Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    我在15歲時就開始揭穿

  • The job of uncovering the global food waste scandal

    全球浪費食物的醜行

  • started for me when I was 15 years old.

    我買了幾頭豬,當時我住在英格蘭薩西克斯郡

  • I bought some pigs. I was living in Sussex.

    而我用最傳統

  • And I started to feed them in the most traditional

    最環保的方式飼養牠們

  • and environmentally friendly way.

    我去我們學校的廚房跟他們說:

  • I went to my school kitchen, and I said,

    「給我一些同學們不屑吃的

  • "Give me the scraps that my school friends have turned

    連聞都不想聞的廚餘吧。」

  • their noses up at."

    我去附近的麵包店拿不新鮮的麵包

  • I went to the local baker and took their stale bread.

    我去蔬果攤,我去找農夫

  • I went to the local greengrocer, and I went to a farmer

    去拿他們要丟掉的馬鈴薯,因為這些馬鈴薯

  • who was throwing away potatoes because they were

    不符合超市收購所要求的形狀或尺寸

  • the wrong shape or size for supermarkets.

    這方法棒極了。我的豬把那些本來會浪費掉的食物

  • This was great. My pigs turned that food waste

    轉變成好吃的豬肉。我把這些豬肉

  • into delicious pork. I sold that pork

    賣給同學的父母,而我因此

  • to my school friends' parents, and I made

    賺了一筆為數不錯的零用錢,口袋豐滿了不少

  • a good pocket money addition to my teenage allowance.

    但我注意到我給豬吃的大多數食物

  • But I noticed that most of the food that I was giving my pigs

    事實上都還可以給人吃

  • was in fact fit for human consumption,

    我還注意到我只是看到事實的表面

  • and that I was only scratching the surface,

    也注意到整條食物供給鏈

  • and that right the way up the food supply chain,

    從超市、蔬果攤、麵包店、我們的家

  • in supermarkets, greengrocers, bakers, in our homes,

    到工廠及農場,我們簡直是食物大出血

  • in factories and farms, we were hemorrhaging out food.

    超市根本就不想跟我談

  • Supermarkets didn't even want to talk to me

    他們到底浪費了多少食物

  • about how much food they were wasting.

    我曾繞到店家的後面,看著一桶又一桶滿滿的食物

  • I'd been round the back. I'd seen bins full of food

    被鎖在那裡,然後被垃圾車載到掩埋場

  • being locked and then trucked off to landfill sites,

    所以我想,應該還有更合理的方法

  • and I thought, surely there is something more sensible

    可以處理這些食物,而不是扔掉

  • to do with food than waste it.

    有一天早上,我在餵豬的時候

  • One morning, when I was feeding my pigs,

    注意到有一片看起來很好吃的蕃茄乾土司

  • I noticed a particularly tasty-looking sun-dried tomato loaf

    這樣的土司偶爾會出現在廚餘裡

  • that used to crop up from time to time.

    我趕快把它撿起來

  • I grabbed hold of it,

    坐下,與我的豬共進早餐(笑聲)

  • sat down, and ate my breakfast with my pigs. (Laughter)

    這是我第一次實踐不消費主義(freeganism) 這是我後來學到的名詞

  • That was the first act of what I later learned to call freeganism,

    這顯示了我們如何錯待廚餘

  • really an exhibition of the injustice of food waste,

    同時也爲如何處理廚餘提供解答

  • and the provision of the solution to food waste,

    其實就是坐下來吃掉這些食物

  • which is simply to sit down and eat food,

    不要把它丟掉

  • rather than throwing it away.

    這真的變成要面對面挑戰

  • That became, as it were, a way of confronting

    那些浪費食物的大型企業

  • large businesses in the business of wasting food,

    更重要的,是對大眾揭露

  • and exposing, most importantly, to the public,

    當我們談論被丟棄的食物

  • that when we're talking about food being thrown away,

    我們不是在說壞掉的食物,我們不是在說

  • we're not talking about rotten stuff, we're not talking about

    那些超過保存期限的東西

  • stuff that's beyond the pale.

    我們是在談那些還很好還很新鮮的食物

  • We're talking about good, fresh food that is being wasted

    就這樣被大量的浪費掉

  • on a colossal scale.

    我後來終於決定寫書

  • Eventually, I set about writing my book,

    來告訴大家這個問題的嚴重程度

  • really to demonstrate the extent of this problem

    已經到了全球化的規模。這裡顯示的是

  • on a global scale. What this shows is

    以國家來細分,這世上每一個國家

  • a nation-by-nation breakdown of the likely level

    浪費食物的可能程度

  • of food waste in each country in the world.

    不幸的是,實證數據,那些很好很紮實的統計數據並不存在

  • Unfortunately, empirical data, good, hard stats, don't exist,

    所以為了證明我的觀點,我首先必須找出

  • and therefore to prove my point, I first of all had to find

    一些能夠揭露

  • some proxy way of uncovering

    有多少食物已經被浪費掉的替代方法

  • how much food was being wasted.

    所以我把每一個國家的食物供給量

  • So I took the food supply of every single country

    與那個國家的實際食物消費量

  • and I compared it to what was actually likely

    拿來作比較

  • to be being consumed in each country.

    這數據是以調查飲食攝入量及肥胖程度為基本

  • That's based on diet intake surveys, it's based on

    以及一系列讓你能粗略地估算

  • levels of obesity, it's based on a range of factors

    到底有多少食物

  • that gives you an approximate guess

    真的被吃掉的因素為基準所得到的結果

  • as to how much food is actually going into people's mouths.

    那條在圖中間的黑線

  • That black line in the middle of that table

    是大概能吃掉多少的量

  • is the likely level of consumption

    其中已經加了一些不可避免的浪費量

  • with an allowance for certain levels of inevitable waste.

    總是會有浪費,我沒有那麼不實際

  • There will always be waste. I'm not that unrealistic

    認為我們可以活在完全沒有浪費的世界

  • that I think we can live in a waste-free world.

    所以那條黑線顯示了一個國家的食物供給量

  • But that black line shows what a food supply should be

    應該是多少,假設他們能提供良好、穩定又安全的

  • in a country if they allow for a good, stable, secure,

    營養食物給國家裡的每一個人

  • nutritional diet for every person in that country.

    所以超過這條線的點,你很快就會注意到

  • Any dot above that line, and you'll quickly notice that

    這世上大多數的國家都在此線之上

  • that includes most countries in the world,

    這代表著不必要的糧食過剩,而且大致能反映

  • represents unnecessary surplus, and is likely to reflect

    每一個國家的浪費程度

  • levels of waste in each country.

    當國家變得更富有,商店及餐廳的

  • As a country gets richer, it invests more and more

    食物過剩現象

  • in getting more and more surplus

    也愈來愈明顯

  • into its shops and restaurants,

    正如你所見,大部分的歐洲

  • and as you can see, most European

    及北美洲國家

  • and North American countries

    都落在人口營養需求量的

  • fall between 150 and 200 percent

    百分之一百五到二百之間

  • of the nutritional requirements of their populations.

    意思是像美國這樣的國家,有超過兩倍以上

  • So a country like America has twice as much food

    美國人實際所需的食物

  • on its shop shelves and in its restaurants

    擺在店架及餐廳裡

  • than is actually required to feed the American people.

    但是真正讓我震驚的是

  • But the thing that really struck me,

    當我把這些資料畫成圖時,這是很大一批數據

  • when I plotted all this data, and it was a lot of numbers,

    你可以看到它趨緩的走勢

  • was that you can see how it levels off.

    這些國家迅速達到150這個點

  • Countries rapidly shoot towards that 150 mark,

    然後持平,不再完全如你所預期的

  • and then they level off, and they don't really go on rising

    繼續上升

  • as you might expect.

    所以我決定進一步研究這些數據

  • So I decided to unpack that data a little bit further

    看看到底這種走勢是反應事實還是假象

  • to see if that was true or false.

    而這是我得到的結果

  • And that's what I came up with.

    如果你把商店及餐廳的食物

  • If you include not just the food that ends up

    以及人們拿去餵牲畜的食物

  • in shops and restaurants, but also the food

    都包括在裡面

  • that people feed to livestock,

    也就是你把玉米、黃豆、麥子 這些本來是人類可以吃的食物

  • the maize, the soy, the wheat, that humans could eat

    拿去養肥牲畜以生產

  • but choose to fatten livestock instead to produce

    更多量的肉品及奶製品

  • increasing amounts of meat and dairy products,

    那麼你會發現大部分的富裕國家

  • what you find is that most rich countries

    有三到四倍那麼多

  • have between three and four times the amount of food

    餵飽他們的人口所需的食物

  • that their population needs to feed itself.

    而像美國這個國家有著它所需

  • A country like America has four times the amount of food

    四倍的食物

  • that it needs.

    當大家在討論是否需要增加全球

  • When people talk about the need to increase global

    糧食生產以餵飽預計到2050年

  • food production to feed those nine billion people

    會增長到九十億的全球人口

  • that are expected on the planet by 2050,

    我總是想到我的這些圖表

  • I always think of these graphs.

    事實上,在富裕的國家

  • The fact is, we have an enormous buffer

    我們有足以因應飢荒的食物

  • in rich countries between ourselves and hunger.

    這麼龐大數量的多餘糧食是前所未見的

  • We've never had such gargantuan surpluses before.

    從很多角度來看這是個成功的人類文明發展故事

  • In many ways, this is a great success story

    是個在一萬兩千年前人類就想要達到的

  • of human civilization, of the agricultural surpluses

    農業盈餘目標

  • that we set out to achieve 12,000 years ago.

    這是個成功的故事,一直以來都是

  • It is a success story. It has been a success story.

    但是現在我們必須承認,我們

  • But what we have to recognize now is that we are

    正朝著地球所能容忍的生態發展限制邁進

  • reaching the ecological limits that our planet can bear,

    當我們砍下森林來種植更多的糧食

  • and when we chop down forests, as we are every day,

    現在我們每天都這麼做

  • to grow more and more food,

    當我們從日漸乾涸的水庫取水

  • when we extract water from depleting water reserves,

    當我們排放石化燃料廢氣以尋求

  • when we emit fossil fuel emissions in the quest

    能種植更多的糧食的同時

  • to grow more and more food,

    我們卻丟掉這麼多的糧食

  • and then we throw away so much of it,

    我們必須思考該如何開始節約糧食

  • we have to think about what we can start saving.

    昨天我去一家附近的超市

  • And yesterday, I went to one of the local supermarkets

    我常常去那裡查看 --

  • that I often visit to

    你可以這麼說 -- 他們丟了哪些食物

  • inspect, if you like, what they're throwing away.

    我找到了好幾包餅乾,混在

  • I found quite a few packets of biscuits amongst

    那些被丟棄的水果蔬菜

  • all the fruit and vegetables and everything else

    及其他的東西裡

  • that was in there.

    我就在想,嗯,這可以當我今天的教材

  • And I thought, well this could serve as a symbol for today.

    所以我現在要你想像一下這九片

  • So I want you to imagine that these nine biscuits

    我在垃圾桶裡找到的餅乾,代表着全球糧食供給

  • that I found in the bin represent the global food supply,

    可以嗎?我們從九片開始

  • okay? We start out with nine.

    這代表全球的全年作物種植量

  • That's what's in fields around the world every single year.

    在作物還沒離開農場出貨前

  • The first biscuit we're going to lose

    我們就要先拿掉一片餅乾

  • before we even leave the farm.

    這問題的主因與

  • That's a problem primarily associated with

    農工發展有關。可能是因為

  • developing work agriculture, whether it's

    缺乏基礎設施,沒有冰箱,沒有殺菌設備

  • a lack of infrastructure, refrigeration, pasteurization,

    穀物保存不當,甚至是缺乏最基本的水果箱

  • grain stores, even basic fruit crates, which means

    所以這部分的作物在從農場出貨前就已經浪費掉了

  • that food goes to waste before it even leaves the fields.

    接下來的三片餅乾代表著那些我們決定

  • The next three biscuits are the foods that we decide

    拿來餵牲畜的糧食,玉米、麥子、黃豆

  • to feed to livestock, the maize, the wheat and the soya.

    不幸的是這些牲畜是效率很低的動物

  • Unfortunately, our beasts are inefficient animals,

    牠們把三分之二的糧食轉成糞便及熱能

  • and they turn two-thirds of that into feces and heat,

    所以我們要拿掉兩片,只留下一片在這

  • so we've lost those two, and we've only kept this one

    代表着肉品及乳製品

  • in meat and dairy products.

    接下來我們要直接丟掉兩片到垃圾桶裡

  • Two more we're going to throw away directly into bins.

    這就是我們所認知的

  • This is what most of us think of when we think

    糧食浪費,即那些被丟到垃圾桶裡的

  • of food waste, what ends up in the garbage,

    那些被超市丟棄的

  • what ends up in supermarket bins,

    還有那些被餐廳丟棄的食物,我們為此丟掉兩片餅乾

  • what ends up in restaurant bins. We've lost another two,

    所以現在我們只剩下四片餅乾能拿來吃

  • and we've left ourselves with just four biscuits to feed on.

    這真的不是利用全球資源最有效的方法

  • That is not a superlatively efficient use of global resources,

    尤其是當你想到全球已經有上億的人口

  • especially when you think of the billion hungry people

    處在飢餓下

  • that exist already in the world.

    我已經解釋過了我的數據,現在我要

  • Having gone through the data, I then needed

    告訴你們那些被浪費的食物去了哪裡

  • to demonstrate where that food ends up.

    你知道那些食物去了哪裡?我們看慣了

  • Where does it end up? We're used to seeing the stuff

    食物裝在盤子裡,但是那些

  • on our plates, but what about all the stuff

    沒有出現在盤子裡的食物呢?

  • that goes missing in between?

    超市是個很容易舉的例子

  • Supermarkets are an easy place to start.

    這是我的好習慣的結果

  • This is the result of my hobby,

    就是非正式的垃圾桶檢查(笑聲)

  • which is unofficial bin inspections. (Laughter)

    你可能覺得奇怪,但是如果你真能相信企業

  • Strange you might think, but if we could rely on corporations

    所宣稱他們在店後面所做的事

  • to tell us what they were doing in the back of their stores,

    我們就不需要偷偷摸摸地繞到後面去

  • we wouldn't need to go sneaking around the back,

    打開垃圾桶,然後看看裡面到底有什麼

  • opening up bins and having a look at what's inside.

    但這就是你在英國、歐洲、北美洲的

  • But this is what you can see more or less on

    街角或多或少會看見的景象

  • every street corner in Britain, in Europe, in North America.

    這代表著龐大的糧食浪費

  • It represents a colossal waste of food,

    但在我寫書時我發現到

  • but what I discovered whilst I was writing my book

    這罪證確鑿的浪費景象

  • was that this very evident abundance of waste

    其實只是冰山的一角

  • was actually the tip of the iceberg.

    當你循著供應鏈向源頭走

  • When you start going up the supply chain,

    你就會發現我們正以

  • you find where the real food waste is happening

    龐大的規模浪費食物

  • on a gargantuan scale.

    請舉一下手

  • Can I have a show of hands

    如果你家裡有一條切好的土司麵包

  • if you have a loaf of sliced bread in your house?

    誰會把土司麵包皮 --

  • Who lives in a household where that crust --

    就是土司的第一片及最後那一片硬皮 --

  • that slice at the first and last end of each loaf --

    誰會把土司麵包皮吃掉?

  • who lives in a household where it does get eaten?

    很好,大多數都會,雖然不是每一個人,但大多數都會

  • Okay, most people, not everyone, but most people,

    我很高興地說這也是我在全球看到的現象

  • and this is, I'm glad to say, what I see across the world,

    但是在這世界上,誰在超市或三明治店裡

  • and yet has anyone seen a supermarket or sandwich shop

    看過他們拿麵包皮來做三明治?

  • anywhere in the world that serves sandwiches

    (笑聲)

  • with crusts on it? (Laughter)

    我可從來沒看過

  • I certainly haven't.

    所以我老在想,到底那些皮去了哪裡?(笑聲)

  • So I kept on thinking, where do those crusts go? (Laughter)

    很不幸的,這就是答案

  • This is the answer, unfortunately:

    光是這家工廠每一天就要丟掉一萬三千片

  • 13,000 slices of fresh bread coming out of

    新鮮的麵包皮。剛做好的麵包

  • this one single factory every single day, day-fresh bread.

    我去參觀這家工廠的同一年

  • In the same year that I visited this factory,

    我也去了巴基斯坦。2008年時那裡的人正餓著肚子

  • I went to Pakistan, where people in 2008 were going hungry

    說是因為全球糧食供給短缺

  • as a result of a squeeze on global food supplies.

    我們也在這短缺上有份

  • We contribute to that squeeze

    因為無論是在英國這裡或在世界其他地方

  • by depositing food in bins here in Britain

    我們都把食物丟到垃圾桶裡,我們把

  • and elsewhere in the world. We take food

    那些飢餓的人所仰賴的食物從貨架上取走!

  • off the market shelves that hungry people depend on.

    再沿供給鏈向上走一步,去看看那些農夫

  • Go one step up, and you get to farmers,

    有時候他們丟掉三分之一或更多的

  • who throw away sometimes a third or even more

    收成,只因為外表不符收購標準

  • of their harvest because of cosmetic standards.

    舉個例子,這位農夫投資了一萬六千英磅

  • This farmer, for example, has invested 16,000 pounds

    來種植波菜,但是他一片也沒收成

  • in growing spinach, not one leaf of which he harvested,

    因為有一些野草長在其中

  • because there was a little bit of grass growing in amongst it.

    這些長相不完美的馬鈴薯

  • Potatoes that are cosmetically imperfect,

    通通拿來餵豬

  • all going for pigs.

    而這些長的太小,不合超市規格的歐洲防風草根(類似蘿蔔)

  • Parsnips that are too small for supermarket specifications,

    西班牙特內里夫的番茄

  • tomatoes in Tenerife,

    佛羅里達州的柳橙

  • oranges in Florida,

    還有厄瓜多爾產的香蕉,都是如此。去年我還去過那裡

  • bananas in Ecuador, where I visited last year,

    這是厄瓜多爾一處香蕉農園

  • all being discarded. This is one day's waste

    一天所丟掉的香蕉量

  • from one banana plantation in Ecuador.

    這些通通被丟掉,完全可食用

  • All being discarded, perfectly edible,

    只因為它們的形狀或尺寸不對

  • because they're the wrong shape or size.

    如果我們可以這樣處理水果蔬菜

  • If we do that to fruit and vegetables,

    沒錯我們也可以這樣處理動物

  • you bet we can do it to animals too.

    肝臟、肺部、頭、尾巴

  • Liver, lungs, heads, tails,

    腎臟、睪丸

  • kidneys, testicles,

    這些東西在烹飪學裡

  • all of these things which are traditional,

    都是既傳統又美味營養的東西

  • delicious and nutritious parts of our gastronomy

    我們卻把它丟掉。過去30年英國及美國

  • go to waste. Offal consumption has halved

    內臟食用量少了一半

  • in Britain and America in the last 30 years.

    結果就是,最好的情況是拿去餵狗

  • As a result, this stuff gets fed to dogs at best,

    要不然就只好燒掉了

  • or is incinerated.

    這位仁兄在中國西部新疆省的喀什噶爾

  • This man, in Kashgar, Xinjiang province, in Western China,

    賣一種國民飲食

  • is serving up his national dish.

    叫做「麵肺子和米腸子」的羊內臟食品

  • It's called sheep's organs.

    這很美味很營養

  • It's delicious, it's nutritious,

    而且我去喀什噶爾時學到

  • and as I learned when I went to Kashgar,

    這象徵著他們對浪費食物的禁忌

  • it symbolizes their taboo against food waste.

    有一天我坐在路邊攤

  • I was sitting in a roadside cafe.

    廚師走過來跟我聊天,我已經吃完了

  • A chef came to talk to me, I finished<