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  • Well this is a really extraordinary honor for me.

    很榮幸來到這裡

  • I spend most of my time

    我大部分的時間都待在

  • in jails, in prisons, on death row.

    看守所、監獄,或者死囚牢房中

  • I spend most of my time in very low-income communities

    我也花很多時間參與低收入戶社區的計畫

  • in the projects and places where there's a great deal of hopelessness.

    或者到一些充滿絕望的地方工作

  • And being here at TED

    今天來到TED會場

  • and seeing the stimulation, hearing it,

    所看到的,聽見的訊息

  • has been very, very energizing to me.

    十分激勵人心

  • And one of the things that's emerged in my short time here

    在我短暫到訪的時間內,我意識到

  • is that TED has an identity.

    TED具有自己獨特的定位

  • And you can actually say things here

    你在這裡說的話

  • that have impacts around the world.

    可以影響整個世界

  • And sometimes when it comes through TED,

    透過TED傳送的訊息

  • it has meaning and power

    它的重要性和力量

  • that it doesn't have when it doesn't.

    大於別的傳播平台

  • And I mention that because I think identity is really important.

    提到這個,是因為我認為自我定位是非常重要的

  • And we've had some fantastic presentations.

    我們已經聽過一些十分美妙的演講

  • And I think what we've learned

    我想我們已經瞭解

  • is that, if you're a teacher your words can be meaningful,

    如果你是老師,你說的話會變得有影響力

  • but if you're a compassionate teacher,

    但如果你是一個富有同情心的老師

  • they can be especially meaningful.

    你的話會更別具意義意

  • If you're a doctor you can do some good things,

    如果你是醫生,你可以做些好事

  • but if you're a caring doctor you can do some other things.

    但如果你是有愛心的醫生,你可以做的更多

  • And so I want to talk about the power of identity.

    所以我要談關於自我定位的力量

  • And I didn't learn about this actually

    其實我不是在工作中

  • practicing law and doing the work that I do.

    學習到這些的

  • I actually learned about this from my grandmother.

    實際上,我是從我外婆身上學到的

  • I grew up in a house

    我在一個

  • that was the traditional African American home

    傳統的非裔美國家庭中長大

  • that was dominated by a matriarch,

    我的外婆

  • and that matriarch was my grandmother.

    掌管家中大小事

  • She was tough, she was strong,

    她既強悍又硬朗

  • she was powerful.

    很有權威

  • She was the end of every argument in our family.

    家中所有紛爭都由她收尾,做最終定奪

  • She was the beginning of a lot of arguments in our family.

    同樣的,家中很多的爭吵也是她起的頭

  • She was the daughter of people who were actually enslaved.

    她是奴隸的女兒

  • Her parents were born in slavery in Virginia in the 1840's.

    她的父母在1840年代出生於維吉尼亞洲,生下來就是奴隸

  • She was born in the 1880's

    她出生於1880年代

  • and the experience of slavery

    過去身為奴隸的經歷

  • very much shaped the way she saw the world.

    構成她看待世界的方式

  • And my grandmother was tough, but she was also loving.

    我外婆雖然強悍,但她也很慈愛

  • When I would see her as a little boy,

    當我小的時候

  • she'd come up to me and she'd give me these hugs.

    她見到我時,總是走來給我擁抱

  • And she'd squeeze me so tight I could barely breathe

    她緊緊得抱住我,幾乎到了無法呼吸的地步

  • and then she'd let me go.

    然後才放開我

  • And an hour or two later, if I saw her,

    一兩個小時後,外婆看到我

  • she'd come over to me and she'd say, "Bryan, do you still feel me hugging you?"

    會問我:「Bryan,你仍然感受的到我的擁抱嗎?」

  • And if I said, "No," she'd assault me again,

    如果我回答,「沒有。」她會再次攻擊我

  • and if I said, "Yes," she'd leave me alone.

    如果我說,「有。」她就不再打擾我

  • And she just had this quality

    她有一種

  • that you always wanted to be near her.

    讓人想親近她的特質

  • And the only challenge was that she had 10 children.

    唯一的困擾是她有十個小孩

  • My mom was the youngest of her 10 kids.

    我媽媽是當中最年幼的

  • And sometimes when I would go and spend time with her,

    有時候我想要花時間和她相處

  • it would be difficult to get her time and attention.

    很難得她的時間和注意力

  • My cousins would be running around everywhere.

    我的表兄弟姊妹們總是在圍繞在四周

  • And I remember, when I was about eight or nine years old,

    我記得,當我大概八或九歲的時候

  • waking up one morning, going into the living room,

    有天早上醒來,走進客廳

  • and all of my cousins were running around.

    我所有的表兄弟姊妹都在

  • And my grandmother was sitting across the room

    我外婆坐在客廳的另外一邊

  • staring at me.

    盯著我看

  • And at first I thought we were playing a game.

    一開始我以為我們在玩遊戲

  • And I would look at her and I'd smile,

    我笑著回看她

  • but she was very serious.

    但她非常嚴肅

  • And after about 15 or 20 minutes of this,

    大約 15 或 20 分鐘之後

  • she got up and she came across the room

    她起身走過客廳

  • and she took me by the hand

    牽起我的手

  • and she said, "Come on, Bryan. You and I are going to have a talk."

    她說:「來吧,Bryan。我們需要談一下。」

  • And I remember this just like it happened yesterday.

    這彷彿是昨天才發生過的事

  • I never will forget it.

    我永遠不會忘記

  • She took me out back and she said, "Bryan, I'm going to tell you something,

    她帶我到外面,跟我說:「Bryan,我要跟你說一些事,

  • but you don't tell anybody what I tell you."

    但你不可以跟任何人說。」

  • I said, "Okay, Mama."

    我說,「好的,嬤嬤。」

  • She said, "Now you make sure you don't do that." I said, "Sure."

    她說:「你保證你不跟別人說。」我說:「當然。」

  • Then she sat me down and she looked at me

    然後她要我坐下,看著我

  • and she said, "I want you to know

    她說:「我要你知道

  • I've been watching you."

    我一直都在注意你。」

  • And she said, "I think you're special."

    「我覺得你很特別。」

  • She said, "I think you can do anything you want to do."

    「我認為你可以做到任何你想要做的事。」

  • I will never forget it.

    我永遠忘不了這一幕

  • And then she said, "I just need you to promise me three things, Bryan."

    接著她說:「我要你答應我三件事情,Bryan。」

  • I said, "Okay, Mama."

    我說:「沒問題,嬤嬤。」

  • She said, "The first thing I want you to promise me

    她說:「第一,我要你答應我

  • is that you'll always love your mom."

    你會永遠愛你的母親。」

  • She said, "That's my baby girl,

    她說:「她是我的寶貝女兒

  • and you have to promise me now you'll always take care of her."

    你要答應我,你會永遠照顧她。」

  • Well I adored my mom, so I said, "Yes, Mama. I'll do that."

    我非常愛我媽媽,於是我說:「好的,嬤嬤。」

  • Then she said, "The second thing I want you to promise me

    接著她說:「第二,我要你答應我

  • is that you'll always do the right thing

    你永遠都要做正確的事

  • even when the right thing is the hard thing."

    即使有時候,正確的事是相對困難的事。」

  • And I thought about it and I said, "Yes, Mama. I'll do that."

    我想了一下,回答:「好的,嬤嬤。我會照做。」

  • Then finally she said, "The third thing I want you to promise me

    最後她說:「第三件事,我要你保證

  • is that you'll never drink alcohol."

    你永遠不喝酒。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Well I was nine years old, so I said, "Yes, Mama. I'll do that."

    我當時才九歲,所以我說:「好的,嬤嬤。我答應妳。」

  • I grew up in the country in the rural South,

    我在南方的鄉村中長大

  • and I have a brother a year older than me and a sister a year younger.

    我有一個大一歲的哥哥和一個小一歲的妹妹

  • When I was about 14 or 15,

    當我大概 14 或 15 歲的時候

  • one day my brother came home and he had this six-pack of beer --

    有一天我哥哥帶了半打啤酒回家

  • I don't know where he got it --

    我不知道他從哪裡弄來的

  • and he grabbed me and my sister and we went out in the woods.

    然後,他帶著我和我妹妹到樹林中

  • And we were kind of just out there doing the stuff we crazily did.

    我們在那裡瘋狂玩樂嬉鬧

  • And he had a sip of this beer and he gave some to my sister and she had some,

    我哥哥喝了一口啤酒,接著交給我妹妹,她跟著喝了一些

  • and they offered it to me.

    然後他們將酒遞給我

  • I said, "No, no, no. That's okay. You all go ahead. I'm not going to have any beer."

    我說:「不用了,你們喝就好,我不喝啤酒。」

  • My brother said, "Come on. We're doing this today; you always do what we do.

    我哥哥說:「試試看,今天我們就是要一起嘗試這件事

  • I had some, your sister had some. Have some beer."

    我喝了,妹妹也喝了,你也喝一些吧。」

  • I said, "No, I don't feel right about that. Y'all go ahead. Y'all go ahead."

    我說:「不要,我覺得這樣不好。你們喝吧。」

  • And then my brother started staring at me.

    我哥哥盯著我看

  • He said, "What's wrong with you? Have some beer."

    他說:「你哪根筋不對勁?喝點啤酒吧。」

  • Then he looked at me real hard and he said,

    接著他懷疑地看著我,他說

  • "Oh, I hope you're not still hung up

    「噢,我希望你不是還在

  • on that conversation Mama had with you."

    為了嬤嬤跟你說的話煩惱。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I said, "Well, what are you talking about?"

    我說:「你在說什麼?」

  • He said, "Oh, Mama tells all the grandkids that they're special."

    哥哥說:「喔,嬤嬤告訴所有孫子他們很特別。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I was devastated.

    我當時心碎了

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And I'm going to admit something to you.

    但我要跟你們承認一件事

  • I'm going to tell you something I probably shouldn't.

    這件事我也許不該說出來

  • I know this might be broadcast broadly.

    我知道這個演說是會散播出去的

  • But I'm 52 years old,

    我現在 52 歲了,

  • and I'm going to admit to you

    而且我要承認

  • that I've never had a drop of alcohol.

    我從來沒有沾過一滴酒精

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • I don't say that because I think that's virtuous;

    我說這個不是因為我認為這是有品德的事

  • I say that because there is power in identity.

    我說這個是因為自我定位是有力量的

  • When we create the right kind of identity,

    當有了正確的自我定位

  • we can say things to the world around us

    我們可以讓周遭的人

  • that they don't actually believe makes sense.

    更輕易被說服

  • We can get them to do things

    我們能激勵他們做些

  • that they don't think they can do.

    他們不認為自己可以做的事

  • When I thought about my grandmother,

    當我想到我的外婆

  • of course she would think all her grandkids were special.

    她當然會認為她所有的孫子都很特別

  • My grandfather was in prison during prohibition.

    在美國的禁酒時期,我外公被關在監獄裡

  • My male uncles died of alcohol-related diseases.

    我的幾個舅舅死於酒精相關的疾病

  • And these were the things she thought we needed to commit to.

    所以這是外婆要我們承諾她的理由

  • Well I've been trying to say something

    我開始來聊一些

  • about our criminal justice system.

    關於美國的犯罪司法系統

  • This country is very different today

    我們的國家和 40 年前相比

  • than it was 40 years ago.

    有非常大的不同

  • In 1972, there were 300,000 people in jails and prisons.

    在1972年,有三十萬人被關在拘留所或監獄中

  • Today, there are 2.3 million.

    現在,人數已經高達兩百三十萬人

  • The United States now has the highest rate of incarceration

    美國有全世界最高比例的

  • in the world.

    服刑人口

  • We have seven million people on probation and parole.

    我們有七百萬人在緩刑和假釋中

  • And mass incarceration, in my judgment,

    我認為,大量的判刑

  • has fundamentally changed our world.

    徹底改變了我們的世界

  • In poor communities, in communities of color

    在貧困的社區裡,有色人種的社區裡

  • there is this despair,

    充滿了絕望

  • there is this hopelessness,

    對未來不抱希望

  • that is being shaped by these outcomes.

    這就是現今制度產生的一些後果

  • One out of three black men

    18 歲到 30 歲的黑人

  • between the ages of 18 and 30

    有三分之一

  • is in jail, in prison, on probation or parole.

    在拘留所、監獄裡,緩刑或假釋中

  • In urban communities across this country --

    美國的大城市

  • Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington --

    洛杉磯,賓州,巴爾地摩,華盛頓

  • 50 to 60 percent of all young men of color are

    百分之五十到六十的年輕有色人種

  • in jail or prison or on probation or parole.

    在拘留所、監獄裡,緩刑或假釋中

  • Our system isn't just being shaped

    我國的法制系統

  • in these ways that seem to be distorting around race,

    不僅是被種族問題扭曲了

  • they're also distorted by poverty.

    似乎也被貧窮所扭曲了

  • We have a system of justice in this country

    在這個國家,我們的司法系統

  • that treats you much better

    對待富有的犯罪者

  • if you're rich and guilty than if you're poor and innocent.

    比貧窮但清白的人還好

  • Wealth, not culpability,

    財富決定結果

  • shapes outcomes.

    而不是有罪與否

  • And yet, we seem to be very comfortable.

    然而,一般民眾似乎還蠻習慣的

  • The politics of fear and anger

    恐懼和憤怒的政治操作

  • have made us believe

    讓我們相信

  • that these are problems that are not our problems.

    這些問題不是我們的問題

  • We've been disconnected.

    我們已經脫節了

  • It's interesting to me.

    引起我注意的是

  • We're looking at some very interesting developments in our work.

    我在工作中看到些非常有趣的發展

  • My state of Alabama, like a number of states,

    我所居住的阿拉巴馬州,如同很多其它州一般

  • actually permanently disenfranchises you

    如果你曾經犯罪過

  • if you have a criminal conviction.

    你的公民權利會被永遠剝奪

  • Right now in Alabama

    現在在阿拉巴馬州

  • 34 percent of the black male population

    百分之三十四的黑人男性人口數

  • has permanently lost the right to vote.

    已經永遠失去投票權

  • We're actually projecting in another 10 years

    我們推斷,再過十年後

  • the level of disenfranchisement

    被剝奪公民權的人數比例

  • will be as high as it's been

    將和通過選舉權法之前

  • since prior to the passage of the Voting Rights Act.

    不分上下

  • And there is this stunning silence.

    這事實令人震驚

  • I represent children.

    我很多客戶都非常年輕

  • A lot of my clients are very young.

    有時我會成為一些孩子的委任律師

  • The United States is the only country in the world

    美國是世界上唯一一個國家

  • where we sentence 13-year-old children

    會將 13 歲的小孩

  • to die in prison.

    判死刑

  • We have life imprisonment without parole for kids in this country.

    這也是世界上唯一一個國家

  • And we're actually doing some litigation.

    會判小孩終身監禁,不得保釋

  • The only country in the world.

    實際上,我們仍然在為這些案子奮鬥,進行訴訟

  • I represent people on death row.

    我也會為死刑犯辯護

  • It's interesting, this question of the death penalty.

    死刑這個問題很有趣

  • In many ways, we've been taught to think

    在很多方面,我們被引導朝向

  • that the real question is,

    人們是否應該為他們所犯的罪而死?

  • do people deserve to die for the crimes they've committed?

    這個問題去思考

  • And that's a very sensible question.

    這是個非常合理的問題

  • But there's another way of thinking

    但有另外一種思考的方式

  • about where we are in our identity.

    這有關我們本身的定位

  • The other way of thinking about it

    另一種思考的方式

  • is not, do people deserve to die for the crimes they commit,

    不是人們是否應該為他們所犯的罪而死

  • but do we deserve to kill?

    而是我們是否有權利去結束別人的生命?

  • I mean, it's fascinating.

    我的意思是,這很值得玩味

  • Death penalty in America is defined by error.

    在美國,死刑會被錯判

  • For every nine people who have been executed,

    每九個被判死刑的人之中

  • we've actually identified one innocent person

    就有一個是無辜的

  • who's been exonerated and released from death row.

    事後會被證明無罪,然後釋放

  • A kind of astonishing error rate --

    多人震驚的失誤率

  • one out of nine people innocent.

    九個死刑犯中,就有一個是清白的

  • I mean, it's fascinating.

    這真的難以置信

  • In aviation, we would never let people fly on airplanes

    以飛行來比喻,如果每九架起飛的飛機中

  • if for every nine planes that took off

    就有一架會墜機

  • one would crash.

    我們絕對不會讓人們開飛機

  • But somehow we can insulate ourselves from this problem.

    但不知道為什麼,我們卻無視這個問題

  • It's not our problem.

    這不是我們自身的問題

  • It's not our burden.

    這不是我們自身的責任

  • It's not our struggle.

    這不是我們該努力爭取的

  • I talk a lot about these issues.

    我談過很多相關的議題

  • I talk about race and this question

    我講到種族

  • of whether we deserve to kill.

    還有我們是否有權利結束別人的生命這個問題

  • And it's interesting, when I teach my students about African American history,

    有趣的是,當我教我的學生非裔美國人的歷史時

  • I tell them about slavery.

    我告訴他們有關奴隸制度,

  • I tell them about terrorism,

    有關恐怖主義,

  • the era that began at the end of reconstruction

    開始於南北戰爭結束後

  • that went on to World War II.

    接著第二次世界大戰爆發

  • We don't really know very much about it.

    其實我們不是真的非常了解這些

  • But for African Americans in this country,

    但對這個國家中的非裔美國人

  • that was an era defined by terror.

    那是個充滿恐懼的年代

  • In many communities, people had to worry about being lynched.

    在很多社區,人們擔心被處私刑

  • They had to worry about being bombed.

    擔心被武器攻擊

  • It was the threat of terror that shaped their lives.

    這種恐怖威脅就一直存在是他們的生活

  • And these older people come up to me now

    現在這些老年人見到我

  • and they say, "Mr. Stevenson, you give talks, you make speeches,

    他們說:「Steven先生,你四處演講

  • you tell people to stop saying

    你告訴人們

  • we're dealing with terrorism for the first time in our nation's history

    不要再說在美國歷史中,九一一是我們第一次

  • after 9/11."

    遭遇恐怖攻擊。」

  • They tell me to say, "No, tell them that we grew up with that."

    他們說:「告訴聽眾,我們從小就在恐怖威脅中長大。」

  • And that era of terrorism, of course,

    當然,這種恐怖行動

  • was followed by segregation

    造成了種族間的鴻溝

  • and decades of racial subordination

    於是有了長達幾十年的種族歧視

  • and apartheid.

    和種族隔離政策

  • And yet, we have in this country this dynamic

    然而,在這個國家裡

  • where we really don't like to talk about our problems.

    我們有個默契,不討論我們的問題

  • We don't like to talk about our history.

    我們不談論我們的歷史

  • And because of that, we really haven't understood

    正因如此,我們不真的理解

  • what it's meant to do the things we've done historically.

    這些歷史事件的真正意義

  • We're constantly running into each other.

    我們持續地互相產生衝突

  • We're constantly creating tensions and conflicts.

    我們不停地製造緊張情況和鬥爭