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  • Over the next five minutes,

    在接下來的五分鐘裡

  • my intention is to transform your relationship with sound.

    我將改變你們對聲音的看法

  • Let me start with the observation that most of the sound around us is accidental,

    我觀察到在我們四週的聲音通常都是偶然產生的

  • and much of it is unpleasant. (Traffic noise)

    而且大部分是不悅耳的(交通噪音)

  • We stand on street corners, shouting over noise like this,

    當我們站在街角,在這些噪音之下大聲談話

  • and pretending that it doesn't exist.

    然後還假裝噪音並不存在

  • Well, this habit of suppressing sound has meant that our

    嗯,這種壓抑聲音的習慣

  • relationship with sound has become largely unconscious.

    讓我們對於週遭的聲音漠不關心

  • There are four major ways sound is affecting you all the time,

    聲音會對我們產生四種影響

  • and I'd like to raise them in your consciousness today.

    我想藉由今天的機會分享給大家

  • First is physiological. (Loud alarm clocks)

    首先是生理上的影響(警鈴聲)

  • Sorry about that. I've just given you a shot of cortisol, your fight/flight hormone.

    很抱歉,我剛才為你們注射了一劑可體松,也就是刺激你戰鬥或是逃跑的荷爾蒙

  • Sounds are affecting your hormone secretions all the time,

    聲音會影響你的荷爾蒙分泌

  • but also your breathing, your heart rate -- which I just also did --

    還有你的呼吸,心跳,就像我剛才做的

  • and your brainwaves.

    還會影響你的腦波

  • It's not just unpleasant sounds like that that do it.

    不是只有不悅耳的聲音會產生生理上的影響

  • This is surf. (Ocean waves)

    這是海浪(海浪聲)

  • It has the frequency of roughly 12 cycles per minute.

    頻率大約是每分鐘12次

  • Most people find that very soothing,

    大部分的人覺得海浪聲具有撫慰的效果

  • and, interestingly, 12 cycles per minute

    而且有趣的是

  • is roughly the frequency of the breathing of a sleeping human.

    熟睡的人每分鐘的呼吸次數也大約是12次

  • There is a deep resonance with being at rest.

    所以海浪聲會讓我們聯想到休息

  • We also associate it with being stress-free

    聯想到放鬆

  • and on holiday.

    聯想到假日

  • The second way in which sound affects you is psychological.

    聲音也會對我們的心理產生影響

  • Music is the most powerful form of sound that we know

    音樂是我們所熟知

  • that affects our emotional state. (Albinoni's Adagio)

    最能影響人類情緒狀態的聲音形式(Albinoni 慢板)

  • This is guaranteed to make most of you feel pretty sad

    若我再播放下去

  • if I leave it on.

    你們一定會變得很憂傷

  • Music is not the only kind of sound, however, which affects your emotions.

    但是音樂並不是唯一可以影響你的情緒的聲音

  • Natural sound can do that too.

    自然界的聲音也有這種效果

  • Birdsong, for example, is a sound which most people

    舉例來說,鳥叫聲,大部分的人都覺得具有安慰的效果

  • find reassuring. (Birds chirping)

    (鳥鳴聲)

  • There is a reason for that. Over hundreds of thousands of years

    這是有原因的,自古以來我們就知道

  • we've learned that when the birds are singing, things are safe.

    若小鳥在鳴唱,就表示安全

  • It's when they stop you need to be worried.

    若叫聲停止了,你就該當心了

  • The third way in which sound affects you is cognitively.

    聲音影響我們的第三種方式是知覺上的

  • You can't understand two people talking at once ("If you're listening to this version of")

    若二個人同時講話,你就無法同時瞭解其內容(“若你聽這個聲音”)

  • ("me you're on the wrong track.") or in this case one person talking twice.

    "你就離題了...”)或是像現在同一個人有二個聲音

  • Try and listen to the other one. ("You have to choose which me you're going to listen to.")

    (“你該聽另一個聲音”)你必須選擇你要聽哪一個聲音

  • We have a very small amount of bandwidth for processing auditory input,

    人腦處理聲音進入的頻寬很窄

  • which is why noise like this -- (Office noise) --

    所以像這種噪音(辦公室噪音)

  • is extremely damaging for productivity.

    絕對會破壞生產力

  • If you have to work in an open-plan office like this,

    若你是在沒有隔間的辦公室裡工作

  • your productivity is greatly reduced.

    你的生產力絕對很低

  • And whatever number you're thinking of, it probably isn't as bad as this.

    你無法想像生產力會低到什麼程度

  • (Ominous music)

    (預告聲)

  • You are one third as productive in open-plan offices as in quiet rooms.

    在沒有隔間的辦公室裡工作,生產力只有在安靜環境下的三分之一

  • And I have a tip for you. If you have to work in spaces like that,

    但有一個小方法可以改善這個問題,若你必須在這種環境裡工作

  • carry headphones with you, with a soothing sound like birdsong.

    就戴上耳機,播放鳥鳴聲等安慰人心的聲音

  • Put them on and your productivity goes back up to triple what it would be.

    你的生產力就會立刻提升三倍

  • The fourth way in which sound affects us is behaviorally.

    聲音影響我們的第四種方式是行為上的

  • With all that other stuff going on, it would be amazing

    當你聽到這麼多聲音

  • if our behavior didn't change.

    你的行為一定會改變

  • (Techno music inside a car) So, ask yourself: Is this person ever going to drive

    (車上的電子音樂聲)試著想想看:這個開車的人

  • at a steady 28 miles per hour? I don't think so.

    會不會只用28英哩的時速開車?我覺得不會

  • At the simplest, you move away from unpleasant sound

    最簡單的是,你會逃離不悅耳的聲音

  • and towards pleasant sounds.

    轉而尋找你喜歡的聲音

  • So if I were to play this -- (Jackhammer) --

    若我播放這個聲音(鑽地機聲音)

  • for more than a few seconds, you'd feel uncomfortable;

    只要放個幾秒,你就會覺得不舒服

  • for more than a few minutes, you'd be leaving the room in droves.

    若放上個幾分鐘,你就會想要逃離這個地方

  • For people who can't get away from noise like that,

    對那些無法避免這些噪音的人來說

  • it's extremely damaging for their health.

    這些聲音會嚴重損害他們的健康

  • And that's not the only thing that bad sound damages.

    這不是噪音唯一會破壞的事情

  • Most retail sound is inappropriate and accidental, and even hostile,

    大部分店家播放的音樂都不恰當,有些是隨機播放,有些還會製造敵對氣氛

  • and it has a dramatic effect on sales.

    這些都會嚴重影響銷售業績

  • For those of you who are retailers, you may want to look away

    若你們之中有人經營店家,你可能會不喜歡

  • before I show this slide.

    我所要播放的投影片

  • They are losing up to 30 percent of their business

    業績下滑了百分之三十

  • with people leaving shops faster, or just turning around on the door.

    只因為客戶很快就離開你的店,或是在門口就轉身走了

  • We all have done it, leaving the area

    我們都曾經匆促離開某個地方

  • because the sound in there is so dreadful.

    只因為那裡所播放的音樂太恐怖

  • I want to spend just a moment talking about

    我想花點時間來談談

  • the model that we've developed, which allows us to start at the top

    我們所開發出來的模型,從最上面開始

  • and look at the drivers of sound, analyze the soundscape

    是聲音的來源,接下來分析聲音的主軸

  • and then predict the four outcomes I've just talked about.

    再來預測我們剛才談到的四個影響層面

  • Or start at the bottom,

    或是從下面開始

  • and say what outcomes do we want,

    先想我們希望得到什麼效果

  • and then design a soundscape to have a desired effect.

    然後設計出我們想要的聲音

  • At last we've got some science we can apply.

    這是我們現在所使用的科學方法

  • And we're in the business of designing soundscapes.

    我們所從事的是聲音設計這個行業

  • Just a word on music. Music is the most powerful sound there is,

    再來談談音樂,音樂是最有影響力的聲音

  • often inappropriately deployed.

    但也最常被誤用

  • It's powerful for two reasons. You recognize it fast,

    音樂的影響力可從二方面觀察到,你可以很快就認出某些音樂

  • and you associate it very powerfully.

    也可以做出很多聯想

  • I'll give you two examples. (First chord of The Beatles' "A Hard Day's Night")

    讓我給你們二個範例(披頭四"A Hard Day's Night"第一個和弦)

  • Most of you recognize that immediately.

    大部分的人都可以立刻認出這個音樂

  • The younger, maybe not. (Laughter)

    年輕人可能就沒有那麼熟(笑聲)

  • (First two notes of "Jaws" theme) And most of you associate that with something!

    (電影大白鯊主題曲的前二個音)你們應該會聯想到什麼吧!

  • Now, those are one-second samples of music.

    這二個就是我要舉的例子

  • Music is very powerful. And unfortunately

    音樂具有很強的影響力

  • it's veneering commercial spaces, often inappropriately.

    但現在卻被許多商場錯誤使用

  • I hope that's going to change over the next few years.

    我希望在未來幾年內這種情形能有所改變

  • Let me just talk about brands for a moment,

    接下來談談品牌

  • because some of you run brands. Every brand is out there

    因為你們之中有些人經營某些品牌

  • making sound right now.

    現在每個品牌都有自己的聲音

  • There are eight expressions of a brand in sound.

    品牌的聲音有八種表情

  • They are all important. And every brand needs to have guidelines at the center.

    每一種都很重要,每一個品牌都應該瞭解如何使用這些聲音

  • I'm glad to say that is starting to happen now.

    我很高興現在已有品牌開始這樣做了

  • (Intel ad jingle)

    (Intel廣告聲)

  • You all recognize that one. (Nokia ringtone) This is the

    大家都認得出這個聲音(Nokia鈴聲)

  • most-played tune in the world today.

    這是現在世界上最常被播放的聲音

  • 1.8 billion times a day, that tune is played.

    每天會播放18億次

  • And it cost Nokia absolutely nothing.

    而Nokia不必付出任何成本

  • Just leave you with four golden rules, for those of you who run businesses,

    我先告訴你們四個黃金原則

  • for commercial sound.

    這對企業經營者選擇聲音很重要

  • First, make it congruent,

    首先,聲音選擇要有一致性

  • pointing in the same direction as your visual communication.

    要和視覺廣告傳達出相同訊息

  • That increases impact by over 1,100 percent.

    這樣會提升廣告力度達百分之一千一百

  • If your sound is pointing the opposite direction, incongruent,

    若你選擇了相反的聲音,和視覺廣告不一致

  • you reduce impact by 86 percent.

    你的廣告力度會降低百分之八十六

  • That's an order of magnitude, up or down.

    這關乎廣告的強度,看你是要強或弱

  • This is important.

    這很重要

  • Secondly, make it appropriate to the situation.

    第二,要適合情境

  • Thirdly, make it valuable. Give people something with the sound.

    第三,要讓聲音產生價值,讓人們可以從這個聲音得到一些東西

  • Don't just bombard them with stuff.

    而不是只提供贈品而已

  • And, finally, test and test it again.

    最後,要不斷地測試

  • Sound is complex. There are many countervailing influences.

    聲音是很複雜的,聲音所產生的效果有些還會互相衝突

  • It can be a bit like a bowl of spaghetti:

    就像面對一碗義大利麵

  • sometimes you just have to eat it and see what happens.

    你得先吃了才知道

  • So I hope this talk has raised sound in your consciousness.

    我希望我的演說能讓你們瞭解聲音的影響力

  • If you're listening consciously,

    若你仔細聽

  • you can take control of the sound around you.

    你就可以控制周遭的聲音

  • It's good for your health. It's good for your productivity.

    對你的健康有幫助,也能提升你的生產力

  • If we all do that we move to a state

    如果我們大家都這麼做

  • that I like to think will be sound living in the world.

    這個世界的聲音就會活化起來

  • I'm going to leave you with a little bit more birdsong. (Birds chirping)

    我再播放一些鳥鳴叫聲(鳥鳴聲)

  • I recommend at least five minutes a day, but there is no maximum dose.

    我建議你們一天至少聽個五分鐘,至於上限,沒有限制

  • Thank you for lending me your ears today.

    謝謝你們

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Over the next five minutes,

在接下來的五分鐘裡

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 聲音 播放 噪音 影響 生產力

【TED】Julian Treasure: 聲音對我們造成的四種影響 (Julian Treasure: The 4 ways sound affects us)

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    YI-Fang Lo 發佈於 2015 年 12 月 29 日
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