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  • My journey to become a polar specialist,

    我成為極地專家

  • photographing, specializing in the polar regions,

    專門在極地區域攝影的經歷

  • began when I was four years old,

    是從我四歲時開始

  • when my family moved from Southern Canada

    那時我家從加拿大南部

  • to Northern Baffin Island, up by Greenland.

    搬到北部的巴芬島,毗鄰格陵蘭島

  • There we lived with the Inuit

    在那兒我們與因紐特人住在一起

  • in the tiny Inuit community of 200 Inuit people,

    在僅有200人的小小因紐特人社區中

  • where [we] were one of three non-Inuit families.

    有三戶非因紐特家庭,我們是其中之一

  • And in this community, we didn't have a television;

    在這個社區裡,我們沒有電視

  • we didn't have computers, obviously, radio.

    沒有電腦,當然也沒有無線電

  • We didn't even have a telephone.

    甚至電話也沒有

  • All of my time was spent outside

    我所有的時間都花在戶外

  • with the Inuit, playing.

    和因紐特人一起玩耍

  • The snow and the ice were my sandbox,

    冰雪是我的沙坑

  • and the Inuit were my teachers.

    因紐特人是我的老師

  • And that's where I became

    在那裡,我真正地

  • truly obsessed with this polar realm.

    迷上了這個極地王國

  • And I knew someday that I was going to do something

    我知道,有一天我會做一些事情

  • that had to do with trying to share news about it

    去分享關於這塊土地的新鮮事

  • and protect it.

    以及保護它。

  • I'd like to share with you, for just two minutes only,

    我想花大概兩分鐘的時間

  • some images, a cross-section of my work,

    透過一些圖片,讓各位來瞭解我的工作

  • to the beautiful music by Brandi Carlile, "Have You Ever."

    伴著Brandi Carlile優美的音樂《Have You Ever》

  • I don't know why National Geographic has done this, they've never done this before,

    我不知道國家地理頻道為何這麼做,他們從未這麼做過

  • but they're allowing me to show you a few images

    他們允許我向你們展示

  • from a coverage that I've just completed that is not published yet.

    我剛剛完成但尚未發表的新聞報導裡的照片

  • National Geographic doesn't do this,

    國家地理頻道通常不會這樣做

  • so I'm very excited to be able to share this with you.

    我很高興,能與你們分享這些照片

  • And what these images are --

    那麼這是些什麼樣的照片呢?

  • you'll see them at the start of the slide show -- there's only about four images --

    你會在幻燈片開頭看到它們,大約只有四張照片

  • but it's of a little bear that lives in the Great Bear Rainforest.

    拍的是住在大熊雨林的一隻小熊

  • It's pure white, but it's not a polar bear.

    牠的毛色雖然純白,但牠不是北極熊

  • It's a spirit bear, or a Kermode bear.

    牠是白靈熊或克莫德熊

  • There are only 200 of these bears left.

    現在這種熊只剩下約200隻

  • They're more rare than the panda bear.

    比貓熊還稀有

  • I sat there on the river for two months without seeing one.

    我在河面上待了兩個月沒有看見一隻

  • I thought, my career's over.

    我以為,我的職業生涯完了

  • I proposed this stupid story to National Geographic.

    我向《National Geographic》雜誌提議這個愚蠢的故事

  • What in the heck was I thinking?

    我到底在想什麽啊?

  • So I had two months to sit there

    於是我有兩個月的時間坐在那兒

  • and figure out different ways of what I was going to do in my next life,

    弄清楚我接下來的日子該做點什麽別的事情

  • after I was a photographer, because they were going to fire me.

    因為我是一名攝影師,因為他們將要解雇我

  • Because National Geographic is a magazine; they remind us all the time:

    因為《National Geographic》是一本雜誌,他們始終提醒我們

  • they publish pictures, not excuses.

    他們刊登照片,而非藉口

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • And after two months of sitting there --

    在那兒坐了兩個月之後

  • one day, thinking that it was all over,

    有一天,我想著這一切都完了

  • this incredible big white male came down,

    這隻不可思議的大白公熊下來了

  • right beside me, three feet away from me,

    在我右側,三英尺遠的地方

  • and he went down and grabbed a fish and went off in the forest and ate it.

    牠下到水裡,抓起一條魚,回到森林裡把魚吃了

  • And then I spent the entire day living my childhood dream

    於是我花了一整天過我童年時夢想的生活

  • of walking around with this bear through the forest.

    我跟著這隻熊穿過森林

  • He went through this old-growth forest

    牠穿過這片老熟林

  • and sat up beside this 400-year-old culturally modified tree and went to sleep.

    然後坐在這棵有400年歷史的文化改造樹邊睡著了

  • And I actually got to sleep within three feet of him,

    我真的在離牠三英尺的地方睡著了

  • just in the forest, and photograph him.

    就在森林裡,拍攝牠

  • So I'm very excited to be able to show you those images

    所以我很高興能向你們展示這些照片

  • and a cross-section of my work that I've done on the polar regions.

    以及我在極地所做的工作

  • Please enjoy.

    希望你們喜歡

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • Brandi Carlile: ♫ Have you ever wandered lonely through the woods? ♫

    Brandi Carlile: ♫你是否曾獨自遊蕩在森林裡?♫

  • And everything there feels just as it should

    ♫一切都是本來的摸樣♫

  • You're part of the life there

    ♫你是其中的一份子♫

  • You're part of something good

    ♫你是美好事物的一部份

  • If you've ever wandered lonely through the woods

    ♫如果你曾獨自遊蕩在森林♫

  • Ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh

    ♫喔~♫

  • If you've ever wandered lonely through the woods

    ♫如果你曾獨自遊蕩在森林裡♫

  • Have you ever stared into a starry sky? ♫

    ♫你是否曾仰望星空?♫

  • Lying on your back, you're asking why

    ♫仰臥在地,你有許多疑問♫

  • What's the purpose? ♫

    ♫生命的目的是什麽?♫

  • ♫ I wonder, who am I? ♫

    ♫我想知道,我是誰?♫

  • If you've ever stared into a starry sky

    ♫如果你曾仰望星空♫

  • Ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh

    ♫喔~♫

  • Aah, ah, aah

    ♫啊~♫

  • Ah, oh, oh, ah, ah, oh, oh

    ♫啊~喔~♫

  • Have you ever stared into a starry sky? ♫

    ♫你是否曾仰望星空?♫

  • Have you ever been out walking in the snow? ♫

    ♫你是否曾在雪地漫步?♫

  • Tried to get back where you were before

    ♫嘗試回到你的故鄉♫

  • You always end up

    ♫你總是不知道♫

  • Not knowing where to go

    ♫該去何處♫

  • If you've ever been out walking in the snow

    ♫如果你曾在雪地漫步♫

  • Ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh

    ♫喔~♫

  • Aah, ah, aah, ah, aah

    ♫啊~♫

  • Ah, ah, oh, ah, ah, oh, ah

    ♫啊~喔~♫

  • Oh, ah, ah, ah

    ♫喔~啊~♫

  • Ah, ah, oh, ah, ah, oh, oh

    ♫啊~喔~♫

  • If you'd ever been out walking you would know

    ♫如果你曾外出漫步,你會明了♫

  • (Applause)

    (鼓掌)

  • Paul Nicklen: Thank you very much. The show's not over.

    Paul Nicklen:非常感謝,演講還沒結束

  • My clock is ticking. Okay, let's stop.

    我的時間不多。好,咱們停一下。

  • Thank you very much. I appreciate it.

    謝謝,我很感激。

  • We're inundated with news all the time

    我們總是被這樣的新聞淹沒

  • that the sea ice is disappearing

    海洋冰層正在消失

  • and it's at its lowest level.

    已經降到最低水平了

  • And in fact, scientists were originally saying

    事實上,科學家們起初是說

  • sea ice is going to disappear in the next hundred years, then they said 50 years.

    海洋冰層將在未來的一百年消失,接著他們說50年

  • Now they're saying the sea ice in the Arctic,

    現在他們說北極的海洋冰層

  • the summertime extent is going to be gone in the next four to 10 years.

    夏季區域的冰層將在未來四到十年內消失

  • And what does that mean?

    這是什麽意思呢?

  • After a while of reading this in the news, it just becomes news.

    在讀了一陣子相關新聞後,這些也僅僅只是新聞而已

  • You glaze over with it.

    你變得對這樣的消息習以為常

  • And what I'm trying to do with my work is put faces to this.

    我正試著透過自己的工作讓人們瞭解這一點

  • And I want people to understand and get the concept

    我希望人們能夠理解並得到一個概念

  • that, if we lose ice,

    如果我們失去海洋冰層

  • we stand to lose an entire ecosystem.

    我們肯定會失去整個生態系統

  • Projections are that we could lose polar bears; they could become extinct

    預估我們可能會失去北極熊,在未來的50到100年

  • in the next 50 to 100 years.

    牠們會絕種

  • And there's no better, sexier,

    再也沒有更好、更讓人動心

  • more beautiful, charismatic megafauna species

    更美又魅力十足的巨型物種

  • for me to hang my campaign on.

    讓我可以繼續探索

  • Polar bears are amazing hunters.

    北極熊是神奇的獵人

  • This was a bear I sat with for a while on the shores.

    這隻熊和我一起在海邊坐了一會兒

  • There was no ice around.

    周圍沒有冰

  • But this glacier caved into the water and a seal got on it.

    但有一塊冰川陷在水中,上面有隻海豹,

  • And this bear swam out to that seal --

    這隻熊游向那隻海豹--

  • 800 lb. bearded seal --

    800磅重的鬍鬚海豹--

  • grabbed it, swam back and ate it.

    牠抓住海豹,游回來把海豹吃了

  • And he was so full, he was so happy and so fat eating this seal,

    牠那麼滿足,那麼開心,大口地吃著海豹

  • that, as I approached him --

    當我接近牠--

  • about 20 feet away -- to get this picture,

    約20英尺遠--拍照時

  • his only defense was to keep eating more seal.

    牠唯一的防衛就是繼續吃海豹

  • And as he ate, he was so full --

    牠吃的時候那麼滿足--

  • he probably had about 200 lbs of meat in his belly --

    牠的胃裡大概有200磅肉了--

  • and as he ate inside one side of his mouth,

    牠用嘴的一邊吃的同時

  • he was regurgitating out the other side of his mouth.

    用另一邊反芻

  • So as long as these bears have any bit of ice they will survive,

    這些熊只需要少量的冰層就能存活

  • but it's the ice that's disappearing.

    但冰層正在消失

  • We're finding more and more dead bears in the Arctic.

    我們在北極發現越來越多的死熊

  • When I worked on polar bears as a biologist 20 years ago,

    20年前我作為生物學家研究北極熊時

  • we never found dead bears.

    我們從未發現死熊

  • And in the last four or five years,

    最近四五年

  • we're finding dead bears popping up all over the place.

    我們發現所有地方都有死熊出現

  • We're seeing them in the Beaufort Sea,

    我們在波弗特海看到牠們

  • floating in the open ocean where the ice has melted out.

    浮在冰塊融化殆盡的海面上

  • I found a couple in Norway last year. We're seeing them on the ice.

    去年我在挪威發現一對熊夫妻,他們死在冰上

  • These bears are already showing signs

    這些死熊已經讓我們感到

  • of the stress of disappearing ice.

    冰層消失的壓力

  • Here's a mother and her two year-old cub

    這是一隻母熊和她兩歲大的幼熊

  • were traveling on a ship a hundred miles offshore in the middle of nowhere,

    正在一塊離岸一百哩的浮冰上走動

  • and they're riding on this big piece of glacier ice,

    牠們在這一大塊浮冰上

  • which is great for them; they're safe at this point.

    這對牠們來說太好了,待在那兒很安全

  • They're not going to die of hypothermia.

    牠們不會因為體溫低而死去

  • They're going to get to land.

    牠們會往陸地移動

  • But unfortunately, 95 percent of the glaciers in the Arctic

    不幸的是,北極有95%的冰川

  • are also receding right now

    正在消失融化

  • to the point that the ice is ending up on land

    接近陸地的冰層也幾乎要消失

  • and not injecting any ice back into the ecosystem.

    也沒有任何冰重新回到生態系統中

  • These ringed seals, these are the "fatsicles" of the Arctic.

    這些環斑海豹,他們是北極的“蛋捲冰淇淋”。

  • These little, fat dumplings,

    這些又小又胖的水餃

  • 150-pound bundles of blubber

    有150磅的鯨脂

  • are the mainstay of the polar bear.

    是北極熊的主要食物

  • And they're not like the harbor seals that you have here.

    他們不像這裡的麻斑海豹

  • These ringed seals also live out their entire life cycle

    這些環斑海豹的整個生命週期

  • associated and connected to sea ice.

    都跟海洋冰層息息相關

  • They give birth inside the ice,

    他們在冰裡出生

  • and they feed on the Arctic cod that live under the ice.

    以生活在冰下的北極鱈魚為食

  • And here's a picture of sick ice.

    這是一張冰的照片

  • This is a piece of multi-year ice that's 12 years old.

    這是一塊12年的多年冰

  • And what scientists didn't predict is that, as this ice melts,

    科學家們沒有預料到,當冰塊融化時

  • these big pockets of black water are forming

    同時也形成了大量污水

  • and they're grabbing the sun's energy

    汙水會吸收太陽能

  • and accelerating the melting process.

    然後加速冰層融化

  • And here we are diving in the Beaufort Sea.

    這裡我們潛入波弗特海

  • The visibility's 600 ft.; we're on our safety lines;

    能見度為600英尺;我們在安全繩索上

  • the ice is moving all over the place.

    冰塊在我們周圍移動

  • I wish I could spend half an hour telling you

    我希望可以花一個半小時來告訴你

  • about how we almost died on this dive.

    我們是如何差點死於潛水的

  • But what's important in this picture is that you have a piece of multi-year ice,

    但這張照片的重點是一塊多年冰

  • that big chunk of ice up in the corner.

    上面角落裡那一大塊冰

  • In that one single piece of ice,

    在這樣一塊的冰裡

  • you have 300 species of microorganisms.

    包含300種微生物

  • And in the spring, when the sun returns to the ice,

    春天時,當太陽照耀冰塊時

  • it forms the phytoplankton, grows under that ice,

    浮游植物聚集在此,在冰塊底部生長

  • and then you get bigger sheets of seaweed,

    會長成一大片海草

  • and then you get the zoo plankton feeding on all that life.

    然後你會看到一個以這片海草為生的動物樂園

  • So really what the ice does

    那麼冰層實際上

  • is it acts like a garden.

    就像一座花園

  • It acts like the soil in a garden. It's an inverted garden.

    像是花園裡的土壤,這是一座倒立的花園

  • Losing that ice is like losing the soil in a garden.

    失去冰,就像失去了花園裡的土壤

  • Here's me in my office.

    這是我在我的辦公室

  • I hope you appreciate yours.

    希望你們珍惜自己的辦公室

  • This is after an hour under the ice.

    這是在冰下待了一個小時之後

  • I can't feel my lips; my face is frozen;

    我的嘴唇失去知覺,臉都凍僵了

  • I can't feel my hands; I can't feel my feet.

    我的手和腳也沒有感覺

  • And I've come up, and all I wanted to do was get out of the water.

    我已經上來了,我只想離開冰冷的水

  • After an hour in these conditions,

    這種狀況持續一小時後

  • it's so extreme that, when I go down,

    我已經凍僵,在水下

  • almost every dive I vomit into my regulator

    幾乎每次潛水,我都會把調節器吐出來

  • because my body can't deal with the stress of the cold on my head.

    因為我的身體無法承受頭部冰冷的壓力

  • And so I'm just so happy that the dive is over.

    所以我好高興潛水終於結束了

  • I get to hand my camera to my assistant,

    我把照相機遞給助理

  • and I'm looking up at him, and I'm going, "Woo. Woo. Woo."

    我抬頭看著他,我說:「呼,呼,呼。」

  • Which means, "Take my camera."

    意思是,「拿著照相機。」

  • And he thinks I'm saying, "Take my picture."

    他以為我在說:「給我照張相。」

  • So we had this little communication breakdown.

    於是我們有了這個小小的溝通障礙

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • But it's worth it.

    但這一切很值得

  • I'm going to show you pictures of beluga whales, bowhead whales,

    我會給你們看白鯨,北極露脊鯨

  • and narwhals, and polar bears, and leopard seals today,

    獨角鯨、北極熊和豹斑海豹

  • but this picture right here means more to me than any other I've ever made.

    但這些照片對我的意義比對其他看過照片的人更大

  • I dropped down in this ice hole, just through that hole that you just saw,

    我跳進冰窟隆,就是剛才你們看到的那個洞

  • and I looked up under the underside of the ice,

    我仰視冰層的底部

  • and I was dizzy; I thought I had vertigo.

    我暈眩了,以為自己出現幻覺

  • I got very nervous -- no rope, no safety line,

    我非常緊張--沒有粗繩,沒有安全繩索

  • the whole world is moving around me --

    整個世界在我周圍移動--

  • and I thought, "I'm in trouble."

    我想:「有麻煩了。」

  • But what happened is that the entire underside

    但是整個水下

  • was full of these billions of amphipods and copepods

    充滿了成千上萬端足目動物和橈足類

  • moving around and feeding on the underside of the ice,

    四處游動,在冰層底部覓食

  • giving birth and living out their entire life cycle.

    繁殖,經歷他們整個的生命週期

  • This is the foundation of the whole food chain in the Arctic, right here.

    北極圈完整的食物鏈的基礎,就在這兒

  • And when you have low productivity in this, in ice,

    當冰層的生命力減弱時

  • the productivity in copepods go down.

    橈足類動物的生命力也在減弱

  • This is a bowhead whale.

    這是北極露脊鯨

  • Supposedly, science is stating

    按照推測,科學研究說明

  • that it could be the oldest living animal on earth right now.

    牠是地球上迄今為止最長壽的動物

  • This very whale right here could be over 250 years old.

    這隻貨真價實的鯨已經超過250歲了

  • This whale could have been born

    牠大概出生在

  • around the start of the Industrial Revolution.

    工業革命初期

  • It could have survived 150 years of whaling.

    牠自150年以來的捕鯨活動中幸存下來

  • And now its biggest threat is the disappearance of ice in the North

    現在牠最大的威脅就是北部冰層的消失

  • because of the lives that we're leading in the South.

    原因是我們在南方所造就的生活方式

  • Narwhals, these majestic narwhals

    獨角鯨,這些雄偉的獨角鯨

  • with their eight-foot long ivory tusks, don't have to be here;

    牠們有八英尺長的乳白色獠牙,牠們不一定要待在這兒

  • they could be out on the open water.

    牠們可以去開闊的海域

  • But they're forcing themselves to come up in these tiny little ice holes

    但是牠們強迫自己待在這些小小的冰窟隆裡

  • where they can breathe, catch a breath,

    只有在這兒它們才能呼吸,喘口氣

  • because right under that ice are all the swarms of cod.

    因為冰下有成群的鱈魚

  • And the cod are there

    鱈魚在冰下

  • because they are feeding on all the copepods and amphipods.

    因為這裡有橈足類和端足目動物可以覓食

  • Alright, my favorite part.

    好,我最喜歡部分來了

  • When I'm on my deathbed,

    當我臨終時,

  • I'm going to remember one story more than any other.

    有一個故事我會記的特別清楚

  • Even though that spirit bear moment was powerful,

    儘管遭遇白靈熊的那一刻讓我印象深刻

  • I don't think I'll ever have another experience

    但我不會再有另一次

  • like I did with these leopard seals.

    和這些豹斑海豹這樣互動的經驗了

  • Leopard seals, since the time of Shackleton, have had a bad reputation.

    豹斑海豹,自沙克爾頓那時起,就有不好的名聲

  • They've got that wryly smile on their mouth.

    牠們嘴上帶著扭曲的微笑

  • They've got those black sinister eyes

    牠們有黑色兇狠的眼睛

  • and those spots on their body.

    和身體上的斑點

  • They look positively prehistoric and a bit scary.

    牠們看上去顯然是史前動物,還有點嚇人

  • And tragically in [2003],

    在悲慘的2004年

  • a scientist was taken down and drowned,

    一位科學家被海豹拉進水裡淹死

  • and she was being consumed by a leopard seal.

    一隻豹斑海豹正在吃她

  • And people were like, "We knew they were vicious. We knew they were."

    人們會說:「我們就知道牠們很兇狠,牠們就是這樣的。」

  • And so people love to form their opinions.

    所以人們很喜歡建構自己的觀點

  • And that's when I got a story idea:

    那是我產生這個故事靈感的時候:

  • I want to go to Antarctica,

    我要去南極洲

    </