

  • This is about looking beyond your bias.

    這是關於超越你的偏見的。

  • What if I walked past you and later on

    如果我走過你身邊

  • you'd found out that actually I was a race car engineer,

    然後你發現我實際上是個賽車工程師,

  • and that I designed my own race car and I ran my university's race team,

    我設計自己的賽車, 我也組織了一支大學賽車隊,

  • because it's true.

    這是真的。

  • What if I told you that I was actually trained as a boxer for five years,

    如果我告訴你我是接受了 五年專業訓練的拳擊手呢?

  • because that's true, too.

    那也是真的。

  • Would it surprise you?

    你會嚇一跳嗎?

  • Why?

    為什麼?

  • Ladies and gentlemen, ultimately,

    各位女士先生,最終

  • that surprise and the behaviors associated with it

    這種驚奇和導致的行為都源自於

  • are the product of something called unconscious bias,

    所謂的潛意識偏見,

  • or implicit prejudice.

    或者叫隱涵的歧視。

  • And that results in the ridiculously detrimental

    結果是謊繆地且

  • lack of diversity in our workforce,

    有害地使我們的勞動力缺少多元性

  • particularly in areas of influence.

    特別是在有影響力的職位。

  • Hello, Australian Federal Cabinet.

    嗨!澳洲聯邦內閣。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Let me just set something out from the outset:

    讓我從頭開始說明:

  • Unconscious bias is not the same as conscious discrimination.

    潛意識偏見有別於有意識的歧視。

  • I'm not saying that in all of you, there's a secret sexist or racist

    我不是說你們中間潛伏著 秘密的性別歧視者,種族歧視者

  • or ageist lurking within, waiting to get out.

    或年齡歧視者, 正伺機逃走。

  • That's not what I'm saying.

    這並不是我要說的。

  • We all have our biases.

    我們都有偏見。

  • They're the filters through which we see the world around us.

    我們用它來過濾這個世界。

  • I'm not accusing anyone,

    我不是在譴責誰,

  • bias is not an accusation.

    偏見並不是一種罪名。

  • Rather, it's something that has to be identified,

    而是我們需要將它們指出來,

  • acknowledged and mitigated against.

    承認和改善。

  • Bias can be about race,

    偏見可以是種族的,

  • it can be about gender.

    也可以是性別的。

  • It can also be about class, education, disability.

    也可能是對階級、教育或傷殘的偏見。

  • The fact is, we all have biases against what's different,

    事實是,我們對於不同的事物

  • what's different to our social norms.

    以及不同於我們的社會規範都有偏見。

  • The thing is, if we want to live in a world

    重要的是,如果我們想生活在

  • where the circumstances of your birth

    一個你出生的環境

  • do not dictate your future

    不會主宰你的未來,而且我們每個人都會有平等的機會的世界,

  • and where equal opportunity is ubiquitous,

    不會主宰你的未來,而且我們每個人都會有平等的機會的世界,

  • then each and every one of us has a role to play

    那麼我們每一個人都需要扮演

  • in making sure unconscious bias does not determine our lives.

    一個確定潛意識偏見不再左右 我們的生命的角色。

  • There's this really famous experiment in the space of unconscious bias

    在潛意識偏見領域有一個 非常有名的實驗。

  • and that's in the space of gender in the 1970s and 1980s.

    那是在1970,1980年代所做的 有關性別歧視實驗。

  • So orchestras, back in the day, were made up mostly of dudes,

    在那個時代,交響樂團大都有男性組成,

  • up to only five percent were female.

    最多只有5%的女性。

  • And apparently, that was because men played it differently,

    顯然,人們都認為男性的技巧不同,

  • presumably better, presumably.

    大家都假定他們的技巧比較好, 大家如此假定。

  • But in 1952, The Boston Symphony Orchestra

    不過在1952年,波士頓交響樂團

  • started an experiment.

    開始了一個試驗。

  • They started blind auditions.

    他們開展了一次盲眼試聽來

  • So rather than face-to-face auditions, you would have to play behind a screen.

    取代面對面的方式, 應徵者在布幕後演奏。

  • Now funnily enough,

    有趣的是,

  • no immediate change was registered

    男女的錄取比率並沒有改變,

  • until they asked the audition-ers to take their shoes off

    直到他們要求應徵者

  • before they entered the room.

    在進場前脫鞋。

  • because the clickity-clack of the heels

    因為鞋跟踩在木地板的喀嗒聲

  • against the hardwood floors

    因為鞋跟踩在木地板的喀嗒聲

  • was enough to give the ladies away.

    透露了女士們的性別。

  • Now get this,

    你知道嗎,

  • there results of the audition showed

    試演的結果顯示,

  • that there was a 50 percent increased chance

    通過初選這一關的女性應徵者 增加了百分之五十,

  • a woman would progress past the preliminary stage.

    通過初選這一關的女性應徵者 增加了百分之五十,

  • And it almost tripled their chances of getting in.

    她們入選的機會差不多增加了三倍。

  • What does that tell us?

    這說明了什麼?

  • Well, unfortunately for the guys, men actually didn't play differently,

    不幸地,對男性而言, 他們的技巧沒有不一樣,

  • but there was the perception that they did.

    那只是大家對他們的看法而已。

  • And it was that bias that was determining their outcome.

    那種偏見決定了他們的錄取結果。

  • So what we're doing here is identifying and acknowledging

    我們要做的是找到並且承認

  • that a bias exists.

    這種偏見的存在。

  • And look, we all do it.

    我們都有這種偏見。

  • Let me give you an example.

    讓我給你一個例子。

  • A son and his father are in a horrible car accident.

    一對父子遭遇了一場交通意外。

  • The father dies on impact

    父親當場受傷死亡,

  • and the son, who's severely injured, is rushed to hospital.

    兒子也受重傷,並被送進了醫院

  • The surgeon looks at the son when they arrive and is like,

    手術醫生看見兒子被送到面前,

  • "I can't operate."

    說:「我不能做手術。」

  • Why?

    為什麼?

  • "The boy is my son."

    「因為他是我的兒子。」

  • How can that be?

    這怎麼可能呢?

  • Ladies and gentlemen,

    各位女士先生,

  • the surgeon is his mother.

    手術醫生其實是他的母親。

  • Now hands up -- and it's okay --

    請舉手 -- 沒關係 --

  • but hands up if you initially assumed the surgeon was a guy?

    如果你假設手術醫生是個男的,請舉手。

  • There's evidence that that unconscious bias exists,

    這就證明了潛意識偏見的存在,

  • but we all just have to acknowledge that it's there

    我們必須承認那個個偏見的存在

  • and then look at ways that we can move past it

    然後我們才會找方法去超越它,

  • so that we can look at solutions.

    這樣我們才可以找到解決方法。

  • Now one of the interesting things

    [限額還是不限?]

  • around the space of unconscious bias is the topic of quotas.

    在潛意識偏見的領域的 一個有趣的事是有關限額的討論。

  • And this something that's often brought up.

    這經常被拿出來討論,

  • And of of the criticisms is this idea of merit.

    其中一個反對的理由是能力的問題。

  • Look, I don't want to be picked because I'm a chick,

    我不要因為我是女性才被選上,

  • I want to be picked because I have merit,

    我要因為我的能力被選上,

  • because I'm the best person for the job.

    因為我是最適合這個工作的人。

  • It's a sentiment that's pretty common among female engineers

    有一個在和我一起工作的女性工程師 之間相當普遍的觀點,

  • that I work with and that I know.

    有一個在和我一起工作的女性工程師 之間相當普遍的觀點,

  • And yeah, I get it, I've been there.

    對,我理解它,因為我就在其中——

  • But, if the merit idea was true,

    如果能力的觀點是真的,

  • why would identical resumes, in an experiment done in 2012 by Yale,

    為什麼耶魯大學2012年的實驗中

  • identical resumes sent out for a lab technician,

    在同樣的應徵實驗室技術員的履歷表中,

  • why would Jennifers be deemed less competent,

    為什麼女性被視為比較不勝任,

  • be less likely to be offered the job,

    她們比較不可能得到這個工作,

  • and be paid less than Johns.

    她們比男性的薪水低?

  • The unconscious bias is there,

    那是因為潛意識的偏見的原因,

  • but we just have to look at how we can move past it.

    但我們只需要看如何能去除它。

  • And, you know, it's interesting,

    有趣的是,

  • there's some research that talks about

    一些研究提出為什麼會如此的理由

  • why this is the case and it's called the merit paradox.

    那就是能力悖論。

  • And in organizations -- and this is kind of ironic --

    在一些機構裡,這是一種諷刺——

  • in organizations that talk about merit being their primary value-driver

    那些說能力是他們雇用員工的 主要因素的機構——

  • in terms of who they hire,

    那些說能力是他們雇用員工的 主要因素的機構——

  • they were more likely to hire dudes and more likely to pay the guys more

    但他們更可能雇用男性, 並且付他們更高的薪水,

  • because apparently merit is a masculine quality.

    因為顯然他們所謂的能力是男性。

  • But, hey.

    不過,嗯,

  • So you guys think you've got a good read on me,

    所以你們覺得已經充分了解我了,

  • you kinda think you know what's up.

    你想你已經知道我要說什麼了。

  • Can you imagine me running one of these?

    你可以想像我在負責這個嗎?

  • Can you imagine me walking in and being like,

    你可以想像我走進來,說:

  • "Hey boys, this is what's up. This is how it's done."

    「嗨,男士們,這裡是這樣操作, 這兒是這樣做的。」

  • Well, I'm glad you can.

    好的,我很高興你可以想像到。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Because ladies and gentlemen, that's my day job.

    各位先生女士,這是我白天的工作。

  • And the cool thing about it is that it's pretty entertaining.

    更酷的是,那還是很具娛樂性的。

  • Actually, in places like Malaysia,

    實際上,一些像馬來西亞的地區,

  • Muslim women on rigs isn't even comment-worthy.

    操作鉆機的穆斯林婦女 並不稀奇。

  • There are that many of them.

    因為她們人數眾多。

  • But, it is entertaining.

    不過,那是很有趣的。

  • I remember, I was telling one of the guys,

    我記得曾告訴一位男士:

  • "Hey, mate, look, I really want to learn how to surf."

    「嗨,夥伴,我真的想要學衝浪。」

  • And he's like, "Yassmin, I don't know how you can surf

    他說:「雅士敏, 我不知道你如何 穿著那些衣服去衝浪,

  • with all that gear you've got on,

    他說:「雅士敏, 我不知道你如何 穿著那些衣著去衝浪,

  • and I don't know any women-only beaches."

    而且我也不知道哪裡有女性專用海灘。」

  • And then, the guy came up with a brilliant idea,

    然後,這個男士想到一個妙極的方法,

  • he was like, "I know, you run that organization

    他說:「對!你在負責那個

  • Youth Without Borders, right?

    叫做青春無國界的組織,不是嗎?

  • Why don't you start a clothing line for Muslim chicks in beaches.

    為什麼你不為穆斯林婦女 開發一個沙灘上穿的服裝系列,

  • You can call it Youth Without Boardshorts."

    就叫做’青春不衝浪‘好啦。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And I was like, "Thanks, guys."

    於是我回應:「謝謝,夥伴。」

  • And I remember another bloke telling me that

    我還記得另一個傢伙告訴我,

  • I should eat all the yogurt I could

    我應該食光所有的酸奶,

  • because that was the only culture I was going to get around there.

    因為那是我唯一可以在那裡找的特產了。

  • But, the problem is, it's kind of true

    問題是,好像真是這麽回事,

  • because there's an intense lack of diversity in our workforce,

    在我們的勞動力實在是嚴重缺乏多元性,

  • particularly in places of influence.

    尤其是在重要職位上。

  • Now, in 2010,

    2010年,

  • The Australian National University did an experiment

    澳洲國立大學做了一個實驗,

  • where they sent out 4,000 identical applications

    他們投出4000份同樣的申請

  • to entry level jobs, essentially.

    到初級水平的工作裡。

  • To get the same number of interviews as someone with an Anglo-Saxon name,

    以盎格魯-撒克遜人的名字申請, 可得到同等數量的面試機會,

  • if you were Chinese, you had to send out 68 percent more applications.

    可如果你是中國人, 你必須寄出額外68%的申請。

  • If you were Middle Eastern -- Abdel-Magied --

    如果你是中東人,比方说我,

  • you had to send out 64 percent,

    你必須寄出額外64%,

  • and if you're Italian, you're pretty lucky,

    如果你是義大利人,那你真夠幸運,

  • you only have to send out 12 percent more.

    你只需要寄出額外12%。

  • In places like Silicon Valley, it's not that much better.

    一些像是矽谷的地方也不會好很多,

  • In Google, they put out some diversity results

    Google拿出職工的種族佔比數據:

  • and 61 percent white, 30 percent Asian and nine, a bunch of blacks, Hispanics,

    61%白人,30%亞洲人和9%的黑人拉美人,

  • all that kind of thing.

    如此類推。

  • And the rest of the tech world is not that much better

    科技界也不見得更好。

  • and they've acknowledged it,

    他們也承認這個,

  • but I'm not really sure what they're doing about it.

    我不真正肯定他們在做什麽以改善這種狀況。

  • The thing is, it doesn't trickle up.

    事情並不是一蹴而就。

  • In a study done by Green Park,

    Green Park的研究顯示,

  • who are a British senior exec supplier,

    它是英國高級獵頭,

  • they said that over half of the FTSE 100 companies

    他們說超過一半進入富士100指數(富士集團編寫的倫交所100只最受歡迎的股票)的公司

  • don't have a nonwhite leader at their board level,

    不論是執行或非執行董事會,

  • executive or non-executive.

    全都是白人。

  • And two out of every three don't have an executive

    三分之二的公司中,

  • who's from a minority.

    沒有來自少數民族的總經理。

  • And most of the minorities that are at that sort of level

    大部分的做到較高層的來自少數民族的人,

  • are non-executive board directors.

    都只是非執行董事,

  • So their influence isn't that great.

    所以他們沒有很大的影響力。

  • I've told you a bunch of terrible things.

    我已經告訴你一大堆可怕的事情,

  • You're like, "Oh my god, how bad is that? What can I do about it?"

    你可能會想:“天啊!怎麼會這樣? 我可以做什麼?”

  • Well, fortunately,

    幸運的是,

  • we've identified that there's a problem.

    我們已經意識到這是個問題。

  • There's a lack of opportunity, and that's due to unconscious bias.

    因為潛意識偏見,造成了機會的缺失。

  • But you might be sitting there thinking,

    不過你可能會坐在一邊想

  • "I ain't brown. What's that got to do with me?"

    “我不是有色人種,這跟我有什麼關係?”

  • Let me offer you a solution.

    讓我告訴你一個解決方法。

  • And as I've said before,

    如之前所說,

  • we live in a world where we're looking for an ideal.

    我們生活在一個並不理想化的世界,

  • And if we want to create a world

    如果我們想創造一個

  • where the circumstances of your birth don't matter,

    我們不會受出生環境條件影響的世界,

  • we all have to be part of the solution.

    我們都需要作出努力。

  • And interestingly, the author of the lab resume experiment

    有趣的是,簡歷實驗的作者

  • offered some sort of a solution.

    提供一個解決方法。

  • She said the one thing that brought the successful women together,

    她說把成功的女性都聚集在一起的一樣事物,

  • the one thing that they had in common,

    她們都擁有的一樣事物,

  • was the fact that they had good mentors.

    是她們都有一個不錯的導師。

  • So mentoring, we've all kind of heard that before,

    導師,我們都聽過這個詞,

  • it's in the vernacular.

    通俗易懂。

  • Here's another challenge for you.

    這是另外一個給你的挑戰,

  • I challenge each and every one of you to mentor someone different.

    我會挑戰在座的每一位去指導幫助 一位不同的人。

  • Think about it.

    請想一想。

  • Everyone wants to mentor someone who kind of is familiar,

    每一個人想指導自己熟悉的人。

  • who looks like us,

    那些長得與我們相像的人,

  • we have shared experiences.

    我們有同樣的經歷。

  • If I see a Muslim chick who's got a bit of attitude,

    如果我看見一個悶悶不樂的穆斯林女生

  • I'm like, "What's up? We can hang out."

    我會說“發生什麼了?我們出去聊聊吧!”

  • You walk into a room and there's someone who went to the same school,

    你走進一個房間, 那裡有和你同一所學校的人,

  • you play the same sports,

    和你在做一樣的體育運動,

  • there's a high chance that you're going to want to help that person out.

    你會更樂意去幫助他。

  • But for the person in the room who has no shared experiences with you

    但對於房間裡的陌生人,沒有同樣經歷,

  • it becomes extremely difficult to find that connection.

    那麼你不會想要幫助他。

  • The idea of finding someone different to mentor,

    去幫助一個與你不同的人,

  • someone who doesn't come from the same background as you,

    與你背景不一樣的人——

  • whatever that background is,

    就算是任何背景——

  • is about opening doors for people who couldn't even get

    就跟想要那些緊閉心門的人 敞開心扉一樣。

  • to the damn hallway.

    就跟想要那些緊閉心門的人 敞開心扉一樣。

  • Because ladies and gentlemen, the world is not just.

    因為,各位先生女士, 世界並不平等。

  • People are not born with equal opportunity.

    人不是生而就有平等機會。

  • I was born in one of the poorest cities in the world, Khartoum.

    我出生在世界上其中一個最窮的城市 - 喀土木(蘇丹首都)。

  • I was born brown, I was born female,

    我有咖啡色皮膚,生為女性, 生為一個穆斯林,

  • and I was born Muslim in a world that is pretty suspicious of us

    生活在這個出於一些我不能控制的原因 而使人們對我們充滿懷疑的世界上。

  • for reasons I can't control.

    生活在這個出於一些我不能控制的原因 而使人們對我們充滿懷疑的世界上。

  • However, I also acknowledge the fact that I was born with privilege.

    無論如何,我也必須承認一個事實, 我出生就帶有特權。

  • I was born with amazing parents,

    我有一對超棒的父母,

  • I was given an education

    我有機會接受教育,

  • and had the blessing of migrating to Australia.

    有機會移民到澳洲的福利。

  • But also, I've been blessed with amazing mentors

    我有幸能有一些出色的導師,

  • who've opened doors for me that I didn't even know were there.

    一些為我打開了一些未知的門。

  • A mentor who said to me,

    一位老師告訴我,

  • "Hey, your story's interesting.

    “嗨,你的故事很有趣。