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  • Well, one of the privileges

    我今天不在演講活動現場

  • of not being with you in person today

    其中一個好處是

  • is I get to talk to you twice.

    我可以講兩遍

  • One at the beginning, and here we are at the end.

    一次是活動開始,一次是現在結束時

  • The reason

    今天的對話之所以這麼重要

  • why today's conversations are so important

    是因為我們活在改革時代

  • is that we are living in revolutionary times.

    因此教育也必須改革

  • That's why we need a revolution in education.

    有兩大動力驅動改革

  • And there are two big drivers of change.

    其中一個是人口增長

  • One of them is population growth.

    我們現在的人口之多

  • We live in a world now that's more populated

    遠超過以往任何時代

  • than at any time in history.

    全球約有 70 億人

  • There are about 7 billion people on the earth,

    是歷史上人口最多的時代

  • which is more human beings than at any other time,

    很快就會達到 90 億

  • and we're heading for 9 billion.

    光是這個原因就很重要

  • That's reason enough in itself.

    其次是科技

  • But the second is technology

    及科技如何改變我們所做的一切事物

  • and the way that technologies are transforming everything we do,

    經濟、文化、我們的思考, 和彼此聯繫的方式

  • economically, culturally, how we think and how we relate.

    我十年前出了一本書

  • I published a book ten years ago,

    書名是《讓創意自由》

  • called "Out of Our Minds: Learning to Be Creative",

    我才剛出版了新版本

  • and I've just issued a new version of it

    因為過去十年發生了太多事情

  • and the reason is that so much has happened in the last ten years.

    十年前還沒有 Google

  • I mean, ten years ago, there was no Google,

    沒有 Facebook 和 Twitter

  • there was no Facebook, no Twitter,

    沒有任何的社群媒體

  • no social media of any sort.

    沒有智慧型手機、iPhone、iPad

  • There were no smartphones, no iPhones, no iPads,

    沒有現在習以為常的許多事物

  • none of the things that we take for granted.

    變化還會持續加速

  • And that rate of change is going to accelerate.

    不會慢下來

  • It's not going to decrease.

    未來不是平靜的牧場

  • And we're not heading toward some calm pasture,

    能讓我們把一切變動拋諸腦後

  • where all the changes will be behind us.

    只會更紛擾混亂

  • They'll simply become more tumultuous.

    對了,我寫新版, 是用微軟的文書軟體

  • By the way, I wrote the new version of the book on Microsoft Word.

    我不知道你們有沒有用過

  • I don't know if any of you use Microsoft Word.

    你有沒有注意到

  • But, well, I don't know if you notice it,

    它對你寫作很有意見

  • but, if you do it,

    它會評論你的書作風格

  • it has opinions on what you write.

    文字下面有時會出現波浪綠線

  • It comments on your literary style.

    表示它認為你寫的不妥

  • You get little green squiggles

    例如,它不喜歡被動式

  • if it doesn't approve of what you just said.

    你不能說:「房子被蓋起來。」

  • And one of the things it disapproves of is the passive voice.

    必須要說誰蓋了它

  • So, you can't say, "The roundhouse was built."

    根據比爾.蓋茲的規則是這樣

  • You have to say who built it,

    我不知道他為什麼這麼反對被動式

  • according to Bill Gates anyway.

    但有一天,我在寫公共教育的歷史

  • Why he's got this thing against the passive voice I do not know,

    寫到智力測試的發展時

  • but I was writing about the history of public education,

    我寫了這樣的一句:

  • and I wrote about the growth of intelligence testing.

    「現代智力測試的基礎

  • And I wrote this sentence and I said,

    是 19 世紀末

  • "The foundations of the modern intelligence test

    被法蘭西斯.高爾頓爵士所奠基

  • were laid in the late 19th century,

    即查理.達爾文的表弟。」

  • by Sir Francis Galton,

    這也是史實

  • a cousin of Charles Darwin." --

    我再重複一次

  • which is true, by the way.

    「現代智力測驗的基礎

  • I'll just tell you again,

    是 19 世紀末

  • "The foundations of the modern intelligence test

    被法蘭西斯.高爾頓爵士所奠基

  • were laid in the late 19th century,

    即查理.達爾文的表弟。」

  • by Sir Francis Galton,

    結果,微軟文書不喜歡

  • a cousin of Charles Darwin."

    就在句子下面標了波浪綠線

  • Well, Microsoft Word didn't like that.

    因為句子是用被動語態

  • It had little green squiggles,

    它建議我改為主動語態

  • because it had the passive voice "were laid".

    改成:

  • And it suggested the alternative in the active voice.

    「在 19 世紀末

  • And what it suggested was,

    法蘭西斯.高爾頓爵士 『上了』查理.達爾文的表弟

  • "In the late 19th century,

    這是現代智能測試的基礎。」

  • Sir Francis Galton laid a cousin of Charles Darwin

    我相信應該沒有吧

  • (Laughter)

    但有趣的是,公共教育

  • the foundation of the modern intelligence test."

    從 19 世紀到現在,運作了很長時間

  • Well, not really, I feel.

    受這種制式文化影響越來越深

  • But it is interesting that the span of public education

    到最後,甚至也會顛覆

  • runs pretty much

    這些讓我們追趕不上的急速改變

  • from the late 19th century to present day,

    有些是受到科技影響

  • and it's become increasingly dominated

    所以我們必須了解

  • by that type of culture.

    教育面臨多大的挑戰

  • And what was subverted in the end as well

    而且未來的關鍵在於教育

  • is the rapid changes that are overtaking us,

    威爾斯 (H. G. Wells) 有句名言

  • some of them being driven by technology.

    他也是 19 世紀偉大的作家

  • So, it is important that we sense the scale of the challenges

    是少數能前瞻未來

  • that education is involved with

    並且從歷史預見未來的人

  • and also the need for us to see education as the key to the future.

    他曾經說:

  • There was a great quote by H. G. Wells,

    「文明是一場

  • another great 19th century writer,

    教育與災難的兢賽。」

  • one of the few people to look into the future and see something

    我們有理由相信,他可能是對的

  • that has been born out by events.

    而且災難稍稍領先

  • But he'd once said that,

    但是教育還有機會趕上

  • "Civilization is a race

    如果我們大膽設想,並且回歸基本面

  • between education and catastrophe."

    思考教育的基本目標 以及如何達成

  • Well, there's some reason to believe he might be right

    但是,我還希望你想想

  • and that catastrophe is edging out in front a little.

    當我們反省需要做什麼改變

  • But it's not too late to catch up with it,

    並不需要從零開始

  • if we think boldly and fundamentally

    今天你正站在,或者坐在

  • about the basic purposes of education and how we meet them.

    辯論已久的選擇十字路口

  • But what I also wanted to leave you with is this thought

    比較主流和另類教育

  • that, as we consider the changes that need to be made,

    我的許多見解

  • we don't have to reinvent everything.

    其實已經有很多前輩清楚主張過

  • You're standing today -- or sitting, if you are --

    並且付諸實踐

  • in a very long tradition of debate about alternatives

    有一個很悠久的傳統

  • to the mainstream forms of education.

    有時叫做「進步教育」

  • Many things that I argue for

    其實我一直不喜歡這種二分法

  • have been argued by other people, eloquently in the past,

    區分進步或傳統

  • and practiced by them.

    但早在教育的起源,就有人主張

  • There was a long tradition

    更完全的方法

  • in what was sometimes called "progressive education".

    更平衡的方法

  • I've never liked the apparent dichotomy

    能真正均衡地

  • between progressive and traditional,

    發展藝術和科學

  • but an argument has been made

    人文和體育

  • really from the origins of education

    跟其他我之前說過的

  • for more holistic approaches,

    至今已有很多著名的先驅和實踐家

  • more balanced approaches,

    從蒙特梭利、裴斯塔洛齊、福祿貝爾

  • ones that represent a real balance

    到皮亞傑、布魯納

  • between the arts and the sciences, for example,

    比比皆是,還有杜威

  • between the humanities and physical education,

    教育界有很多偉大的先驅

  • and the other things that I mentioned.

    有很多是英國人

  • There have been notable pioneers and practitioners,

    也有很多很棒的學校

  • from Montessori, Pestalozzi, Froeble,

    各位演講會場附近就有一所

  • to the work of Piaget, Bruner.

    世界上很了不起的學校—夏山學校

  • The list goes on... Dewey.

    公共教育系統也有很多好學校

  • There have been great pioneers in education,

    還有很多環保的學校

  • many of them in the U.K.

    創新的學校

  • There have been wonderful schools.

    我認為我們必須體認到

  • You're meeting not far from one of the most

    對話不是發生在真空管裡,與世隔絕

  • extraordinary schools in the world, which is Summerhill.

    不是在歷史的真空管

  • But also great schools in the public sector,

    或文化的真空管

  • great environmental schools,

    重點是

  • great innovative schools.

    不要把這些原則只用在另類教育

  • I think it's important that we recognize

    而要落實到主流教育

  • that conversation is not happening in a vacuum,

    我住在洛杉磯,我說過

  • it's not a historical vacuum,

    最近參加一個會議

  • it's not a cultural vacuum.

    一個很棒的計畫「The Heart Project」

  • The issue, though, is to make these principles

    在洛杉磯市中心舉辦

  • not part of the alternative,

    洛杉磯所有地區的代表都來了

  • but part of the mainstream.

    例如,洛杉磯聯合學區的督導

  • I live in Los Angeles, as I mentioned earlier,

    這個學區有 80 萬個學生

  • and I was in a meeting recently,

    是紐約以外,全美最大的學區

  • of a great project, called "The Heart Project",

    我們在會議中探討

  • that happens downtown, here in L.A.

    另類教育的未來

  • And it brought together, this particular meeting,

    我覺得最有趣的是

  • representers from across the city,

    另類教育的作法是為了

  • the supervisor of the L.A. Unified School District, for example,

    重新吸引中輟生

  • which has 800,000 students in it.

    或是適應不良的學生

  • It's the largest school district in America, outside of New York.

    而且作法非常有意思

  • And we were there to talk about

    所有另類教育的方式, 不論世界哪個地方

  • the future of alternative education.

    課程都是個人化

  • What really interested me was this:

    師生人數比例都非常低

  • the principles of alternative education are designed to re-engage

    注重團體活動

  • young people with education who've dropped out of it,

    擁抱社區

  • or been failed by it.

    並且致力發掘 每個學生的獨特才華和興趣

  • And the principles are interesting.

    並創造環境,讓學生更喜歡融入

  • They're all based... all the alternative education approaches,

    在這個會議中,我告訴他們

  • all around the world, are based on a personalised curriculum.

    這些另類教育的原則

  • They're based on an intensive ratio between students and teachers.

    其實就是教育的原則

  • They're based on group activities

    就是好的教育

  • and closings with the community.

    我很納悶

  • And they're based on trying to identify

    現在居然變成另類教育

  • the individual talents and interests of each student

    落在主流教育之外

  • and shaping the environment,

    所以我認為,我們的責任是要把

  • so it helps to encourage them.

    另類、邊緣教育的這些原則

  • Well, I was saying at this meeting in L.A.

    重新注入主流

  • that these principles of alternative education

    我相信,如果所有的教育都能這麼做

  • are all actually the principles of education,

    我們的學生就不會再輟學

  • just good education.

    會從教育中獲得更多

  • It seems to me bizarre

    貢獻、回饋社會更多

  • that they've now become confined

    新科技本身也需要改變

  • to the alternative to mainstream education.

    同時又是促成改變的因素

  • And I think our job is to make the... what's been hither to...

    新科技提供了絕佳的機會

  • in a way, the fringe of education, or the periphery...

    使教育個人化

  • It's to move those principles to the centre.

    不過科技不是萬靈丹

  • I think if all of education was modelled on similar principles,

    我認為,任何科技 都不能獨力發揮作用

  • then our students wouldn't be dropping out in the first place,

    需要靠人善加運用

  • they'd be getting much more from education

    相機不會拍好作品

  • and we'd be getting much more from them.

    但好的攝影師可以

  • The new technologies are among the factors that we need to change,

    鋼琴不會創作偉大的音樂

  • and they're among the factors that will make change possible.

    但優秀的音樂家可以

  • They make available now

    學校的科技設備

  • tremendous opportunities to personalised education.

    也不會提供好教育

  • They're not the whole answer.

    但是好的教育者可以善用這些科技

  • I believe, it's true of all technology, that technology alone

    因此,當我們前瞻未來

  • doesn't do much.

    預測未來的困難程度

  • It's what you do with it, you know.

    就像是 19 世紀建築師

  • A camera doesn't produce great photographs,

    預測我們今日世界一樣困難

  • but a great photographer might.

    但是只要我們不屈不撓

  • A piano itself doesn't produce great music,

    信任、發展我們真正的創造力

  • but a great musician could.

    並且貫徹到所有的學校

  • And technologies we have available in schools

    就可以為所有人打造不同的未來

  • don't make for great education,

    因此,我們今天活動結束後

  • but great educators could make something great of them.

    要認真填寫 TEDx 提供的認捐表

  • So, as we look into the future, from where we sit now,

    問問自己願不願意贊助構想、

  • it's as hard for us to predict the future as it was

    資源、金錢,或時間

  • for the architects of the 19th century

    出一己之力,共襄盛舉

  • to predict the world that we now live in.

    我自己也有出力

  • But if we are resilient,

    我常常做,投注所有的時間

  • and if we invest in and believe properly in our true creative powers,

    推動教育革命,也支持其他人改革

  • if we apply them in all our educational settings,

    我很樂意贊助 TEDx 的需要

  • then we will begin to shape a different type of future for everybody.

    讓這個對話能延續不斷

  • And it's important, therefore, that as we go away from today's conference,

    共同打造一個我們都渴望的未來

  • that we take seriously the pledge form

    非常感謝大家

  • that TEDx has put before us,

  • asking us if we'd be prepared to pledge ideas,

  • or resources, or money, or time

  • to making something happen.

  • Well, I want to say that I have done that,

  • I do do that, I spend all my time

  • in promoting changes in education and supporting those who do

  • and I'm delighted to offer my pledge to support

  • whatever comes from TEDx, to take this conversation forward

  • and help to shape a future that we all want to live in.

  • Thank you very much.

Well, one of the privileges

我今天不在演講活動現場

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A2 初級 中文 英國腔 教育 科技 學校 改革 表弟 學區

【TEDx】肯羅賓森 (TEDxLondon - Sir Ken Robinson - Outro)

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    Rex 發佈於 2015 年 12 月 02 日
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