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  • The optimists will say that this glass is half full, while the pessimists proclaim it's half empty.

    樂觀主義者會說這個杯子裡的水還有一半,悲觀主義者則會說水只剩一半了

  • Of course, others may suggest that it's completely full of all the atoms that made up water and air.

    當然,還有一些人會說這杯子裡充滿的是組成水和空氣的原子

  • Others still might remind you that atoms are 99.99% empty space,

    另一派的人會告訴你原子 99.99 % 是不占空間的

  • making the glass...mostly nothing!

    這麼說,這個杯子裡幾乎空無一物!

  • But in all seriousness,

    讓我們回歸正題

  • can science explain your emotional perspective and outlook on life?

    科學是否能解釋你看事情的態度和對人生的看法?

  • It turns out, it may not be in your control.

    結果顯示,是悲觀還樂觀並非自己能夠決定

  • Research has shown that those with two long alleles on specific genes controlling for serotonin

    研究顯示生來有兩個控制血清素的長對偶基因的人

  • are more likely to focus on positive images - like someone enjoying ice cream

    比較容易把注意力放在正向的畫面上,例如一個正在快樂吃著冰淇淋的人

  • - compared to those with a short allele on the same gene,

    相較之下,生來只有一個短對偶基因的人

  • who are more likely to focus on negative images - like someone being robbed.

    比較容易留意到負面的畫面,例如有人被搶了

  • Variation in the oxytocin receptor gene can also affect your outlook;

    催產素接收基因的差異也可能影響你的觀點;

  • Individuals with two copies of guanine are noted to be more optimistic with higher self-esteem,

    基因裡有兩對鳥嘌呤的人被指出比較樂觀,自尊心也比較強

  • while those with copies of adenine were less positive.

    而有兩對腺嘌呤的人則較不樂觀

  • So it seems that people may be genetically susceptible to pessimism.

    所以看起來一部份的人可能天生就比較悲觀

  • Interestingly,

    有趣的是,

  • optimists are less likely to be rehospitalized after coronary artery bypass surgery,

    樂觀主義者在冠狀動脈搭橋手術後,再住院的機率較低、

  • show higher academic achievements and even better socioeconomic status.

    有更顯著的學術成就,甚至享有較高的社會經濟地位

  • But it's not all good; they can overestimate their abilities and underestimate risk.

    但並不是什麼都好;他們很有可能做超越自己能力的事,並且低估風險

  • Pessimists, on the other hand, have a more realistic view of the world, are more cautious when planning for the future and may even live longer.

    相對的,悲觀主義者能看見世界較真實的一面

  • A landmark study spanning 20 years found that

    在規劃未來時會比較小心,甚至因此活得比較長

  • pessimists use a cautious approach to their finances and health,

    一個歷經 20 年的重大研究顯示

  • avoiding risky behaviours such as smoking and excessive drinking,

    悲觀主義者面對財務和健康時會十分謹慎

  • ultimately giving them the last laugh - literally - over optimists.

    也較容易避免像是抽煙和飲酒過度這種有風險的行為

  • But, statistically, most of us are hardwired to lean towards optimism.

    讓他們相較於樂觀主義者更為長壽

  • Known as the Optimism Bias and found in around 80% of the population,

    但是,數據顯示,大多數人生來就較為樂觀

  • we tend to overestimate the probability of positive events occurring in the future,

    這個現象被稱為「樂觀偏見」,80 % 的人都是如此

  • while grossly underestimating the probability of negative ones.

    我們傾向於過度相信未來會發生的事會是好的

  • For example, even though the divorce rate can be as high as 40%,

    並且嚴重忽略負面事情的可能性

  • most newlyweds predict their probability of getting divorced at...0%.

    例如,即使現在離婚率高達 40 %

  • Chances are, when you imagine your future, it's usually better than your current situation.

    很多新婚夫妻都預想他們離婚的機率是...0 %

  • Furthermore, we often imagine ourselves

    其實呢,你想像的未來通常都比現況好

  • as being more intelligent, sociable and honest than other people.

    另外,我們常常想像自己

  • When we look at the brain,

    比實際上更聰明、有更多朋友,也比其他人更誠實

  • we actually see the left half exhibits increased activity when imagining positive events,

    現在讓我們來看看人的大腦

  • whereas during negative events the right half's activity does increases,

    當人想像正向的事情時,我們真的能看見大腦左半部變得活躍

  • but to a much lesser degree.

    而當想負面的事情時,右半邊會變得較活躍

  • This suggests that the brain chooses to ignore

    但變化的程度小多了

  • and filter out negative information and focus on positivity.

    這顯示人的大腦選擇忽略、

  • Our perspective is, whether you're genetically predisposed to see the glass as half empty or half fulldon't waste water and just drink the damn glass already!

    過濾掉負面資訊,並專注在正向想法上

  • This actually reminded us of another common saying though,

    我們的看法是,不論你生來傾向相信杯子只剩一半的水或還有一半的水,都別浪費了,快喝杯子裡的水吧!

  • thatGiving is better than receiving” -

    這倒是讓我們想起一句格言

  • but is that scientifically accurate?

    「施比受更有福」 -

  • We answered that one over on AsapTHOUGHT

    這個說法在科學上準確嗎?

  • with a special giveaway which you can click here or use the link in the description to check out.

    我們在 AsapTHOUGHT 上回答過這個問題

  • Special thanks to Audible for supporting this episode

    你可以點擊這裡或說明欄裡的連結去瞧瞧

  • and giving you a free audiobook at your choice at "audible.com/asap."

    這一集特別感謝 Audible 的贊助

  • This week we wanted to recommend the book "The Wright Brothers"

    並且在 audible.com/asap 送你們一本免費的有聲書

  • which is the amazing story behind the brothers who taught the world how to fly -

    本週我們推薦的書是《萊特兄弟》

  • while staying optimistic through all the challenges they faced!

    描述兩兄弟如何讓人類可以飛行在空中的精彩故事

  • You can get a free copy at audible.com/asap

    當遇到困難時他們都能保持樂觀!

  • or any other of your choice from a massive selection!

    你可以在 audible.com/asap 免費獲得

  • We love them as they are great when you're on the go.

    或在其他眾多書籍任選其一!

  • Don't forget to ask your burning questions, and subscribe for more weekly science videos.

    我們很喜歡這些書籍,因為在外出時也能方便閱讀

The optimists will say that this glass is half full, while the pessimists proclaim it's half empty.

樂觀主義者會說這個杯子裡的水還有一半,悲觀主義者則會說水只剩一半了

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 樂觀 悲觀 杯子 主義 基因 比較

【趣味英文】什麼!基因決定你是樂觀/悲觀?(Is This Glass Half Empty?)

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    Diana T. 發佈於 2017 年 09 月 25 日
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