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  • What if I told you that all illnesses,

    如果我告訴你,所有的疾病,

  • things like the cold, the flu, strep throat,

    如感冒、流感和咽喉炎,

  • came from wandering clouds of poisonous vapor?

    都來自周圍飄蕩的“毒氣”,你會怎麼想?

  • You'd probably think that absurd, and, don't worry, it's completely wrong.

    你應該覺得很荒唐。 是的,這樣說真是一個大錯誤。

  • Yet that's actually what people thought caused diseases for several centuries.

    可是,在古代的幾個世紀, 真的有人認為“毒氣”是疾病的源頭。

  • They called it miasma theory,

    他們稱它為 “瘴氣”

  • and everyone from the public to the medical establishment accepted it.

    而所有人,由大眾到醫療院所, 都相信這種說法。

  • But by the 1840s, in the midst of devastating cholera outbreaks in London,

    可是,到了1840年代,倫敦暴發致命的“霍亂”

  • a small group of scientists had grown skeptical.

    一小群的科學家開始懷疑了這種說法

  • Early microscopes had revealed the existence of tiny microorganisms,

    早期顯微鏡已顯示微小的微生物的存在。

  • and they proposed that it was actually these germs that cause diseases,

    他們提出這些微生物(病菌) 就是疾病的源頭,

  • hence the name germ theory.

    並稱之為 “Germ Theory” (菌原論)。

  • Though most people held onto their assumptions

    雖然大部分的人執迷自己的想法,

  • and strongly resisted this theory,

    並強烈地拒絕新的理論,

  • its supporters were determined to prove them wrong

    但新理論支持者決定藉著收集有力的數據,

  • by collecting compelling data.

    來證明他們是錯的。

  • Leading the charge was a physician named Dr. John Snow.

    率先做這事的是一位醫生,名叫約翰·斯諾。

  • Dr. Snow observed that cholera-infected patients

    他觀察 “霍亂” 的病人

  • experienced severe vomiting and diarrhea,

    有嚴重嘔吐和腹瀉。

  • symptoms of the gut as opposed to the lungs,

    這些是消化系統的症狀,而非肺部。

  • and thought that perhaps the disease was transmitted through food or drink,

    他認為這種疾病或許是透過飲食傳播的

  • not the air.

    而不是經由空氣。

  • After investigating previous outbreaks,

    在調查了先前的幾次爆發後,

  • he became convinced

    他深信

  • that cholera was spread through contaminated water sources.

    霍亂靠受污染的水而傳播。

  • Then, late in the summer of 1854

    1854年夏末,

  • when cholera suddenly struck the Soho district,

    霍亂突然在 Soho 區暴發

  • a neighborhood in London very close to his own,

    該地靠近倫敦,離他家很近

  • Dr. Snow was hot on its trail.

    斯諾緊追不捨

  • He requested the records for the deceased,

    他向有關單位要了死者的記錄

  • and within the first week, there had already been 83 deaths.

    發現在暴發的第一週,就已經有83名死亡病例

  • He mapped out where each of the deceased had lived

    他按圖標記死者居住地點

  • and found that 73 of them resided close to the water pump on Broad Street.

    發現其中73名死者都住在 位在 Broad Street 的一個水泵附近。

  • Dr. Snow strongly recommended shutting down the pump,

    他強烈地建議關閉那個水泵,

  • and because he knew how unpopular germ theory was,

    由於他明白 “菌原論” 是不受歡迎的,

  • he suggested that cholera was spread through a poison in the water

    所以當他在向當局提出報告時

  • instead of microorganisms,

    他說霍亂是透過水中的"毒“傳播的

  • when presenting his case to governmental officials.

    而沒提到“微生物”的字眼

  • They were unconvinced,

    雖然當局不相信他

  • but agreed to shut down the pump as an extra precaution.

    但他們同意關閉那個水泵, 作為額外的防範措施。

  • Almost immediately, new cases of infection subsided.

    很快地,幾乎沒有新的霍亂案例了

  • Bolstered by his success,

    受自己的成功影響,

  • Dr. Snow was determined to connect the contaminated pump water

    斯諾決心要研究

  • to the disease.

    受污染的水泵和霍亂的關係。

  • He found the story of a widow who had died of cholera

    他發現了一位因霍亂而死的寡婦。

  • and lived far away from Soho,

    住在離Soho很遠的地方,

  • but had a servant bring her water from the Broad Street pump daily

    但她的僕人每天都從 Broad Street 的水泵打水給她,

  • because she liked the taste.

    因為她覺得味道好。

  • He also discovered a workhouse

    他又發現在那水泵附近

  • located around the corner from the Broad Street pump

    有一家濟貧院。

  • that housed hundreds of people, but only a handful had become infected,

    住了幾百人,卻只有幾個人被霍亂感染了。

  • which Dr. Snow attributed to the fact

    斯諾認為原因是那家濟貧院

  • that the workhouse had its own private well.

    有自己的水井。

  • Finally, Dr. Snow heard of an infant

    最後,斯諾還聽說

  • who may have been one of the earliest victims of the outbreak.

    在霍亂暴發初期的受害者之一,有位是嬰兒

  • He learned that the child's dirty diapers

    他的髒尿布

  • had been thrown into a cesspool

    曾被丟到

  • right next to the public water pump on Broad Street.

    那水泵旁邊的汚水坑內。

  • Again, Dr. Snow presented his case,

    約翰·斯諾 再次提出他的發現,

  • but even then, city officials spurned his theory,

    但當局依然鄙視了他的理論,

  • not wanting to admit that there was human waste in London's water supply,

    因為他們不想承認倫敦的供水有排泄物。

  • or that they were wrong about miasma theory,

    更不想承認他們對有幾百年歷史的

  • which was, after all, hundreds of years old.

    “瘴氣” 的想法是錯的。

  • It wasn't until 1884 that Dr. Snow's efforts

    一直到1884年,斯諾醫生的努力

  • were vindicated by Dr. Robert Koch,

    才被羅伯·柯霍醫生所證實

  • who isolated the cholera-causing bacterium.

    他分離出霍亂的病菌。

  • Koch developed a technique to grow pure cultures,

    柯霍發明了一種 “細菌純培養” 技術,

  • and through a series of experiments,

    通過一連串的實驗,

  • definitively proved that a specific bacterium

    他證明了特定的細菌

  • directly cause disease.

    會直接導致疾病。

  • Major contributions to germ theory

    對証明 “菌原論” 最有貢獻的是

  • also came from prolific scientist Louis Pasteur,

    一位富有創造力的科學家 -- 路易·巴斯德

  • whose study of microorganisms led to the development of the first vaccines.

    他對微生物的研究促成第一種疫苗的研發。

  • By challenging assumptions with data-driven research,

    通過以數據為主導的研究,

  • these scientists discredited an age-old theory

    科學家挑戰了人的臆測, 證明了一個老舊的理論是不可信的,

  • and sparked a revolution that was incredibly beneficial to public health.

    他們引發了一場對大眾健康有利的革命。

  • But all of this raises the question,

    可是,以上所衍生的問題是:

  • what are the widely held scientific beliefs of today

    現今廣受支持的科學信念

  • that our descendants will find ridiculous?

    會不會被我們的後代認為是無稽之談呢?

  • And as any scientist would tell you,

    正如所有科學家所說的

  • a question is an excellent place to start.

    有疑問正是一個好的開始。

What if I told you that all illnesses,

如果我告訴你,所有的疾病,

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 霍亂 水泵 微生物 死者 科學家

【TED-Ed】幾位科學家如何改變我們對疾病的想法 (How a few scientists transformed the way we think about disease - Tien Nguyen)

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    Ann 發佈於 2015 年 11 月 21 日
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