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  • If you've got a cold, mucus is hard to miss.

    如果你感冒了,那你一定擺脫不了黏液

  • But what is it, and what does it do besides making you miserable?

    到底黏液是什麼呢? 它除了讓你十分狼狽以外還有些什麼作用呢?

  • Your body produces more than a liter of mucus every day,

    你的身體每天會產生一公升以上的黏液

  • and all the wet surfaces of your body that are not covered by skin,

    身體中所有潮濕且未被皮膚包覆的器官

  • like your eyes, nose, mouth, lungs, and stomach get a liberal coating.

    像是眼、鼻、嘴、肺以及胃都有大量黏液保護

  • That's why they're known as mucus membranes.

    因此才有「黏膜」一詞

  • Mucus plays lots of roles in your body.

    黏液是身體中扮演了很多角色

  • It keeps delicate tissues from drying out and cracking,

    它保護脆弱的組織不會因為太乾燥而受損

  • which would expose them to infection.

    組織受損時可是會增加感染風險的

  • It lubricates your eyes so you can blink.

    它濕潤你的眼睛,讓你得以眨眼

  • It protects your stomach lining from acid.

    它保護你的胃不被胃酸侵蝕

  • It neutralizes threats by removing or trapping substances that could make you sick.

    它黏住或直接清除一些可能會害你生病的物質

  • And finally, it houses and keeps your body's trillions of bacterial inhabitants,

    最後一點,它還是你體內數以兆計細菌的家

  • your microbiota, under control.

    居於其中的微生物群落,盡在掌控之中

  • Mucus contains lots of different compounds,

    黏液中含有許多不同的化合物質

  • including proteins, fats, and salts.

    包括蛋白質、脂質以及鹽類

  • But a key component of mucus versatility is a set of proteins called mucins.

    但其中一樣物質是黏液眾多功能的關鍵,那就是「黏素」

  • Mucins are the primary large molecules in mucus

    黏素是黏液中主要的大分子物質

  • and are essential for giving mucus its slippery feel.

    也是黏液之所以黏黏滑滑的原因

  • They belong to a class of proteins called glycoproteins

    黏素是醣蛋白中的一員

  • which are built out of both amino acids and sugars.

    由胺基酸以及醣類構成

  • In mucin, long chains of sugars are attached to specific amino acids in the protein backbone.

    在黏素的結構中,糖鏈會接在蛋白質骨架的特定胺基酸上

  • The hydrophilic sugar chains help mucin dissolve in your body's watery fluids.

    親水性的糖鏈使黏素得以溶在富含水的體液當中

  • Mucus, which is up to 90% water,

    而黏液當中有 90% 都是水分

  • stays hydrated thanks to these sugar chains.

    黏素中的糖鏈也能幫忙抓住黏液中的水分

  • Some of these mucins can interact with other mucin molecules

    黏素還會和其他黏素中的分子結合

  • to create a complex network that establishes a barrier against pathogens and other invaders.

    成為更大而複雜的結構,進而得以擋住外來的病原和有害物質

  • That's why mucus is the body's first line of defense against foreign objects, like bacteria and dust.

    因此黏液是身體阻擋細菌或灰塵等外來物質的第一道防線

  • It's continuously produced to clear them from the respiratory tract,

    我們的呼吸道會持續地分泌黏液,以清除這些有害物質

  • like a slimy conveyor belt.

    就好像一條黏黏滑滑的輸送帶一樣

  • This keeps bacteria from getting a solid purchase on delicate lung tissue,

    這可以避免細菌在纖弱的肺部滋生

  • or making it to the blood stream, where they could cause a major infection.

    或進入血液循環,造成嚴重感染

  • Many of those harmful bacteria also cause diseases

    部分有害的病菌

  • when they cluster into slimy growths called biofilms.

    會聚集成一種稱為生物膜(或菌膜)的群落,使你生病

  • But mucus contains mucins, antimicrobial peptides, antibodies,

    然而,在黏液中含有黏素、抗微生物胜肽、抗體

  • and even bacteria-hungry viruses called bacteriophages

    甚至是以細菌為食的病毒,也就是噬菌體

  • that all work together to prevent biofilms from forming.

    上述物質共同作用後可以避免生物膜的產生

  • If microbes do become harmful and you get sick,

    假如微生物已產生危害,使你生病

  • the body ramps up mucus production to try to quickly flush out the offenders,

    那麼身體就會增加黏液的產量,試圖將這些侵入者沖洗掉

  • and the immune system floods your mucus with extra white blood cells.

    並且免疫系統中的白血球會湧進黏液中

  • In fact, the greenish mucus often associated with infections

    這也是感染時會出現偏綠色黏液的原因:

  • gets its color from an enzyme produced by those white blood cells.

    白血球所產生的酶會造成偏綠的顏色

  • This multi-pronged approach to bacterial management

    這樣多管齊下的方式

  • is one of the main reasons why we're not sick all the time.

    是讓我們免於病痛纏身的主要原因之一

  • Even though mucus protects against the infectious bacteria,

    即使黏液的作用是抵抗致病細菌

  • the vast majority of your body's bacterial tenants are not harmful,

    但事實上,絕大多數居住於你體內的細菌都是無害的

  • and many are actually beneficial.

    甚至有許多是有益的

  • That's particularly true when they live in mucus,

    尤其是那些住在黏液中的細菌

  • where they can perform important functions,

    它們可以發揮一些重要的功能

  • like synthesizing vitamins, suppressing harmful inflammation,

    像是製造維生素、抑制過度發炎反應

  • and controlling the growth of more harmful species.

    以及抑制有害微生物的過度滋生

  • So even though you probably associate mucus with being ill,

    因此,就算黏液總是讓你聯想到生病

  • it's really helping you stay healthy.

    它其實是在幫助你保持健康

  • Sure, it might seem gross,

    也許它看來很噁心

  • but can you think of any other substance that can lubricate,

    但你還能想到第二種物質能幫你保持濕潤、

  • keep your body clean, fight infection, and domesticate a teeming bacterial population?

    保持體內清潔、對抗感染、以及管控微生物數量的嗎?

  • Nope, just mucus.

    僅有黏液做得到

If you've got a cold, mucus is hard to miss.

如果你感冒了,那你一定擺脫不了黏液

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 黏液 物質 細菌 微生物 有害

【TED-Ed】黏液黏膜很重要! 來看看他們如何影響我們的健康 (How mucus keeps us healthy - Katharina Ribbeck)

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    SylviaQQ 發佈於 2016 年 03 月 03 日
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