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  • This mouse loves sugar. He loves sugar so much that even after he's eaten and should

    這隻老鼠很愛吃糖。它愛吃糖愛到他甚至

  • be pretty full, he crosses a metal platform that gives his feet electric shocks just to

    在吃得很飽了之後,他還踩過通了電的鐵板

  • get a sweet reward.

    就為了要拿到甜食。

  • Sometimes our love of sugar makes us go a little overboard.

    有時候我們對糖類的熱愛有點過頭。

  • We've all been in that situation where we've had one cookie and then suddenlythe whole pack is gone.

    我們都有過這樣的經驗,吃了一塊餅乾,然後忽然... 整包都沒了

  • And then, we crave more. So can you be addicted to sugar?

    然後.... 我們想要更多。所以... 有沒有可能是糖類上癮呢?

  • Let's revisit our mouse friendthat brave little guy who risked his life just

    再回頭看看我們的老鼠朋友 - 那個勇敢的小傢伙,

  • for some sugar dissolved in water.

    冒險犯難只為了拿到糖水。

  • When he did this, a pathway was lighting up from the hunger and feeding region of his

    當他這樣做的時候,一個連線亮了起來,從他大腦的飢餓和覓食區

  • brain to another region important for motivation and reward.

    連結到另一個重要的區域,動機和獎勵。

  • He'd developed a reward seeking habit.

    他建立了一個尋求獎勵的習慣。

  • Looking at this pathway is like zooming in on our larger reward-processing centre.

    這個路線就好像我們的獎勵處理中心。

  • Researchers found that activating it increases compulsive overeating and binge eating behavior.

    專家發現了激活這個路線增加了暴飲暴食的衝動。

  • And they found that shutting down the pathway decreased that sugar seeking behavior.

    他們也發現關閉這個連線減少了嗜糖的行為。

  • But it didn’t stop normal healthy eating behavior, like having dinner.

    但是不會停止正常的健康飲食行為,比如吃晚餐。

  • For us, a reward seeking behavior is going to the fridge or pantry and getting a cookie.

    對我們來說,獎勵搜尋行為就是到冰箱或是食品儲藏室拿餅乾。

  • We're hardwired to love sugar because it has energy-dense calories.

    我們對糖類有很直接的喜好,因為它包含高熱量卡路里。

  • And it keeps activating our brain’s reward system,

    而且它不斷刺激我們大腦裡的獎勵系統,

  • and these behaviors aren’t new to research.

    研究顯示這些行為並不是最近的實驗中才發現的。

  • In an established animal model, rats are food deprived for 12 hours and then they're given 12 hour access to sugar water and food.

    在某個動物實驗模型中,一些老鼠被餓了12個小時之後再給予12小時的糖水和食物。

  • As a result, they drink a lot of the sugar water, especially when it becomes first available.

    結果顯示它們會喝下大量的糖水,特別是剛開始提供糖水的時候。

  • After a month on this feeding schedule, the rats display behaviors similar to those seen

    經過一個月同樣的餵食之後,這些老鼠顯現出與吸毒成癮一樣的反應。

  • in drug abuse. They binge on the sugar, and show withdrawals, cravings and even depression

    它們暴食糖類,並且如果得不到糖類時就會有戒斷、渴求,甚至沮喪的症狀

  • when it's not there. After this sugar bingeing the rats show a similar pattern of brain activity

    暴食糖類之後的這些老鼠的大腦活動模式

  • as other rats who are morphine-dependent.

    與嗎啡成癮的老鼠所顯示的非常類似

  • Many studies have compared sugar addiction to drug addiction, because they show similar

    許多研究中將糖類成癮與藥物成癮做比較,因為它們顯示出類似的徵狀。

  • symptoms. Like increased tolerance, withdrawals and unsuccessful attempts to quit.

    比如需求量增加,戒斷症狀,以及無法戒除上癮。

  • Could sugar really be as bad for us as drugs?

    糖類對我們的身體真的可能像毒品一樣糟嗎?

  • Some experts think so, arguing that sugar is toxic, messing with our hormones and harming our organs.

    某些專家認為如此,它們爭論糖類是一種有毒物質,會混亂我們的荷爾蒙並且傷害器官。

  • Thesugar is toxicargument is mainly related to fructoseit's one sugar primarily

    關於「糖類是有毒物質」的爭論主要與果糖相關-

  • found in table sugar or high fructose corn syrup. Fructose can only be processed by our

    主要用於食用糖類或是高果糖玉米糖漿。果糖只能被我們的肝臟處理

  • liver, so consuming too much puts a lot of stress on it. It’s been suggested that over

    食用太多果糖會對肝臟造成負擔。據推測隨著時間累積

  • time this can lead to metabolic syndrome, which in turn can lead to type 2 diabetes.

    果糖也可能造成新陳代謝的併發症,有可能導致第2型的糖尿病

  • Not everyone agrees with these claims that sugar is evil. Some of the studies that link

    並非每個人都同意糖類是罪惡的。某些研究將果糖與健康問題做連結

  • fructose to health problems have been criticisedbecause in them animal or human participants

    而被嚴格評判-因為這些研究中動物與人類參與實驗者

  • consumed way more fructose than most people would. And animals metabolise fructose differently

    攝取比普通人過量許多的果糖。並且動物對果糖的新陳代謝方式與人類不同

  • to humans. Studies show that mice and rats convert as much as 50% of fructose into fat,

    研究顯示鼠類可以將50%的果糖轉化成脂肪

  • while for humans it's more like one percent. What a fat rat.

    而人類大約是百分之一。真是隻胖老鼠。

  • And it's important to remember that many things, apart from sugar and drugs, can stimulate our brain's reward circuit.

    要特別記住,很多東西,除了糖類和毒品,都能刺激我們大腦裡的獎勵迴路。

  • Like exercise, gambling and to a lesser extent, fatty foods.

    比如運動,賭博,以及傷害程度小一點的,高油脂食品

  • It doesn't necessarily mean were addicted to those things, we just find them pleasurable.

    不一定代表我們會對這些東西上癮,但是這些東西讓我們很愉悅

  • It's pretty clear that sugar is an addictive food. But even if you like eating chocolate

    顯而易見的,糖類是種令人上癮的食物。但是就算你喜歡每天吃巧克力

  • or donuts every day it doesn't mean youre addicted. Very few people are.

    或是甜甜圈,也不表示你上癮了。很少人是。

  • Still, if you are finding it impossible to reduce sugar cravings, doing regular exercise,

    不過,如果你發現無法降低對糖類的需求,做些規律運動

  • eating dairy products and even chewing gum have been shown to help.

    吃些奶製品,甚至吃口香糖都顯示有幫助。

  • Whatever you do, just don't cross a metal platform that gives your feet electric shocks

    不管你做甚麼,就是不要踩過通了電的鐵板

  • to get a sweet reward. It’s not gonna end well.

    只為了拿到甜食。通常都不會有好結果。

  • If you haven't already, check out my last episode on what sugar does to our bodies.

    如果你還沒看過我上一集的影片,記得去看看,其中說明了糖類對我們身體的影響。

  • And subscribe to BrainCraft! It's pretty sweet.

    並且訂閱 BrainCraft!很甜喔。

This mouse loves sugar. He loves sugar so much that even after he's eaten and should

這隻老鼠很愛吃糖。它愛吃糖愛到他甚至

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你嗜糖如命嗎?(Can You be Addicted to Sugar?)

  • 21383 1173
    Adam Huang 發佈於 2016 年 01 月 18 日
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