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  • Far beneath the palace of the treacherous King Minos,

    在陰險米諾斯國王宮殿的地底深處

  • in the damp darkness of an inescapable labyrinth,

    一個潮溼黑暗、難以逃脫的迷宮中

  • a horrific beast stalks the endless corridors of its prison,

    一隻恐怖的怪獸怒氣沖沖徘徊在無盡的監獄走廊中

  • enraged with a bloodlust so intense that its deafening roar shakes the Earth.

    它充滿狂怒殺氣,發出震耳欲聾的怒吼震撼地球

  • It is easy to see why the Minotaur myth has a long history

    不難理解為什麼米諾陶爾神話長久以來

  • of being disregarded as pure fiction.

    被認為是純屬虛構

  • However, there's a good chance that the Minotaur

    但是,現在有機會讓米諾陶爾

  • and other monsters and gods were created by our early ancestors

    還有我們祖先所創造出的其他怪獸和神

  • to rationalize the terrifying things that they saw in the natural world

    能合理解說祖先們在自然界中看到恐怖

  • but did not understand.

    又無法解釋的事物

  • And while we can't explain every aspect of their stories,

    當我們無法解釋故事的每個部份時

  • there may be some actual science that reveals itself when we dissect them for clues.

    或許我們分析現行科學的線索,一切便昭然若揭

  • So, as far as we know, there have never been human-bull hybrids.

    就我們所知,迄今尚未有人牛混血生物存在

  • But the earliest material written about the Minotaur

    但最早有關米諾陶爾的記載

  • doesn't even mention its physical form.

    甚至根本未提及其外貌

  • So that's probably not the key part of the story.

    所以,那可能不是故事的核心部分

  • What the different tellings do agree upon, however,

    然而所有故事的版本都同意

  • is that the beast lives underground,

    那隻怪獸生活在地下

  • and when it bellows, it causes tremendous problems.

    當它吼叫時,會引起極度嚴重的問題

  • The various myths are also specific in stating that genius inventor Daedalus,

    不同版本的神話也都詳盡地描述了天才發明家 Daedalus

  • carved out the labyrinth beneath the island of Crete.

    創造了克里特島地底下的迷宮

  • Archeological attempts to find the fabled maze

    考古學家試圖找出神話中的迷宮

  • have come up empty handed.

    結果一無所獲

  • But Crete itself has yielded the most valuable clue of all in the form of seismic activity.

    但克里特島本身以地震的形式,提供了最有價值的線索

  • Crete sits on a piece of continental crust called the Aegean Block,

    克里特島坐落在一塊稱為「愛琴板塊」的大陸地殼上

  • and has a bit of oceanic crust known as the Nubian Block

    以及在一塊名為「努比亞板塊」的海洋地殼之一小部分

  • sliding right beneath it.

    它正好滑在那大陸地殼的下方

  • This sort of geologic feature, called a subduction zone,

    這種地形稱為「隱沒帶」

  • is common all over the world and results in lots of earthquakes.

    在全球都很常見,並且會造成許多的地震

  • However, in Crete the situation is particularly volatile

    然而,在克里特島地震特別容易發生

  • as the Nubian Block is attached

    因為努比亞板塊附在

  • to the massive buoyant continental crust that is Africa.

    巨大漂浮的非洲大陸地殼上

  • When the Nubian Block moves,

    當努比亞板塊移動時

  • it does not go down nearly as easily or as steeply

    它無法輕易陡峭地下滑

  • as oceanic crust does in most other subduction zones.

    如同其他隱沒帶的海洋地殼一樣

  • Instead, it violently and abruptly forces sections of the Mediterranean upwards

    相反地,它突然且猛烈的力量反而把地中海區塊向上推升

  • in an event called uplift,

    稱為「地殼隆起」

  • and Crete is in uplift central.

    而克里特島剛好在隆起的中心

  • In the year 2014, Crete had more than 1300 earthquakes

    2014 年,克里特島發生了超過 1300 次地震

  • of magnitude 2.0 or higher.

    規模至少二級

  • By comparison, in the same period of time,

    同期比較

  • Southern California, a much larger area, experienced a mere 255 earthquakes.

    比它大很多的南加州只發生 255 次地震

  • Of course, we don't have detailed seismic records from the days of King Minos,

    當然,我們沒有米諾斯國王時期詳細的地震記錄

  • but we do know from fossil records and geologic evidence

    但我們確實可以從化石與地質的證據瞭解

  • that Crete has experienced serious uplift events

    克里特島經歷多次重大的地殼隆起

  • that sometimes exceeded 30 feet in a single moment.

    有時一次就隆起超過 30 英尺

  • Contrast this for a moment with the island of Hawaii,

    來和夏威夷島比較一下

  • where earthquakes and volcanic activity

    夏威夷島的地震和火山活動

  • were tightly woven to legends surrounding Pele,

    是和貝蕾的神話緊連在一起

  • a goddess both fiery and fair.

    貝蕾是個既暴躁卻美麗的女神

  • Like the Minotaur, her myths included tales of destruction,

    就像米諾陶爾,她的神話包含了毀滅的故事

  • but they also contained elements of dance and creation.

    但也包含了舞蹈和創造

  • So why did Hawaii end up with Pele and Crete end up with the Minotaur?

    為什麽夏威夷和貝蕾相連,而克里特島和米諾陶爾相連?

  • The difference likely comes down

    之間的不同可能歸結於

  • to the lava that followed many of Hawaii's worst earthquakes.

    夏威夷島多次劇震所流出的岩漿

  • The lava on Hawaii is made of basalt, which once cooled, is highly fertile.

    夏威夷的岩漿由玄武岩組成,一旦冷卻,會非常肥沃

  • Within a couple of decades of terrible eruptions,

    在多次劇烈火山爆發的數十年內

  • Islanders would have seen vibrant green life thriving

    島民看到了生機勃勃的綠色植物茂密地長在

  • on new peninsulas made of lava.

    由岩漿構成的新半島上

  • So it makes sense that the mythology captured this

    因此神話是有道理的,依據以上現象

  • by portraying Pele as creator as well as a destroyer.

    描述了貝蕾身兼創造者與毀滅者

  • As for the people of Crete,

    對克里特島人民而言

  • their earthquakes brought only destruction and barren lands,

    地震只會帶來毀滅與貧瘠土地

  • so perhaps for them, the unnatural and deadly Minotaur was born.

    也許因此殘暴又具破壞性的米諾陶爾應運而生

  • The connections between mythical stories and the geology of the regions where they originated

    神話故事與故事起源地的地質情況之間的關係

  • teach us that mythology and science are actually two sides of the same coin.

    告訴我們神話與科學事實上是一體兩面的

  • Both are rooted in explaining and understanding the world.

    兩者都是用來解釋與瞭解這個世界

  • The key difference is that where mythology uses gods, monsters and magic,

    關鍵差別在於,神話是使用神、怪獸與魔法

  • science uses measurements, records and experiments.

    而科學是使用測量、紀錄與實驗

Far beneath the palace of the treacherous King Minos,

在陰險米諾斯國王宮殿的地底深處

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 地殼 地震 神話 板塊 岩漿

【TED-Ed】米諾陶爾的科學起源 (The scientific origins of the Minotaur - Matt Kaplan)

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    Ann 發佈於 2016 年 02 月 09 日
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