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  • Muscles.

    肌肉

  • We have over 600 of them.

    超過六百個肌肉在我們身體內部

  • They make up between 1/3 and 1/2 of our body weight,

    肌肉和組織占了我們體重的三分之一到二分之一

  • and along with connective tissue,

    藉著結締組織

  • they bind us together, hold us up, and help us move.

    肌肉把我們的身體構成一體,幫助我們移動

  • And whether or not body building is your hobby,

    不管你習不習慣健身

  • muscles need your constant attention

    你得不時地注意你的肌肉

  • because the way you treat them on a daily basis determines whether they will wither or grow.

    因為你每天如何運用你的肌肉,決定了你的肌肉會萎縮還是成長

  • Say you're standing in front of a door, ready to pull it open.

    當你站在門前要拉開門

  • Your brain and muscles are perfectly poised to help you achieve this goal.

    你的大腦和肌肉會保持平衡,來協助你達成目標

  • First, your brain sends a signal to motor neurons inside your arm.

    第一,大腦會發送訊息到手臂的運動神經元

  • When they receive this message, they fire,

    當神經元接收到訊息,便會活躍起來

  • causing muscles to contract and relax,

    讓肌肉收縮或放鬆

  • which pull on the bones in your arm and generate the needed movement.

    拉持臂膀的骨頭,以便產生所需要的移動

  • The bigger the challenge becomes, the bigger the brain's signal grows,

    隨著挑戰性的增加,大腦訊息也跟著增強

  • and the more motor units it rallies to help you achieve your task.

    也有更多的運動神經元聯合起來,協助你達成任務

  • But what if the door is made of solid iron?

    那如果這扇們是鐵做的呢?

  • At this point, your arm muscles alone won't be able to generate enough tension to pull it open,

    這樣的話,單靠你臂膀的肌肉是不足以產生足夠的力道將門打開的

  • so your brain appeals to other muscles for help.

    所以你的大腦向其他部位的肌肉求助

  • You plant your feet, tighten your belly, and tense your back,

    於是,你站穩腳步、縮小腹,然後躬起身子

  • generating enough force to yank it open.

    產生足夠的力氣將門拉開

  • Your nervous system has just leveraged the resources you already have, other muscles, to meet the demand.

    你的神經系統利用槓桿原理,將你身體原有的資源和其他肌肉結合起來達到目的

  • While all this is happening,

    事情發生的當下

  • your muscle fibers undergo another kind of cellular change.

    肌肉的纖維產生了細胞變化

  • As you expose them to stress, they experience microscopic damage, which, in this context, is a good thing.

    當肌肉受到外力時,會有顯微的損害,在這樣的情況下,反而是件好事

  • In response, the injured cells release inflammatory molecules called cytokines

    相對地,受傷的細胞釋放出發炎的分子,稱為細胞因子

  • that activate the immune system to repair the injury.

    促使免疫系統修復損害的地方

  • This is when the muscle-building magic happens.

    這時肌肉增長的魔力發生了

  • The greater the damage to the muscle tissue,

    肌肉組織的損害越大

  • the more your body will need to repair itself.

    身體自我修復的需求也越多

  • The resulting cycle of damage and repair

    損害與修復一再地循環

  • eventually makes muscles bigger and stronger

    最終讓肌肉變得更大、更強壯

  • as they adapt to progressively greater demands.

    如此能夠適應所需的肌力

  • Since our bodies have already adapted to most everyday activities,

    因為我們身體早已適應每天多數的活動

  • those generally don't produce enough stress to stimulate new muscle growth.

    基本上不會有足夠的壓力來刺激新肌肉的成長

  • So, to build new muscle, a process called hypertrophy,

    肌肉成長的過程,稱為「肌肉機能發達」

  • our cells need to be exposed to higher workloads than they are used to.

    相較於一般情況下,細胞需要更多的負荷量

  • In fact, if you don't continuously expose your muscles to some resistance,

    如果你沒有讓肌肉持續地承受肌耐力

  • they will shrink,

    肌肉則會萎縮

  • a process known as muscular atrophy.

    我們稱之為「肌肉萎縮」

  • In contrast, exposing the muscle to a high-degree of tension,

    相對地,讓肌肉承受高單位的張力

  • especially while the muscle is lengthening,

    尤其是肌肉伸張時

  • also called an eccentric contraction,

    我們稱為「離心收縮」

  • generates effective conditions for new growth.

    讓肌肉有效地成長

  • However, muscles rely on more than just activity to grow.

    然而,肌肉的成長不僅僅依賴日常的活動

  • Without proper nutrition, hormones, and rest,

    沒有該有的營養,賀爾蒙的分泌和適當的休息

  • your body would never be able to repair damaged muscle fibers.

    你的身體將無法修復受損的肌肉纖維

  • Protein in our diet preserves muscle mass

    飲食中的蛋白質能保存肌肉群

  • by providing the building blocks for new tissue in the form of amino acids.

    提供新組織增長所需的胺基酸

  • Adequate protein intake, along with naturally occurring hormones,

    攝取足夠的蛋白質,加上自然分泌的賀爾蒙

  • like insulin-like growth factor and testosterone,

    例如胰島素和睪酮

  • help shift the body into a state where tissue is repaired and grown.

    能幫助身體的細胞修復和成長

  • This vital repair process mainly occurs when we're resting,

    當我們休息時,是細胞修復最重要的時間

  • especially at night while sleeping.

    特別是晚間睡眠時

  • Gender and age affect this repair mechanism,

    性別與年齡也影響了修復的機制

  • which is why young men with more testosterone

    年輕的男性,因為有較多的睪酮

  • have a leg up in the muscle building game.

    所以肌肉的成長也比較快

  • Genetic factors also play a role in one's ability to grow muscle.

    基因在每人肌肉成長,也扮演了重要的角色

  • Some people have more robust immune reactions to muscle damage,

    對於肌肉的損害,有些人免疫系統的反應比較強健

  • and are better able to repair and replace damaged muscle fibers,

    肌肉纖維受損後的修復、代謝比較好

  • increasing their muscle-building potential.

    增加了肌肉成長的潛力

  • The body responds to the demands you place on it.

    你的身體會呼應你的需求

  • If you tear your muscles up, eat right, rest and repeat,

    讓你的肌肉細胞分裂、吃對的食物、適當休息,並且循序漸進

  • you'll create the conditions to make your muscles as big and strong as possible.

    你就能賦予你肌肉,長得又大又壯的條件

  • It is with muscles as it is with life:

    肌肉之於人生,人生之於肌肉

  • Meaningful growth requires challenge and stress.

    面對挑戰與壓力,成長才有意義

Muscles.

肌肉

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 肌肉 修復 成長 細胞 身體

【TED-Ed】想要有肌肉嗎? 那就快來看看肌肉是怎麼形成的吧! (What makes muscles grow? - Jeffrey Siegel)

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    SylviaQQ 發佈於 2016 年 02 月 25 日
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