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  • Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam, and today's lesson: "Commonly Confused Words"

    嗨,歡迎回來www.engvid.com. 我是Adam。今天的課程是關於幾個易混淆的單字

  • is very important for those of you trying to learn vocabulary, but especially for those

    對於正在學習單字的你們是非常重要的,特別是

  • of you who need to write better. It's very important to write the correct word that you

    當你想要增進你的寫作能力的話,使用正確的字來表達你的文意

  • mean, and sometimes, the only difference between words is one letter, and this one letter makes

    是非常重要的!而且,有些細微的不同就只差在一個字母,但卻

  • a huge difference. Okay? So we're going to look at six sets of commonly confused words.

    是完全不同的意思。好,接下來我們來學習怎麼分辨這6組常見的混淆單字吧

  • Now, we're going to start with "affect" and "effect", and the difference being the "a"

    先從「affect」和「effect」這組開始,這兩個單字在開頭字母上,一個是「a」

  • or the "e". Now, this is one of those pair of words that all teachers in every ESL school,

    一個是「e」。這兩個單字是所有教授英語的學校以及

  • in every ESL class always teach students, but they don't necessarily teach it completely,

    在任何英語課程上,都會被提出來教學生的單字組,但是卻沒有被完整的介紹用法

  • so that's what we're going to look at today. "Affect", verb, in any situation you're looking

    所以這就是為什麼我們今天要拿出來討論。「Affect」,常以動詞形態出現

  • at it, but it basically has two different meanings. One is to have an influence or to

    但卻有兩種不同的意思,一個是「產生影響」,另一個是

  • influence something, someone. It basically means to have some sort of power over something

    「影響某事/某人」。像是有某種能力足以影響

  • to make some sort of change. The noun, they go together, if something affects someone

    並促使產生某些變化。而名詞形態時,這兩個會一起討論,也就是當某事「affect」 (影響)某人

  • or something, then the result of that is the effect. Now, I'm stressing the "e" here just

    或某事,所產生的就是「effect」 (影響、結果)。現在我要將字首「e」加重發音

  • so you hear it, but in reality, in spoken and natural spoken English: "affect", "effect",

    讓你可以聽清楚。但在實際口語上的發音,你會發現「affect」、「effect」

  • "affect", "effect". It sounds almost the same, so you have to be very careful. You especially

    「affect」、「effect」的發音幾乎一模一樣,所以你必須非常注意。特別是從

  • have to think about the context. Okay? Context is very important in... With all these words,

    從文章句子裡面去辨識,可以嗎?這幾組單字都需要從句子的上下文

  • to know which one is being used, because the situation that you hear or read the word in

    來了解並分辨被使用的單字是哪個。在不同的情境下,你所聽到所閱讀的單字

  • will tell you which meaning it is. So the context is everything that is around the word.

    都可以在上下文中提供你正確單字意思的線索。因此,文章句子的上下文對於理解單字非常重要

  • So "affect", to influence something; "effect" is the result or what that influence has done

    「affect」,表示去影響到某事;「effect」,表示結果,或是影響力帶來的效果

  • to something or someone.

    左右了某事或某人

  • "To affect" also means to move someone emotionally. So if you affect someone, it means you have

    「To affect」也可以表達對某人情感、情緒上的影響。當你說你 affect(影響)了某人,表示

  • an emotional... You create an emotional reaction in them. Okay? You can affect them to the

    在情緒上打動對方。是一種感情表達的回饋,可以嗎?你可以點到

  • point of tears, means you're making them sad, you're making them so happy that they're crying.

    他們的哭點,也就是讓他們感到悲傷,或是點到笑穴讓他們哭笑不得。

  • Now, here's the surprising one that many people don't realize: "effect" can also be a verb.

    接下來,這可能會讓很多人感到驚訝,因為「effect」(影響)除了名詞,也可以當作動詞

  • So most ESL teachers will tell you "affect" is a verb, "effect" is a noun, that's it.

    很多英語老師只會告訴你「affect」(影響)是動詞,「effect」(影響)是名詞。

  • But "effect" can also be a verb, it means to bring about.

    但是「effect」也有動詞形式,意思是引起、導致

  • Okay? I'm actually going to write this down for you.

    了解嗎?我把它寫在上面給大家看

  • Now, we especially talk about change. So, for example, a new

    這樣的意思特別表示當談論到改變的時候,例如說,有一位

  • manager comes into a department and he wants to effect a change, a corporate culture change.

    新上任的部門主管想要來個新氣象,於是想推動公司內部文化變革

  • He wants to bring about or to cause a change. Now, this is a little bit of a formal word,

    他想要帶來一個新變革、新的改變。這樣的情形下,使用上就會變成較正式的用法

  • it's a big of a high-end word. If you're writing the IELTS, or TOEFL, or SAT, this is a very

    它會變成一個較專業的字彙,尤其是當你寫IELTS、TOFEL或SAT考試時,「effect」會是一個

  • good word to use as a verb, but make sure that you know how to use it correctly before

    很好用的單字。但需要注意使用前必須確定了解單字的意義後

  • you try. Cause, bring about. So, that's these ones.

    再來運用。所以,引起、導致的意思是這一組單字需要注意的

  • Next, we have "principle" and "principal". They sound the same, but obviously, different

    接下來要來討論「principle」和「principal」。它們的發音都一樣,但不同在於

  • endings. This "principle" is basically a fundamental truth. Something... Like, for example, if

    字尾。「principle」代表一個基本的原則或事實,像是.......

  • you're talking about a scientific principle, this is the truth, and from this truth, we

    當你探討到一個科學原理時,那是一個事實,而從這個基本原理延伸出去,

  • can make other truths or we can have other investigations into other areas. It's a fundamental

    我們可以發現更多基於此的真理價值,或是我們可以從原理源頭去延伸更多不同領域的研究。這就是

  • truth. Now, when a person says that he or she has principles, and something goes against

    基本原理。若當一個人說他/她有原則但卻有些事情違背了

  • their principles, that means that they have a very, very strong belief, and they have

    他們的原則,表示說他們有很強的信念,而且他們在

  • a very strong way of doing something or looking at things, and other people can't change that.

    做事和看待任何狀況時都有他們堅持的方式,是旁人無法干涉或改變的。

  • Okay? So that is a principle.

    了解了嗎?這就是「principle」(原理、原則)的意思

  • But if we look at "principal" like this, we have three different meanings. One meaning,

    若是「principal」,就有三種意思。一個是

  • as a noun, is the head position of an organization. The most common use is at a school. The principal

    名詞形式,代表在一個機構組織中居上位的領導者,最常見的就是學校的校長。

  • at a school is the head of the school; he runs the school or she runs the school. Another

    校長是一個學校的最高領導者,他或她負責處理學校上下大小事的運作。另一個

  • noun form... Another noun use...sorry...of "principal" is the money that you invest that brings you

    名詞形式,抱歉,另一個「principal」作為名詞的使用,是代表你所投資的金錢所衍伸出的

  • interest. Or if you take out a loan from the bank and you have to pay that money back,

    利息。或是,當你向銀行借錢,而你之後必須要將所借金額歸還時,

  • you will have to pay back the principal, which is the original money that they gave you,

    你需要歸還本金,也就是當初銀行借貸給你的金額

  • plus interest. So if you have a mortgage on your house and every month you're paying a

    另外再加上利息。所以如果你有房貸,金額會分攤到每個月小筆

  • little bit, you're paying a little bit from the principal and a little bit of interest

    小筆繳納,你需要支付一點本金加上一點利息

  • until you pay back the whole loan. As an adjective it means...sorry...primary or first. The principal

    直到你還清貸款。若是形容詞形式,表示最重要的或是首先的,在一本小說裡

  • character in a novel means the main character, or the first character, or the most important

    重要的角色,也就是主要的角色,或是戲份最重的主角,也或是貫穿文章最重要的

  • character. Now, keep in mind, they will sound the same, but obviously you can see the difference

    人物。請注意,他們的發音一樣,但在英文書寫上有很明顯的

  • in written English, so pay attention to that. Also, again, use context. Context will tell

    差異,要特別注意這部分。此外,記得一定要多利用上下文的句子來幫助理解,你可以

  • you which meaning you're looking at.

    從中知道真正的意思是什麼。

  • Next, we have "compliment" and "complement". Compliment, complement, they sound almost

    接下來,我們來看「compliment」和「complement」。「compliment」、「complement」的發音幾乎

  • identical. Both can be a noun or a verb. "Compliment" means nice words said about something or someone,

    一樣,且都皆有名詞和動詞的形式。「compliment」指的是對某事或某人說好話

  • or to say nice things. So if you want to compliment me on my lovely shirt today, by all means,

    或是讚美。所以若你想稱讚我今天穿了件很好看的上衣的話,記得

  • do so in the comments section at engVid. But if you don't want to compliment me, that's

    可以寫在engVid的討論區,但若你不想給我個讚美,也沒關係啦。

  • okay, too. But you can compliment this lesson by giving people, your peers more examples.

    但你可以按讚這部影片,讓更多人,或是你的朋友們來學更多的英文例子。

  • "To complement" means to complete or to add something to make the whole more complete.

    「To complement」的意思是使之完整或是補足使之可以更完美。

  • So, for example, if you go to a restaurant and you order a nice steak, the waiter will

    例如,當你去餐廳點了一份美味的牛排,服務生會

  • suggest a good wine to complement that steak. It means the wine flavour and the steak flavour

    建議你搭配一杯好酒來與牛排搭配可以更臻完美,來將酒氣的香味與牛排的美味

  • work together to have a complete, full flavour that you can enjoy. Okay? Compliment, complement.

    相互融合成一道完美的餐點,讓你可以享受完整的味蕾饗宴。了解嗎? 稱讚、補足

  • Let's look at a few more.

    來看看更多單字

  • Okay, so let's look at our next batch of words. Now, these three, they might seem like they're

    這是另一批的混淆單字。這三個字,字面上看來或許不太會

  • not really problematic because you can see the differences quite clearly, you will also

    造成你的混淆,因為你可以很明顯辨別其中的差異,你也可以

  • hear the differences, but surprisingly, these words are confused quite often, especially

    聽出發音的不同,但是,令人意外地,這幾個字卻常常被搞混,特別是

  • these two. Now, this is "moral", this is "morale", and this is "mortal". Now, you think because

    這兩個。你聽,這是「moral」,這是「morale」,而這是「mortal」。「t」的音你可以

  • of the "t" it should be no problem, but in natural speed English, that "t" is very, very

    很容易分辨出來,但是在正常速度下的發音時,「t」的音會非常非常

  • soft. "My mortal enemy." So that "t" is almost disappearing, and so it sounds like a little

    微弱。你聽,「My mortal enemy」(我的死對頭)的「t」發音幾乎聽不見,它會聽起來

  • bit like "moral" as well. So, when you're... If you're listening to something, you might

    有點像「moral」的發音,所以當你在聽英文時,有可能會被

  • get that confused.

    搞混

  • Now, what is a "moral"? As a noun, when you talk about a fable or a little... It sounds

    「moral」是甚麼意思?它是一個名詞,當談論到寓言故事或是恩....像是

  • like a children's story, but it has a lesson to be learned. There's a lesson to be learned

    兒童讀物,裡面會有些需要學習的重點,而這些故事中需要被了解的

  • from this story, so we call that lesson the moral. The moral of the story is: Be nice

    重要概念,我們可以稱為道德知識的學習。故事中的寓意像是:對待鄰居

  • to your neighbours, or whatever the moral is. As an... As an adjective, we can also

    要和善,或是任何一種善良品行等等。當它是形容詞形式時,我們也可以說

  • say "moral" when we're talking about the choice between good and bad. We talk about social

    「moral」是關於善惡之間的選擇,提到像是社會價值

  • values, we talk about the choice between good and bad, good and evil if you want to call

    正確與錯誤中的選擇,或是你也可以比喻成天使與惡魔的善惡抉擇

  • it, then we're talking about moral, a moral choice. When we use the noun, it's usually

    也就是我們所說的道德抉擇。而當我們想要使用名詞形式,通常會是

  • "morals". We have to worry about our morals as a society; or when you go to church, they

    「morals」(moral加上s)。作為一個社會當中的一份子,我們必須注重道德,或是當你去教會,

  • teach you morals; or when you're growing up, your parents teach you morals. They teach

    他們會教導你誡命,或是當你在成長過程中,父母會教你甚麼是道德規範。他們教導你

  • you what's good, what's bad, what's right, what's wrong. Okay? So that's "moral".

    什麼是正確的,什麼是錯誤的。正確,錯誤,這樣了解嗎?所以這就是「morals」(道德)

  • "Morale", a noun, is a basic feeling or attitude that is shared by a group. It could be a personal

    「morale」(士氣),名詞,代表一個團體當中的氛圍或態度,用在表達個人上面

  • thing as well. So when you're talking about an office full of workers, a good manager

    也可以。所以說,一位管理公司上下員工的好的領導者,

  • will make sure that the morale is high, that everybody's excited, everybody's passionate,

    需要幫助並確認員工高昂的工作士氣,讓每個人都充滿工作熱情

  • everybody wants to be there and everybody wants to work. It's a general good feeling.

    每個人都願意付出心力努力工作並享受在工作氛圍裡,營造出愉悅的氣氛

  • So a high morale. If you have low morale, it means everybody's like dejected; nobody

    工作士氣就高。如果士氣低落,表示每個人都垂頭喪氣、情緒低迷

  • wants to be there, nobody wants to work, everybody feels bad. You won't get much work done.

    沒有人想要待在這樣的地方,也無法提起精神工作,事務完成效率也很低

  • "Mortal" could be a noun or an adjective. A noun is basically a human being, because

    「Mortal」可以當名詞或形容詞,當名詞時表示人類,因為

  • we're all going to die. Adjective "mortal" means something that can die. Okay? So my

    死亡是人類生命的終點。而「mortal」當作形容詞時,表示有生命的期限,所以說

  • mortal enemy is my enemy that's going to kill me, or a mortal plant, or a mortal animal

    我的死對頭可以殺死我奪我性命,或是致命的植物,或是動物

  • can kill. So "mortal" has to do with death. Okay? So these three are often confused; be

    都可以置我於死,所以說,「mortal」(無法永生的)與死亡有關。這三個字常被搞混

  • careful about those.

    使用上要特別小心

  • These two, they look different, they sound different, but they're often mixed, they're

    這兩個字,看起來不一樣,發音也不一樣,但他們還是容易被混淆,讓人

  • often confused. "Personal". If you're talking about "personal", you're talking about yourself,

    搞不清楚。當你講到「Personal」這個詞,代表你這個個體,自己本身。

  • your private ideas, your private thoughts, your private choices or somebody else's private

    你想出來的點子,你自己的想法,你的決定,或是某個人的

  • things. Right? So it's a personal decision. You shouldn't ask me if you should go or stay...

    私事,可以嗎?既然是關於私人的決定,那麼想離開或留下都是你的決定,不該徵求我意見

  • Stay or go. It's a personal decision. I can't tell you. It's for you to make. It's private.

    待著或離開,是一個個體自我的決定,所以我無法告訴你怎麼做,是你做主宰,屬於私人的

  • Here, this is "personnel". So, here, "personal", "personnel". "Personnel" basically... Basically

    來聽發音,「personnel」,「personal」、「personnel」。「Personnel」基本上

  • means staff. So the personnel in a company, we're talking about staff. All the employees

    代表職員的意思,所以在公司工作的職員,就是我們所講的員工,所有在公司的工作人員

  • are the personnel. Basically, any group of people who are involved in something is the

    就是職員,基本上,任何多數人參與並共同從事某一事項,就是

  • personnel. It doesn't have to be in a company, but that's where you'll most commonly see

    人員。不限定說一定要在公司裡才算,但公司是你最常見被用來廣泛解釋的例子

  • it used. So these two, you can't mix.

    這兩個字,記得不要搞混

  • Now, before I continue, I just want to say one last... One more thing. You have to make

    在我繼續講下去之前,我要強調一件事,就是一定要搞清楚

  • sure that you know the differences between all of these, especially for tests like IELTS

    這幾組單字間的差異,特別是當你想要參加IELTS的考試時

  • where spelling counts. So you have one letter difference. One letter will cost you a point

    拼字用字很重要,當你寫錯一個單字,就會被扣分

  • on the IELTS. Okay? So it's very important to know. In tests like SAT that want to check

    可以嗎?所以這是需要非常小心注意的,在SAT考試上會測試你的

  • your vocabulary, they will make sure that you know the differences between certain words.

    單字,來了解你對於一些特定單字的辨識和理解能力

  • So, which brings us to the last batch: "censor", "sensor", "censure". The only difference is

    來看最後一組單字,「censor」、「sensor」、「censure」。其中唯一的不同點

  • this "h" sounds like an "sh". But again, in native speed, in native speakers' English,

    是「h」音會聽起來像「sh」,一樣,回到正常口語速度,從英語為母語的人士口中

  • you won't hear that "sh": "censure". In a sentence, it'll sound the same as "censor".

    你不會聽到「sh」的 音。「censure」在句子中的發音就像「censor」

  • So, what is a "censor"? It can be a noun. As a noun, it is a person who does the censoring.

    那「censor」是甚麼意思?它可以當作名詞,代表做檢查的審查人員

  • As a verb, "to censor" means to cut out or to stop from becoming publically available.

    若當作動詞,「to censor」表示刪除,或是不向大眾公開

  • So when you're talking about news, the news you see... Or any news, for example, about

    我們以新聞來舉例,當你所看到的新聞是關於到...像是

  • the military, okay? The military censors all of the information, so any information that

    軍方的消息,他們會審查並刪除資訊,只要是需要保密的資料

  • they don't want the public to have, they will keep back. They will keep out of the media.

    他們就不會向大眾公開,保護機密不外流,拒絕媒體採訪

  • They will censor it. They will put a block. Okay?

    軍方會審查資料,做防護措施,這樣了解了嗎?

  • A "sensor" is something that detects. Okay? So, for example, you have a smoke detector,

    「sensor」就是偵測,例如說,你有一個煙霧偵測器

  • it has a little sensor inside that feels the smoke and then starts making all the noise

    它裡面有小小感應器,可以偵測到煙霧後警鈴大作

  • that a smoke alarm does. In your camera or in your phone or in your anything, there's

    警報器就會響起。或是在你的相機、手機等等,裡面都會有

  • a light sensor. It sensors how much light there is or isn't. So, again, it comes from

    光線感應器,它會偵測明亮度。「sensor」這個字可以溯及到

  • the word "sense", to feel or to detect because machines don't really feel. Right? So...

    「sense」這個單字,表示去感應或偵測,但機器是沒有知覺的,可以嗎?

  • "Censure" is to express disappointment or anger at someone, but usually in a public

    「Censure」,表示對某人的表現感到失望或是不開心,且通常是公開性的表達這樣的情緒

  • way. So, for example, if I'm the teacher and I have a bad student in my class, I may censure

    例如說,在我教的班上有一位表現不好的學生,我可能會在其他學生面前

  • that student in front of all the other students. I will say, you know: "You're behaving badly,

    公開地責罵他,我可能會說:「你的行為表現真的令我很失望

  • and you shouldn't do that, and you're disturbing your peers", and not very good. So I will

    你不該這樣做的,你不該影響你的同學。」這非常不好,所以說我

  • censure the student. Now, for most of you, you're not going to use this word, you're

    責罵了那位學生。對大多數人來說,會用到這個單字的機會很少,而且

  • not going to hear it too often. If you're going to take an SAT test, for example, you

    你也不會很常聽到它。但若你要參加SAT考試,你就一定得

  • definitely need to know words like this.

    知道類似這些字彙

  • So, if you want to practice all... Your understanding of these words,

    好,若你想要練習一下對於這些單字的理解度

  • go to www.engvid.com, there's a quiz.

    在www.engvid.com裡有測驗題

  • You can also ask me any questions in the comment section.

    在討論區裡你也可以問我任何問題

  • Don't forget to subscribe to my YouTube channel, and I'll see you again soon.

    別忘了訂閱我在YouTube 的教學頻道,希望很快就可以再見到你們

  • Bye.

    下次見囉

Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam, and today's lesson: "Commonly Confused Words"

嗨,歡迎回來www.engvid.com. 我是Adam。今天的課程是關於幾個易混淆的單字

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

A2 初級 中文 英國腔 單字 名詞 發音 影響 形式 某人

【英文學習技巧】6 組容易混淆的單字(中英字幕) (Confusing Words – affect & effect, compliment & complement, and more!)

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    Matt 發佈於 2015 年 11 月 26 日
影片單字