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  • In 1965, 17 year-old high school student, Rendy Gardner,

    在 1965 年,一名 17 歲的高中生,Rendy Gardner

  • stayed awake for 264 hours.

    持續醒著沒睡長達 264 小時

  • That's 11 days to see how he'd cope without sleep.

    整整 11 天用來觀察他如何適應沒有睡眠的生活

  • On the 2nd day, his eyes stopped focusing.

    在第二天時,他的眼睛已無法對焦

  • Next, he lost the ability to identify objects by touch.

    接著,他喪失了透過觸覺辨認物體的能力

  • By day 3, Gardner was moody and uncoordinated.

    第三天時,Gardner 變得暴躁易怒而且笨手笨腳

  • At the end of the experiment, he was struggling to concentrate, had

    在實驗的尾聲,他的變化包括:難以保持專注、

  • trouble with short term memory, became paranoid, and started hallucinating.

    短期記憶失常、偏執,而且還出現幻覺

  • Although Gardner recovered without long term psychological or physical damage,

    雖然後來 Gardner 已完全恢復,且無長期心理或生理的後遺症

  • for others, losing shuteye can result in hormonal imbalance, illness,

    但對其他人而言,睡眠剝奪可能導致賀爾蒙失調、生病

  • and in extreme cases, death.

    甚至在極端的例子中,致死

  • We're only beginning to understand why we sleep to begin with.

    我們對於「為何人類會需要睡眠」仍知道的不多

  • But we do know it's essential. Adults need 7 to 8 hours of sleep a night

    但目前已確定的是:睡眠是必要的。一般成人晚上需要 7 到 8 小時的睡眠

  • and adolescents need about 10.

    未成年人則需要約 10 小時

  • We grow sleepy due to signals of our body telling our brain we are tired,

    當我們的身體發出各種訊號告訴大腦我們累了時,睡意便會開始湧現

  • and signals from the environment telling us it's dark outside.

    另外,環境發出的訊號像是天色暗了也有影響

  • The rise in sleep inducing chemicals, like adenosine and melatonin,

    隨著睡意漸增,腺苷和褪黑素的分泌也隨之增加

  • send us into a light doze that grows deeper,

    使我們進入淺眠後逐漸熟睡

  • making our breathing and heart rate slow down and our muscles relax.

    並使得呼吸和心跳速率趨緩、肌肉放鬆

  • This non REM sleep is when DNA is repaired and our bodies replenish themselves

    當進入上述非 REM 睡眠周期時,身體會重新恢復活力,DNA 也於此時得到修補

  • for the day ahead. In the USA, it's estimated that

    彌補一整天的疲憊。在美國,據估計

  • 30% of adults and 66% of adolescents are regularly sleep-deprived.

    有 30% 的成人和 66% 的青少年長期睡眠不足

  • This isn't just a minor inconvenience. Staying awake can cause serious bodily harm.

    這不是一個小問題。熬夜可能會造成嚴重的健康問題

  • When we lose sleep, learning, memory, mood, and reaction time are affected.

    當我們缺乏睡眠,學習、記憶、心情以及反應速度都會受到影響

  • Sleeplessness may also cause inflammation, hallucinations, high blood pressure,

    缺乏睡眠還會引起發炎、幻覺、高血壓

  • and it's even been linked to diabetes and obesity.

    甚至還與糖尿病、肥胖等有關聯

  • In 2014, a devoted soccer fan died after staying awake for 48 hours to watch the world cup.

    在 2014 年,一名瘋狂的足球粉絲因為連續熬夜 48 小時看世界盃而猝死

  • While his untimely death was due to a stroke, studies show that

    雖然他過早的死亡是中風導致,但據研究顯示

  • chronically sleeping fewer than 6h a night increases stroke risk by 4.5 times

    若長期的睡眠少於六小時,中風的風險

  • compared to those getting a consistent 7 to 8 hours of shuteye.

    比睡滿 7 到 8 小時的人多 4.5 倍

  • For a handful of people on the planet who carry a rare inherited genetic mutation,

    對於地球上部分遺傳到稀有地基因突變的人而言

  • sleeplessness is a daily reality.

    失眠對他們來說是家常便飯

  • This condition, known as Fatal Familial Insomnia, places the body in a night mirror state of wakefulness,

    該病症被稱為「致死性家族失眠症」,患者的身體會徹夜保持清醒

  • forbidding it from entering the sanctuary of sleep.

    無法進入夢鄉

  • Within months or years, this progressively worsening condition leads to

    在數個月或者數年後,逐漸惡化的病症會導致

  • dementia and death.

    失智或者死亡

  • How can sleep deprivation cause such immense suffering?

    區區睡眠剝奪怎會引起如此大的危害呢?

  • Scientists think the answer lies with the accumulation of waste products in the brain.

    學者們認為答案應該就在腦中不斷累積的代謝廢物上

  • During our waking hours, our cells are busy using up

    在我們醒著的時候,體內的細胞忙著

  • our day's energy sources which get broken down into various byproducts

    將每日獲取的能量來源分解成各種副產品

  • including adenosine. As adenosine builds up, it increases the urge to sleep,

    包括腺苷。當腺苷逐漸累積,人便會感到困倦

  • also known as sleep pressure.

    該作用被稱為「睡眠壓力」

  • In fact, caffeine works by blocking adenosine's receptor pathways.

    事實上,咖啡因的作用正是卡住腺苷的受器 (咖啡因與腺苷分子相似)

  • Other waste products also build up in the brain, and if they're not cleared away,

    其餘各種代謝物質也會在腦中累積,如果這些物質不被清除掉

  • they collectively overload the brain

    就會使得腦部負擔過重

  • and are thought to lead to the many negative symptoms of sleep deprivation.

    學者認為睡眠剝奪導致的許多病症正是因此而生

  • So, what's happening in our brain, when we sleep, to prevent this?

    那麼,我們正常的腦袋在睡眠時是如何避免上述作用發生呢?

  • Scientists found something called the glymphatic system, a clean up mechanism

    科學家們發現一種稱為「類淋巴系統」的清理機制

  • that removes this build up and is much more active when we're asleep.

    可以清除腦中代謝廢物,該系統在我們睡著時明顯更加活躍

  • It works by using cerebrospinal fluid to flush away toxic byproducts that accumulate between cells.

    類淋巴會利用腦脊隨液將累積在細胞和淋巴管中的有毒代謝物質清洗掉

  • Lymphatic vessels, which serve as pathways for immune cells have recently been

    淋巴管是免疫細胞的移動路徑,最新的研究發現

  • discovered in the brain, and they may also play a role

    腦中也有淋巴管分布,並也可能參與

  • in clearing out the brain's daily waste products.

    腦中代謝廢物的清理機制

  • While scientists continue exploring the restorative mechanisms behind sleep,

    隨著科學家們不斷地探索睡眠背後的生理恢復機制

  • we can be sure that sleeping into slumber is a necessity

    我們能確定的事情是,「一覺好眠」是不可或缺的

  • if we wanna maintain our health and our sanity.

    如果我們還想要保持健康,並維持理智的話

In 1965, 17 year-old high school student, Rendy Gardner,

在 1965 年,一名 17 歲的高中生,Rendy Gardner

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 睡眠 腺苷 代謝 小時 廢物

【TED-Ed】如果不睡覺會發生什麼事? (What would happen if you didn’t sleep? - Claudia Aguirre)

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    echoke 發佈於 2016 年 01 月 05 日
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