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  • Most people recognize his name, and know that he is famous for having saidsomething. But considering the long-lasting impact his teachings have had on the world, very few people know who Confucius really was, what he really said, and why.

    這個名字家喻戶曉,他說過許多至理名言。但是說到他對這個世界的深遠影響,只有為數不多的人對孔子這個人,他說過的話,以及他話語背後的真實含意, 有著深刻的理解。

  • Amid the chaos of 6th Century BCE Chinawhere warring states fought endlessly among themselves for supremacy, and rulers were frequently assassinated, sometimes by their own relativesConfucius exemplified benevolence and integrity, and through his teaching, became one of China's greatest philosophers.

    在公元前六世紀的中國, 社會呈現一片混亂,為了爭權奪利, 國與國之間的戰爭從未中斷,掌權者被刺殺也是家常便飯,有時候刺客還是他們的親人。孔子提倡了禮、仁,也因此,使得他成為了中國史上最偉大的哲學家。

  • Born to a nobleman, but raised in poverty from a very young age following the untimely death of his father, Confucius developed what would become a lifelong sympathy for the suffering of the common people.

    雖然出身貴族, 孔子從小就生活在很困苦的環境中,他的父親英年早逝,因此,孔子對於身世艱苦的人們,有著很強烈的同理心。

  • Barely supporting his mother and disabled brother as a herder and account keeper at a granary, and with other odd jobs, it was only with the help of a wealthy friend that Confucius was able to study at the Royal Archives, where his world view would be formed.

    為了承擔家庭重擔並照顧母親和身有殘疾的兄弟,孔子身兼數職,有時擔任牧羊人,有時還得當糧倉的會計,幸好,他得到一位有錢朋友的資助,而得以進入皇家藏書院學習,這也是他理論的發源地。

  • Though the ancient texts there were regarded by some as irrelevant relics of the past, Confucius was inspired by them.

    雖然資料庫中的許多古籍被當時的人嗤之以鼻,但是孔子從這些書中得到很多啟發。

  • Through study and reflection, Confucius came to believe that human character is formed in the family and by education in ritual, literature, and history.

    隨著學習和自我省思,孔子深刻地體會到人的個性和特質是在家庭中形成的,加上宗教儀式,文學和歷史中的教育意義。

  • A person cultivated in this way works to help others, guiding them by moral inspiration rather than brute force.

    一個人可以學著如何幫助他人,並以道德感念他們,而不是暴力。

  • To put his philosophy into practice, Confucius became an advisor to the ruler of his home state of Lu.

    為了實踐他的理念,孔子為了當時魯國的掌權者效力,擔任國家顧問。

  • But after another state sent Lu's ruler a troop of dancing girls as a present, and the ruler ignored his duties while enjoying the girls in private, Confucius resigned in disgust.

    但是在別國送了魯國掌權者一大批美麗的舞女後,魯國的掌權者便開始怠忽職守, 整天沉浸於美色,孔子悲憤地辭職。

  • He then spent the next few years traveling from state to state, trying to find a worthy ruler to serve, while holding fast to his principles.

    接下來幾年孔子周遊列國,期望找到值得他跟隨的主公, 同時也宣揚著他的理念。

  • It wasn't easy.

    這個過程很艱鉅

  • In accordance with his philosophy, and contrary to the practice of the time, Confucius dissuaded rulers from relying on harsh punishments and military power to govern their lands, because he believed that a good ruler inspires others to spontaneously follow him by virtue of his ethical charisma.

    他的理念與當時普羅大眾的想法背道而馳,孔子試著勸告掌權者不要以嚴厲的懲處和軍事刑罰,來管制他們的國家,因為他相信一位好的統治者,是依靠他的美德和人格魅力, 讓其他的人願意追隨他。

  • Confucius also believed that because the love and respect we learn in the family are fundamental to all other virtues, personal duties to family sometimes supersede obligations to the state.

    孔子也深信,人們從家庭中學習到的愛與尊敬,是其他美德的根本,人們對於家庭的責任有時甚至會大於對於國家的責任。

  • So when one duke bragged that his subjects were so upright that a son testified against his own father when his father stole a sheep,

    所以當葉公炫耀他的子民正直到一個兒子因為父親偷了羊兒去官府告發父親時,

  • Confucius informed the duke that genuinely upright fathers and sons protected one another.

    孔子告訴葉公,真正的正直在於父與子的互相保護。

  • During his travels, Confucius almost starved, he was briefly imprisoned, and his life was threatened at several points.

    在他的旅途中, 孔子受過飢餓,遭到過短暫的監禁,數度與死神擦肩而過。

  • But he was not bitter.

    但是他並不以為苦。

  • Confucius had faith that heaven had a plan for the world, and he taught that a virtuous person could always find joy in learning and music.

    孔子相信老天爺自有祂的安排,他也教導他人,一個具有美德的人,可以透過學習和音樂來找到樂趣。

  • Failing to find the ruler he sought, Confucius returned to Lu and became a teacher and philosopher so influential, that he helped shaped Chinese culture and we recognize his name worldwide, even today.

    可惜他始終尋不著值得追隨的主人,孔子回到了魯國,他成了最具影響力的夫子和哲學家,塑造中國文化,因此名留千古。

  • For the disciples of Confucius, he was the living embodiment of a sage who leads others through his virtue, and they recorded his sayings, which eventually were edited into a book we know in English as "The Analects."

    對於孔子的學生來說,他是一位至聖先師, 以他的美德服眾,他們記載了孔子所說過的話,集結成篇,也造就了我們所熟知的論語。

  • Today, millions of people worldwide adhere to the principles of Confucianism.

    時至今日,仍有數以萬計的人遵從著孔子的教誨.

  • And though the precise meaning of his words has been debated for millennia, when asked to summarize his teachings in a single phrase, Confucius himself said, "Do not inflict upon others that which you yourself would not want."

    雖然對於孔子的話的真正含意有許多爭議,但若要總結為一句話,孔子他說,「己所不欲,勿施於人。」

  • 2,500 years later, it's still sage advice.

    在兩千五百年後的今天,它仍是一句至理名言。

Most people recognize his name, and know that he is famous for having saidsomething. But considering the long-lasting impact his teachings have had on the world, very few people know who Confucius really was, what he really said, and why.

這個名字家喻戶曉,他說過許多至理名言。但是說到他對這個世界的深遠影響,只有為數不多的人對孔子這個人,他說過的話,以及他話語背後的真實含意, 有著深刻的理解。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 美德 追隨 哲學家 家庭 父親

【TED-Ed】認識孔子 (Who was Confucius? - Bryan W. Van Norden)

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    Ann 發佈於 2017 年 09 月 28 日
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