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  • If you've spent any time at all on YouTube looking for study advice, then you've probably come across this video called Study Less, Study Smart.

    如果你有在 YouTube 上搜索讀書的建議,那你大概會看到這部叫「讀得省時,讀得聰明」的影片。

  • This is a recorded lecture from Professor Dr. Marty Lobdell, who is a former psychology professor at Pierce College, and wanted to give his thoughts on how to be an effective student.

    這部影片是 Marty Lobdell 教授的課程, Marty Lobdell 以前是皮爾斯學院的心理學教授,他想教大家如何當個有效率的學生。

  • And the video came out when I was a sophomore in college, and I wanted to watch it.

    這部影片在我大二時就有了,當時我也很想看。

  • But the problem was, it was an entire hour long.

    但有個問題,那就是這部影片有整整一小時之久。

  • I could just never make the time.

    我就是擠不出時間看。

  • I've seen a lot of students say the exact same thing about the video.

    我看很多學生也這樣說。

  • So what I want to do with this video is try to give you about 80-90% of the value packed within the lecture, in about 1/10th of the time.

    所以我想要用十分之一的時間,把這部影片裡 80~90% 的精華傳授給大家。

  • So, to do that, I first watched the lecture myself, and took detailed notes on it.

    為了做到這點,我自己也先看完了整部影片,然後詳細地做了筆記。

  • If you want those notes, I've actually included them at the end of this video.

    如果你想要這些筆記,我在影片的最後都有附上。

  • But first, let's get into the tips.

    但首先,我們就先從技巧講起。

  • So, tip number 1 is to break your studying into chunked sessions.

    技巧一:把你的讀書時間切成一段一段。

  • And the reason for this is that the average student can only really pay attention for about 25-30 minutes.

    這麼做的原因是因為大多數的學生只能專注 25~30 分鐘。

  • This goes across the board, from lectures, to reading, to studying.

    不管是在上課、閱讀或讀書都一樣。

  • After about 25-30 minutes, your efficiency starts to really taper off.

    過了大約 25~30 分鐘之後,你的效率就會逐漸下降。

  • And that's why the advice to simply "study more" is not effective at all.

    所以「讀久一點」這種建議是一點用都沒有的。

  • Instead, you want to break your study sessions into about 20-30 minute chunks.

    反之,你要將你的讀書時間切成每 20~30 分鐘一段。

  • And after those are done, take 5 minute breaks where you do something fun, or at least away from your studies.

    讀完每 20~30 分鐘後就休息 5 分鐘,這 5 分鐘你可以做一些有趣的事,或至少好好遠離你的書本。

  • Also, once your study sessions are done for the entire day, you want to give yourself a real, tangible reward for doing it.

    當你照著這種步調讀完一整天,你可以給自己明確的獎勵。

  • As Dr. Lobdell says in the lecture, reinforcement of positive things builds good study habits.

    Lobdell 博士在課程中提到,給予自己正面回饋可以建立良好的讀書習慣。

  • And as an added benefit, you're training yourself to study.

    這種額外的獎勵可以訓練你習慣讀書。

  • As you keep doing this, you're going to able to study for longer and longer on each session.

    當你持續這麼做,你讀書的時段就能變得越來越長。

  • Tip number 2 is to create a dedicated study area.

    技巧二:給自己一個專心讀書的地方。

  • The the reason for this is that our environment, the context that we're in, largely determines our behavior.

    因為我們的環境、我們所處的地點會大大決定我們的行為。

  • So think about when you're in class.

    想想你在課堂上時。

  • When the professor presents a question to the entire class, you instinctively raise your hand.

    當教授問全班一個問題,你會本能地舉起手。

  • But if he asks you specifically, you're going to give a verbal response.

    如果他再更具體地問下去,你則會口頭回應他。

  • And this is automatic.

    這是很自然的反應。

  • You're conditioned to do it.

    你已經習慣這麼做了。

  • Well, your studying area is the exact same.

    你的讀書地點也一樣。

  • If you do it in a place where you're conditioned to do other things, like sleep, or play video games, or hang out with friends, it's going to be really hard to get into your studying.

    如果你在你會做其他事的地方讀書,比方說睡覺、玩電玩、跟朋友閒晃,那你會很難進入讀書的狀況。

  • What you want to do is find an area that is specifically used for studying, so the context of the situation makes it easy for you to get into your studies.

    你要做的是找一個專門用來讀書的地方,對的環境會讓你更專注在讀書上面。

  • Dr. Lobdell's third tip is to study actively, and it's best summed up with this quote, straight from the lecture:

    Lobdell 博士的第三個技巧是「主動學習」,直接用課程裡的一段句話來總結就是:

  • The more active you are in your learning, the more effective you'll be.

    你越主動積極地學習,你就會學得更有效率。

  • The best way to do this, rather than going through rote memorization, or reading and rereading chapters from your book, is to first ask yourself:

    比起死背硬記或反覆讀著課本的內容,最好的方式是問問自己:

  • Before studying, what is it that I'm learning?

    在開始讀書之前,我是在學什麼?

  • What you're learning is going to fall into one of two categories, either facts or concepts.

    你學的東西會區分成兩大類,不是「事實」就是「概念」。

  • A concept is something like, what does this particular bone in the human body do?

    概念比較像是,人體中這跟骨頭的功能是什麼?

  • You have to understand it.

    你必須要理解它。

  • And a fact is just something you need to remember.

    事實只是你要記下來的東西。

  • What the name of this bone is?

    這跟骨頭叫什麼名字?

  • Now, concepts are more important than facts because once you learn a concept, once you truly understand its inner workings, it's with you forever.

    概念比事實更為重要,因為只要你抓到概念、只要你真正了解它是如何運作的,這個東西就會跟著你一輩子。

  • You're going to remember it.

    你就會記得它。

  • Facts, on the other hand, can sort of drift away over time, and the good thing about that is that we have Google.

    而事實可能會隨著時間忘記,但好在我們有 Google。

  • We can look up facts very easily.

    我們很容易就可以查到事實。

  • Unfortunately, in a testing situation in class, you have to remember both facts and concepts, and you don't have access to Google, usually.

    不幸的是,在考試的情況下,你必須同時記得事實和概念,而且通常你沒辦法用 Google 幫你。

  • But still, concepts are going to be more important to learn first.

    但還是一樣,先理解概念才是最重要的。

  • The best way to learn these concepts and to be sure you know them is to put them in your own words.

    想要學習概念並確保自己真的有理解,最好的方法就是用自己的話把它說出來。

  • Test yourself and learn actively.

    主動學習並考考自己。

  • There's one thing he gives as an example, which I think is one of the most important parts from the entire lecture, and it's his example about highlighting.

    Lobdell 博士舉了一個例子,我覺得這是他課程中最重要的一部分,這個例子是關於「畫重點」。

  • Most students know not to highlight entire sections of the book because if you do that, you're basically highlighting nothing at all.

    大多數的學生都知道不要把整本書畫好畫滿,因為這樣有畫等於沒畫。

  • But if you highlight really important terms, and then you go back after your first read and highlight session, and study them.

    但如果你畫下很重要的術語,讀完第一次後再回去複習畫記的部分。

  • And just simply recognize the thing you highlighted before, and say, "Oh, I know it."

    只是認得你之前畫記過的東西,然後跟自己說「噢,這個我知道啊!」

  • Then you're getting into this dangerous territory where you don't know whether you're actually recalling something, or simply recognizing it.

    那你就落入了非常危險的處境,你會不知道自己是不是真的可以回想起某些片段,還是只是純粹認得它。

  • The human brain is very good at recognizing things.

    人類的大腦很會認東西。

  • We can recognize people's faces, even if we haven't seen them in a long time.

    即使好一陣子沒有看到一些人,我們還是可以認出他們的臉。

  • But the difference between recognition and recollection is that recognition requires an initial trigger, a cue.

    但「認得」和「記得」的差別在於,要「認得」某個東西會需要一個觸發點、一個線索。

  • And if you're in a test, there is no trigger or cue, you have to actually pull it forth from your memory.

    如果你在考試,那不會有任何觸發點或線索,你必須自己把你讀的內容從記憶裡抽出來。

  • To test and make sure that you're actually recalling something, instead of just recognizing it, you need to quiz yourself.

    為了要確定你真的可以回想起讀過的東西,而不只是認得它,你要考考你自己。

  • You need to do active studying and active learning.

    你必須主動讀書、主動學習。

  • The 4th tip is to take more effective notes, and he's really brief on this one.

    技巧四是有效率地做筆記,針對這點,Lobdell 博士只是簡單說明了一下。

  • Basically, he says, after class, as soon as possible, and truly as soon as possible, flesh out your notes a bit.

    基本上,他說在課堂結束後,你必須盡快在你的筆記補充細節。

  • Add some more to them so you can actually solidify the concepts in your mind.

    幫你的筆記加上一些細節,如此一來就能夠更熟記這個概念。

  • If you're fuzzy on something, ask another classmate who also took good notes, or go to office hours.

    如果你對某些地方有點模糊,就去問問其他擅長做筆記的同學,或在諮詢時間去找教授。

  • Or wait until the next lecture and ask the professor before he starts if he can clarify something that you don't really have a good grasp on.

    或也可以等到下一堂課開始之前,問教授能不能解釋一下你不太理解的地方。

  • The 5th tip is to summarize or teach what you learned.

    技巧五:幫自己所學的東西做摘要或教其他人。

  • He says the best way to actually learn something is to teach it.

    Lobdell 博士說,最好的學習方式就是教導他人。

  • The reason for this is twofold.

    原因有以下兩個。

  • Number 1, it's a great form of active studying because you're forcing your brain to recall all the information, so you can basically summarize it for somebody.

    第一:教別人是主動學習的其中一種形式,因為你在強迫你的大腦回想資訊,這樣你才可以講給某人聽。

  • And number 2, you're really making sure that you fully understand the subject.

    第二:你可以百分之百確定你是否完全了解這個領域。

  • If you're explaining it to somebody who has absolutely no idea about the the topic, and they're coming at it from a beginner's perspective.

    如果你把某個東西解釋給外行人聽,他們會從初學者的角度理解這個概念。

  • Then you're really going to have an easy time of pinpointing gaps in your own understanding.

    那你很容易就可以認知到自己還有還有哪些不理解之處。

  • Tip number 6 is to use your textbooks correctly.

    技巧六:正確地使用你的教科書。

  • In this part of the lecture, he goes over the SQ3R method, which stand for survey, question, read, recite, and review.

    在這個部分,他提到 SQ3R 法,這四個字分別代表:概覽、發問、精讀、背誦、複習。

  • And as I talked about in my active reading video, I think overarching systems like this are actually kind of cumbersome and time consuming.

    我在一部主動閱讀的影片中也有提到,我覺得這種整體性的方法非常沒效率又浪費時間。

  • But I do think it's important that you take individual portions of these systems and see if they're worth it for your studying methods.

    但我認為將這個系統的一部分獨立出來實踐、觀察這個方法是否有助於讀書是很重要的。

  • As an example, the survey portion of SQ3R, surveying the chapter before you read it.

    比方說 SQ3R 的「概覽」,要你在開始細讀之前先大略瀏覽這個章節。

  • Especially going to the end and looking at the review questions and the vocabulary, can really prime your brain for picking out the most important information when you actually do the reading.

    尤其是翻到課本後面,看看複習題和詞彙可以讓你的大腦事先準備好,當你在細讀時,大腦就會抓出最重要的資訊。

  • And Dr. Lobdell's 7th and final tip is to use mnemonics when studying facts.

    Lobdell 博士的第七個技巧,也是最後一個技巧是,當你在記憶事實時要善用「助記法」。

  • Now, facts, as opposed to concepts, are a lot harder to tie actual meaning to.

    事實跟概念相反,較難跟實質上的意義有所關聯。

  • And as a result, a lot of students often turn to simple rote memorization to remember them.

    因此,有許多學生常常就用死背的方式來記誦。

  • But a better way to go about it is to use mnemonics.

    但有個比較好的選擇就是利用「助記法」。

  • And a mnemonic is really any system that facilitates recall, but he goes over three specific types of mnemonics in the video.

    可以幫助你回想的任何一種系統都算是助記法,但 Lobdell 博士在課程中提了三種助記法。

  • And those three are acronyms, things like Roy G. Biv for remembering the color spectrum.

    這三種包括「首字母縮略字」,像 Roy G. Biv (紅橙黃綠藍靛紫) 的口訣就是為了記憶色譜。

  • Coined sayings, things like, "In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue."

    自創短語,像是「哥倫布在 1492 年航向湛藍大海。」

  • And the third one, which both I and Dr. Lobdell think is the best one, image associations.

    第三個是我跟 Lobdell 博士覺得最好的方法——運用圖像聯想。

  • Another way to think about image associations are just interacting images, including the thing you're trying to study, that create a ridiculous picture or story in your head.

    另一個圖像聯想的方式是直接跟影像互動,像是把你要讀進腦袋的東西想像成荒謬的圖片或是故事。

  • The more emotionally evocative or weird it is, the more easily you're going to be able to recall that piece of information.

    感性上越容易喚起記憶的或越詭異的圖像,都更能讓你回想起那則資訊。

  • So that is my summary of Dr. Lobdell's lecture.

    以上就是我對 Lobdell 課程的概述。

  • If you want to see the entire hour long video, I have it linked down in the description.

    如果你要看一小時的完整課程,我在下方的資訊欄有附上連結。

  • Otherwise, you can get my notes and other things in the end card.

    也可以在影片的結束畫面下載我的筆記和其他資料。

  • Thanks for watching this video, and I will see you in the next one.

    感謝你收看這支影片,我們下支影片見!

  • Hey guys, thanks for sticking around to the end of my video.

    嘿!各位,謝謝你們看到最後。

  • Now, if you want to get even more study tips, I made a video about advanced study tips last week and you can see those by clicking the thumbnail.

    如果還想學更多讀書技巧,我上週有錄一部「進階讀書心法」的影片,你可以點選縮圖前往觀看。

  • Also, if you want to get new study tips every single week, and ways to be an awesome college student, then just click the big, red subscribe button, right there.

    如果你每週都想學到新的讀書技巧、當個超級資優生,那就按下大大的紅色訂閱鍵,就在這邊。

  • As I said in this video, you can get the detailed notes on the entire lecture by clicking the orange button to go to the companion blog post for this video.

    點擊橘色按鈕進入這部影片的部落格文章,你就可以索取完整課程的詳細筆記。

  • Also, if you want to become an awesome studier, I wrote a hundred-plus page book on how to get better grades, and you can get it for free by clicking the picture of the book.

    如果你想變成學霸,我有寫一本幾百頁的書,教你如何得到好成績,點一下這本書的圖片就可以免費索取。

  • Lastly, if you want to connect with me, or have ideas for new videos, you can either connect with me on Twitter @Tom Frankly, or just leave a comment on this video.

    最後,如果你想跟我聯繫或對影片有任何想法,你可以透過 Twitter @Tom Frankly 找到我,或直接在影片下方留言。

If you've spent any time at all on YouTube looking for study advice, then you've probably come across this video called Study Less, Study Smart.

如果你有在 YouTube 上搜索讀書的建議,那你大概會看到這部叫「讀得省時,讀得聰明」的影片。

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 讀書 技巧 影片 概念 博士 教授

不會準備考試嗎?教你高效率讀書法,讓你用少少時間把書讀好!(Study Less Study Smart: A 6-Minute Summary of Marty Lobdell's Lecture - College Info Geek)

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