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  • One billion people in the world today

    今天世界上有十億人

  • do not have access to all-season roads.

    不能使用全天候皆能運作的道路。

  • One billion people.

    一億人。

  • One seventh of the Earth's population

    地球七分之一的人口

  • are totally cut off for some part of the year.

    一年中有時被截斷聯繫,

  • We cannot get medicine to them reliably,

    我們不能可靠地運送藥物,

  • they cannot get critical supplies,

    他們不能拿到緊急物資,

  • and they cannot get their goods to market

    不能以到市場賣東西

  • in order to create a sustainable income.

    創造稳定的收入。

  • In sub-Saharan Africa, for instance,

    在撒哈拉南邊,

  • 85 percent of roads are unusable in the wet season.

    雨季裏百分之85的道路都是不可用的。

  • Investments are being made,

    在現今階段

  • but at the current level,

    有人投資在道路上,

  • it's estimated it's going to take them

    但估計需要50年

  • 50 years to catch up.

    才能解決。

  • In the U.S. alone, there's more than four million

    僅在美國,就有超過四百萬

  • miles of roads, very expensive to build,

    英里的道路;建設非常昂貴,

  • very expensive to maintain infrastructure,

    維修也很貴,

  • with a huge ecological footprint,

    非常不環保

  • and yet, very often, congested.

    可是,通常都是堵塞了的。

  • So we saw this and we thought,

    所以我們想,

  • can there be a better way?

    有更好的辦法嗎?

  • Can we create a system using today's most advanced technologies

    利用現代科技,可否建立一個

  • that can allow this part of the world to leapfrog

    能令這些人受惠的系統,

  • in the same way they've done with mobile telephones

    就像最近十年內

  • in the last 10 years?

    像手提電話一樣?

  • Many of those nations have excellent telecommunications today

    現今擁有最好的電訊的國家

  • without ever putting copper lines in the ground.

    通常都沒有埋銅線於地下。

  • Could we do the same for transportation?

    我們能用同樣的方法來處理交通嗎?

  • Imagine this scenario.

    想像一下。

  • Imagine you are in a maternity ward in Mali,

    想像你在馬里(非洲國家)的產房,

  • and have a newborn in need of urgent medication.

    需要緊急醫療。

  • What would you do today?

    你會做什麼?

  • Well, you would place a request via mobile phone,

    你會打電話

  • and someone would get the request immediately.

    然後有人會立即知道。

  • That's the part that works.

    這部分沒問題。

  • The medication may take days to arrive, though,

    然而藥物可能需要幾日才到達

  • because of bad roads.

    因為很差的的交通因素。

  • That's the part that's broken.

    這部分十分殘破。

  • We believe we can deliver it within hours

    我們相信,利用獨立飛航的工具

  • with an electric autonomous flying vehicle

    藥物幾小時就能被運到。

  • such as this.

    就像這樣。

  • This can transport a small payload today, about two kilograms,

    這能與大概十公里範圍內運送

  • over a short distance, about 10 kilometers,

    大概兩公斤的物資,

  • but it's part of a wider network that may cover

    同時是一個龐大網絡的一部分,

  • the entire country, maybe even the entire continent.

    大至整個國家,甚至整個大陸。

  • It's an ultra-flexible, automated logistics network.

    它是十分彈性,自動的物流網絡。

  • It's a network for a transportation of matter.

    它是傳送物資的網絡。

  • We call it Matternet.

    我們叫他為「Matternet」。

  • We use three key technologies.

    我們用三個主要的科技。

  • The first is electric autonomous flying vehicles.

    第一,電子飛航交通工具。

  • The second is automated ground stations

    第二,自動化的地面車站,

  • that the vehicles fly in and out of

    那會容許飛航工具

  • to swap batteries and fly farther,

    換電池和飛更遠,

  • or pick up or deliver loads.

    拿起和放下負載。

  • And the third is the operating system

    第三,管理整個網絡

  • that manages the whole network.

    的操作系統。

  • Let's look at each one of those technologies in a bit more detail.

    現在,我們詳細地看這些科技。

  • First of all, the UAVs.

    首先,無人機。

  • Eventually, we're going to be using all sorts of vehicles

    有朝一日,我們將根據不同的重量和距離

  • for different payload capacities and different ranges.

    而使用不同的無人機。

  • Today, we're using small quads.

    今天,我們在用四方的小飛機。

  • These are able to transport two kilograms

    這些能在15分鐘內

  • over 10 kilometers in just about 15 minutes.

    飛超過10公里運輸2公斤的物資。

  • Compare this with trying to trespass a bad road

    比較在發展中國家

  • in the developing world,

    嘗試用車走過凹凸不平的道路,

  • or even being stuck in traffic

    甚至是在已發展國家

  • in a developed world country.

    經常出現的交通擁塞。

  • These fly autonomously.

    這些能自動飛行。

  • This is the key to the technology.

    這科技十分重要。

  • So they use GPS and other sensors on board

    他們利用GPS和其他感應器

  • to navigate between ground stations.

    在地上車站導航。

  • Every vehicle is equipped with an automatic

    每輛機器都裝上

  • payload and battery exchange mechanism,

    有效載荷和換電池的機制,

  • so these vehicles navigate to those ground stations,

    這些無人機航行到這些車站,

  • they dock, swap a battery automatically,

    停泊,換電池,

  • and go out again.

    再次行駛。

  • The ground stations are located on safe locations

    這些車站是位於地上

  • on the ground.

    安全的位置。

  • They secure the most vulnerable part of the mission,

    它們鞏固整個任務最脆弱的部分:

  • which is the landing.

    降落。

  • They are at known locations on the ground,

    這些車站位於已知的地點,

  • so the paths between them are also known,

    因此它們中間的路線也是清楚的;

  • which is very important from a reliability perspective

    站在可信性的立場來說,對於整個網絡,

  • from the whole network.

    這是十分重要的。

  • Apart from fulfilling the energy requirements of the vehicles,

    除了滿足機器的能源需要,

  • eventually they're going to be becoming

    它們最終都要成為

  • commercial hubs where people can take out loads

    人們能在網絡中拿出物資

  • or put loads into the network.

    或放東西進去的商業樞紐。

  • The last component is the operating system

    最後的部分是管理整個網絡的

  • that manages the whole network.

    運作系統。

  • It monitors weather data from all the ground stations

    它掌控來自地下車站的天氣資料,

  • and optimizes the routes of the vehicles through the system

    為機器尋找最佳的路線,

  • to avoid adverse weather conditions,

    避免不利的天氣和

  • avoid other risk factors,

    其他風險因素,

  • and optimize the use of the resources

    在網絡中最有效地

  • throughout the network.

    運用資源。

  • I want to show you what one of those flights

    我想讓你們看一看

  • looks like.

    這些無人機的樣子。

  • Here we are flying in Haiti last summer,

    這是去年夏天我們在海地的航行,

  • where we've done our first field trials.

    我們第一次的實地試驗。

  • We're modeling here a medical delivery

    那裏,我們在 2010 年海地大地震後興建了一個營,

  • in a camp we set up after the 2010 earthquake.

    現在模擬運送藥物。

  • People there love this.

    當地的人非常喜歡。

  • And I want to show you

    我想讓你們看看

  • what one of those vehicles looks like up close.

    在近距離下這些飛機的樣子。

  • So this is a $3,000 vehicle.

    這是一輛價值 3000 元的飛機。

  • Costs are coming down very rapidly.

    價錢將會很快下降。

  • We use this in all sorts of weather conditions,

    我們在任何天氣環境下都能使用,

  • very hot and very cold climates,

    炎熱或寒冷,

  • very strong winds. They're very sturdy vehicles.

    強風。它們非常結實耐用。

  • Imagine if your life depended on this package,

    想想你生命完全依賴這包裹。

  • somewhere in Africa

    非洲某處,

  • or in New York City, after Sandy.

    又或經過桑迪暴風吹襲的紐約。

  • The next big question is, what's the cost?

    第二個大問題是,價錢呢?

  • Well, it turns out that the cost to transport

    其實在超過十公里的距離

  • two kilograms over 10 kilometers with this vehicle

    運送兩公斤的物件

  • is just 24 cents.

    價格僅僅是 24 美分。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • And it's counterintuitive, but the cost of energy

    有違常理地,能源的價格

  • expended for the flight is only two cents

    花費的只是整個旅程中的

  • of a dollar today,

    2 美分而已;

  • and we're just at the beginning of this.

    而我們只是剛剛起步。

  • When we saw this, we felt that this is something

    我們看到這事,我們認為這能對

  • that can have significant impact in the world.

    世界帶來顯著的效果。

  • So we said, okay, how much does it cost

    所以我們問:在世界任何一處建立

  • to set up a network somewhere in the world?

    一個網絡要花多少?

  • And we looked at setting up a network in Lesotho

    所以我們查看了如何在萊索托(非洲南部內陸國家)

  • for transportation of HIV/AIDS samples.

    建立為搜集艾滋病毒樣本的交通系統。

  • The problem there is how do you take them

    當地的問題是:如何將樣品由

  • from clinics where they're being collected

    蒐集樣本的診所

  • to hospitals where they're being analyzed?

    運送到醫院做化驗?

  • And we said, what if we wanted to cover an area

    另外,假如我們要覆蓋

  • spanning around 140 square kilometers?

    超過 140 平方公里的範圍?

  • That's roughly one and a half times the size of Manhattan.

    那是大概曼哈頓 1.5 倍的面積。

  • Well it turns out that the cost to do that there

    原來,要花費的

  • would be less than a million dollars.

    只少於 100萬美元。

  • Compare this to normal infrastructure investments.

    將這價格和普通基建的價錢相比。

  • We think this can be -- this is the power

    我們相信這是

  • of a new paradigm.

    新範例的能力。

  • So here we are: a new idea

    現在,我們從網絡上

  • about a network for transportation

    衍生出對交通網絡

  • that is based on the ideas of the Internet.

    新的意念。

  • It's decentralized, it's peer-to-peer,

    它並非統一,而是點對點,

  • it's bidirectional, highly adaptable,

    雙向,極容易適應,

  • with very low infrastructure investment,

    以及擁有很低的基建投資,

  • very low ecological footprint.

    非常環保。

  • If it is a new paradigm, though,

    但假如這是新的範例,

  • there must be other uses for it.

    它一定有其他用處。

  • It can be used perhaps in other places in the world.

    可能在世界上其它地方都能用。

  • So let's look at the other end of the spectrum:

    所以一起探索另一個角落。

  • our cities and megacities.

    我們的城市和巨型城市。

  • Half of the Earth's population lives in cities today.

    今天,一半的人住在城市。

  • Half a billion of us live in megacities.

    超過五億人住在超大城市。

  • We are living through an amazing urbanization trend.

    我們生活在都市化潮流的年代。

  • China alone is adding a megacity

    光是中國,每兩年就會

  • the size of New York City every two years.

    建設面積相當於紐約城市。

  • These are places that do have road infrastructure,

    這些地方確實有道路基建,

  • but it's very inefficient.

    然而非常沒效率。

  • Congestion is a huge problem.

    交通堵塞是個很嚴重的問題。

  • So we think it makes sense in those places

    因此我們認為在那裏

  • to set up a network of transportation

    設立一個交通網絡有道理。

  • that is a new layer that sits between the road

    一個新的層次,坐落於道路

  • and the Internet,

    和網絡中間,

  • initially for lightweight, urgent stuff,

    最初是為輕便,緊急的物資而設;

  • and over time, we would hope to develop this

    隨著時間,我們希望將它

  • into a new mode of transportation

    發展成新模式的交通,

  • that is truly a modern solution to a very old problem.

    以現代的方法解決這古老的問題。

  • It's ultimately scalable

    這方法能以

  • with a very small ecological footprint,

    非常環保的方式擴展;

  • operating in the background 24/7,

    每時每刻都在背後運作,

  • just like the Internet.

    就像互聯網一樣。

  • So when we started this

    因此在我們幾年前

  • a couple of years ago now,

    開始研究這時,

  • we've had a lot of people come up to us who said,

    很多人跟我們說:「

  • "This is a very interesting but crazy idea,

    這是一個有趣然而瘋狂的想法,

  • and certainly not something that you should

    你們不應該花時間

  • engage with anytime soon."

    在這件事上。」

  • And of course, we're talking about drones, right,

    當然,我們是在談無人機,

  • a technology that's not only unpopular in the West

    一件不但在西方不普遍的科技,

  • but one that has become a very, very unpleasant

    同時對於窮困的人來說

  • fact of life for many living in poor countries,

    一件令人討厭的玩意,

  • especially those engaged in conflict.

    特別是處於衝突的人。

  • So why are we doing this?

    那我們為什麼還要做呢?

  • Well, we chose to do this one

    我們並非因為

  • not because it's easy,

    這件事很簡單,

  • but because it can have amazing impact.

    卻是因為它能帶來驚人的影響。

  • Imagine one billion people being connected

    想像十億人利用

  • to physical goods in the same way

    像手機電信

  • that mobile telecommunications connected them

    聯繫資訊的方式

  • to information.

    聯繫到物品。

  • Imagine if the next big network we built in the world

    想像我們世界之後建立的大網絡

  • was a network for the transportation of matter.

    是運送物質的。

  • In the developing world, we would hope

    在發展中國家,我們希望

  • to reach millions of people with better vaccines,

    讓眾多的人使用更好的疫苗,

  • reach them with better medication.

    運送更好的藥物。

  • It would give us an unfair advantage against battling

    這樣一來,我們在

  • HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and other epidemics.

    對抗艾滋病毒,肺結核和流行病擁有極大的優勢。

  • Over time, we would hope it would become

    隨著時間推移,我們希望它會成為

  • a new platform for economic transactions,

    經濟交易的新平台,

  • lifting millions of people out of poverty.

    帶領千千萬萬的人脫貧。

  • In the developed world and the emerging world,

    無論是已發展和發展中的地方,

  • we would hope it would become a new mode

    我們都希望這能成為

  • of transportation that could help make our cities

    新的交通模式,因而令我們的生活

  • more livable.

    更適合居住。

  • So for those that still believe that this is science fiction,

    對於那些仍然認為這是科學小說的人,

  • I firmly say to you that it is not.

    我強烈地像你們說:不是。

  • We do need to engage, though,

    我們卻要參與,

  • in social fiction to make it happen.

    與社會小說中,去令這發生。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (鼓掌)

One billion people in the world today

今天世界上有十億人

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B1 中級 中文 TED 網絡 交通 車站 道路 藥物

【TED】Andreas Raptopoulos。沒有路?有無人機的(Andreas Raptopoulos:沒有路? 有無人機的)。 (【TED】Andreas Raptopoulos: No roads? There's a drone for that (Andreas Raptopoulos: No roads? There's a drone for that))

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    richardwang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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