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  • What do you do when you have a headache?

    當你頭疼時你會怎麼辦?

  • You swallow an aspirin.

    你會吞下一片阿司匹林。

  • But for this pill to get to your head, where the pain is,

    但要使這片藥到達你的頭, 也就是疼痛的地方,

  • it goes through your stomach, intestines and various other organs first.

    它要經過你的胃,腸,和許多其他器官。

  • Swallowing pills is the most effective and painless way of delivering

    口服藥片是最有效且無痛的給藥方式,

  • any medication in the body.

    對於任何治療都是這樣。

  • The downside, though, is that swallowing any medication leads to its dilution.

    然而不利之處在於, 口服藥品會引起藥物的稀釋。

  • And this is a big problem, particularly in HIV patients.

    這是個大問題,尤其對於HIV患者來說。

  • When they take their anti-HIV drugs,

    當他們使用抗HIV藥物時,

  • these drugs are good for lowering the virus in the blood,

    這些藥物能夠降低血液中病毒的含量,

  • and increasing the CD4 cell counts.

    并提升CD4細胞(一種免疫細胞)的數量。

  • But they are also notorious for their adverse side effects,

    但它們也擁有很嚴重的副作用,

  • but mostly bad, because they get diluted by the time they get to the blood,

    其中最大的問題在於,它們在 到達血液的時候已經稀釋,

  • and worse, by the time they get to the sites

    在到達作用位置時就更糟了。

  • where it matters most: within the HIV viral reservoirs.

    這是最重要的地方: 當HIV病毒潛伏在宿主體內時,

  • These areas in the body -- such as the lymph nodes,

    它們存在於身體裡面,諸如淋巴結、

  • the nervous system, as well as the lungs --

    神經系統,以及肺部﹣﹣

  • where the virus is sleeping,

    這裡的病毒處於休眠狀態,

  • and will not readily get delivered in the blood

    不會很快進入血液,

  • of patients that are under consistent anti-HIV drugs therapy.

    只要病人持續使用抗HIV的藥物。

  • However, upon discontinuation of therapy,

    然而,一旦治療中斷,

  • the virus can awake and infect new cells in the blood.

    病毒就會甦醒並侵染血液中的新細胞。

  • Now, all this is a big problem in treating HIV with the current drug treatment,

    如今,上述弊端已成為運用 目前藥物治療HIV的大問題。

  • which is a life-long treatment that must be swallowed by patients.

    也就意味著病人需要終身服藥。

  • One day, I sat and thought,

    有一天,我突然想到,

  • "Can we deliver anti-HIV directly within its reservoir sites,

    “我們能否直接向 病毒的潛伏處注入抗HIV藥物,

  • without the risk of drug dilution?"

    從而降低藥物稀釋的風險?“

  • As a laser scientist, the answer was just before my eyes:

    作為一名雷射光科學家,答案是顯而易見的:

  • Lasers, of course.

    雷射光,當然了。

  • If they can be used for dentistry,

    如果雷射光可以被用於牙科,

  • for diabetic wound-healing and surgery,

    糖尿病傷口修復以及外科手術,

  • they can be used for anything imaginable,

    那麼它們可以被運用於任何可以想到的領域,

  • including transporting drugs into cells.

    包括向細胞內注入藥物。

  • As a matter of fact, we are currently using laser pulses

    事實上,我們正在運用雷射光脈衝

  • to poke or drill extremely tiny holes,

    在HIV感染的細胞上戳或鑽出極小的孔,

  • which open and close almost immediately in HIV-infected cells,

    這些孔開啟后會立即關閉,

  • in order to deliver drugs within them.

    由此可以向其中注入藥物。

  • "How is that possible?" you may ask.

    ”這怎麼可能?“你可能會問。

  • Well, we shine a very powerful but super-tiny laser beam

    是這樣,我們將一束能量極高且極其細的雷射光

  • onto the membrane of HIV-infected cells

    照射在被HIV感染細胞的細胞膜上

  • while these cells are immersed in liquid containing the drug.

    這些細胞被侵泡在含有藥物的液體里。

  • The laser pierces the cell, while the cell swallows the drug

    激光將細胞刺破,毫秒之間,

  • in a matter of microseconds.

    細胞就吞下了藥物。

  • Before you even know it,

    在你察覺到之前,

  • the induced hole becomes immediately repaired.

    被鑽出的孔就自動修復了。

  • Now, we are currently testing this technology in test tubes

    現在,我們正在培養皿或者試管中,

  • or in Petri dishes,

    測試這項技術,

  • but the goal is to get this technology in the human body,

    目標在於將這項技術運用於人體,

  • apply it in the human body.

    使它在人體內發揮作用。

  • "How is that possible?" you may ask.

    “這怎麼可能?”你也許會問。

  • Well, the answer is: through a three-headed device.

    是這樣的,通過一種三頭儀器。

  • Using the first head, which is our laser,

    第一個頭就是我們的激光,

  • we will make an incision in the site of infection.

    我們會用它對感染部位經行切割。

  • Using the second head, which is a camera,

    第二個頭是一個攝像頭,

  • we meander to the site of infection.

    我們用它來找到感染部位。

  • Finally, using a third head, which is a drug-spreading sprinkler,

    最後,第三個頭是一個噴藥頭,

  • we deliver the drugs directly at the site of infection,

    我們將藥物直接注入到感染部位,

  • while the laser is again used to poke those cells open.

    與此同時,激光將細胞刺穿一個孔。

  • Well, this might not seem like much right now.

    目前這看起來還不是那麼成熟。

  • But one day, if successful, this technology can lead

    但終有一天,如果我們能夠成功,這項技術將

  • to complete eradication of HIV in the body.

    完全根除人體內的HIV病毒。

  • Yes. A cure for HIV.

    沒錯,治癒HIV。

  • This is every HIV researcher's dream --

    這是每一個HIV研究者的夢想﹣﹣

  • in our case, a cure lead by lasers.

    對於我們來說,就是雷射光治療法。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

What do you do when you have a headache?

當你頭疼時你會怎麼辦?

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B1 中級 中文 TED 藥物 細胞 病毒 血液 治療

TED】我們能用激光治療艾滋病嗎?| 姆通茲|TED演講 (【TED】Could We Cure HIV with Lasers? | Patience Mthunzi | TED Talks)

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    Max Lin 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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