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  • Great to have you along for this Thursday edition of CNN STUDENT NEWS.

  • My name is Carl Azuz.

  • Taking off our 10 minutes of current events coverage,

  • Volkswagen is a big brand facing a big problem.

  • It owns VW, Audi and Porsche,

  • and just past Toyota as the world's biggest carmaker.

  • Its chief executive officer has apologized

  • and resigned amid a growing scandal.

  • It has to do with emissions.

  • The U.S. government has limits on the kinds

  • and the amounts of pollutants that cars may give off.

  • That's why most cars in the U.S. have to get annual emissions test.

  • Instead of using technology to meet U.S. standards,

  • regulators say Volkswagen use technology to cheat on the tests

  • and the problem goes well beyond U.S. shores.

  • The EPA recently announced that

  • Volkswagen cheated on emissions tests,

  • allowing almost half a million baldy polluting diesel cars

  • onto America's roads,

  • and there are millions more of them around the world.

  • It's a scandal that's rocked the German automaker,

  • sending its stock plummeting,

  • and angering some of VW's most loyal customers.

  • Lawsuits have been filed, apologies have been issued.

  • But how exactly did one of the world's top-selling automakers

  • get away with cheating on such a gigantic scale?

  • And can it ever undo the damage?

  • About 480,000 diesel-powered VW cars don't meet federal emissions.

  • In fact, they don't even come close.

  • They release 10 to 40 times the legal limit of nitrogen oxide,

  • dangerous pollutants linked to asthma and other health problems.

  • But for years, no one knew.

  • That's where the cheating comes in.

  • Volkswagen installed software in diesel cars

  • that detects when the vehicle is undergoing emissions test.

  • When the software recognizes that inspection is underway,

  • it automatically switches modes,

  • reducing emissions below the legal limit.

  • As soon as testing is over, though,

  • it's back to dirty driving.

  • When it comes to emissions,

  • diesel engines are a challenge.

  • They're fuel efficient but they tend to burn dirty.

  • Automakers have spent millions on research

  • to figure out how to maintain that efficiency,

  • but cleanup diesel emissions,

  • so their cars can get good fuel economy

  • without releasing nasty pollutants.

  • Apparently, VW couldn't find a way to do that,

  • nor did it want to.

  • Either way, somewhere inside VW, someone decided to cheat.

  • The questions now are,

  • how high up the corporate leader did this decision go?

  • And how much in fines,

  • recall costs and damage reputation is it going to cost VW?

  • Any idea what the world's best known English language song is?

  • Before you guess, here's a hint.

  • It's "Happy Birthday".

  • And because of a judge's ruling on Tuesday,

  • it's no longer protected by copyright.

  • You might have noticed how at some restaurants,

  • they don't actually sing the tune "Happy Birthday" to You,

  • because they don't want to get sued.

  • Here's why: two sisters wrote "Happy Birthday"

  • about 120 years ago.

  • They assigned the music rights to a music company.

  • In 1998, that company was bought by Warner-Chappell Music.

  • And since then, Warner-Chappell has made

  • about 2 million bucks a year on fees for the use of the song,

  • though it doesn't charge people singing it at home.

  • Anyway, a filmmaker that's making a documentary

  • about the song sued Warner-Chappell to avoid paying a $1,500 fine.

  • A judge ruled that Warner-Chappell owned

  • a limited piano arrangement,

  • not the actual lyrical song itself.

  • That means it's free from copyright

  • and free for anyone, anywhere to sing it,

  • like a gift that keeps giving.

  • There's only one place we look for "Roll Call" requests.

  • It's each day's transcript page at CNNStudentNews.com.

  • Fivay High School commented on yesterday's transcript.

  • It's in Hudson, Florida, the home of the Falcons.

  • We also heard from the Bulldogs in Corrigan, Texas.

  • Good to see you at Corrigan-Camden High School.

  • And in Tirana, the capital of Albania,

  • shout out to all of our viewers at Tirana International School.

  • One billion euros to help Syrians in refugee camps,

  • security forces to keep the peace

  • where there are large numbers of migrants and instability,

  • figuring out where to resettle

  • the thousands of people coming to Europe.

  • These are the challenges the European Union

  • is struggling with right now.

  • Amid all the disagreement between nations

  • over how to handle the continent's massive

  • refugee and migrant crisis,

  • what's certain is that more people are on the way to Europe.

  • Ben Wedeman takes us to Hungary

  • where many migrants are passing through.

  • The fences are going up in what was not long ago

  • a borderless Euro

  • fast becoming fortress Europe.

  • On the Hungary Croatian border,

  • Hungarian combat troops with assault rifles

  • watch as refugees and migrants file across the border.

  • For Khalid, an architecture student from Baghdad University,

  • twice kidnapped, Europe is everything Iraq isn't.

  • Why did he leave his homeland? why? He responds,

  • "here, there's no suffering. It's safe.

  • You have rights and everything is provided for."

  • "In Iraq, we don't just have terrorism,"

  • says Mohamed from Baghdad, who hopes to go to Finland.

  • "The economy is bad.

  • Young people have no opportunities and no jobs.

  • You don't know if you have a future in Iraq."

  • At the border, everyone, including little children,

  • is frisked, bags searched.

  • They will most likely be put on a train

  • and sent straight to the Austrian border.

  • Hungary is allowing them to transit the country,

  • but isn't welcoming them to stay.

  • Hungary continues to take a hard line in this crisis,

  • granting, for example, the army the right

  • to use nonlethal force against refugees and migrants if necessary.

  • Nonetheless, the gates to Hungary remain open

  • and the migrants and refugees continue to pass through.

  • Time for the Shoutout.

  • What occurs when the sun crosses the equator,

  • making day and night equal length the world over?

  • If you think you know it, shout it out.

  • Is it an: (a) Eclipse, (b) Solstice, (c) Spectra, or (d), Equinox?

  • You got three seconds. Go!

  • Day and night are of equal length on an equinox,

  • and yesterday was the autumnal equinox.

  • That's your answer and that's your shoutout.

  • That means as of yesterday,

  • it is officially fall in the Northern Hemisphere.

  • The season runs until the winter solstice,

  • the shortest day of the year,

  • which will be on December 22nd,

  • marking the official beginning of winter.

  • In the meantime, the farther north you live from the equator,

  • the more you can expect cooler temperatures,

  • shorter days and a vibrant change in foliage.

  • I want you to think about leaves on a tree

  • as essentially mini solar panels.

  • What they're able to do is fascinating.

  • They are taking the sunlight in,

  • and through a process known as photosynthesis,

  • they were able to transfer the sun's energy

  • and create a chemical known as chlorophyll.

  • Now, chlorophyll is key

  • because it gives the leaves its green colors during a long summer months

  • But beneath the surface,

  • the leaves actually always have the reds,

  • the oranges, the yellows in place.

  • While chlorophyll is there,

  • it's there and it's green.

  • While it's taken away in the shorter days

  • and shorter months of autumn,

  • now you're releasing some of the true colors back to the surface.

  • Of course, weather can play a role in this as well,

  • especially in the vibrancy of it.

  • When you have plenty of rainfall in the growing season or

  • in the spring season,

  • we're able to get plenty of good colors

  • in early September, October and November.

  • If you have extreme heat, extreme drought in place,

  • maybe a freeze, early snow storm, or the strong winds,

  • certainly that can do damage.

  • The leaves may not be there for you to see them in peak foliage.

  • So hopefully, you had a chance to get out there

  • this year and enjoy the fall colors.

  • It started out of boredom.

  • Two Iowa State University students and best friends

  • were trying to find a Guinness World Record they could beat.

  • They found that the longest hug

  • lasted 24 hours and 33 minutes, so they went for it.

  • They had to be hugging, standing and in a public place.

  • They couldn't sleep but they were allowed

  • short bathroom breaks every hour.

  • Their friends fed them pizza and soft drinks

  • and they hugged it out for a total of 31 hours.

  • No doubt they embrace that challenge.

  • It's the closest to friendships really,

  • two people working arm in arm, clinging together,

  • holding on until they clasp the record.

  • It's tough to say something hug-gainst them.

  • I'm Carl Azuz for CNN STUDENT NEWS.

  • Hope to see you tomorrow.

Great to have you along for this Thursday edition of CNN STUDENT NEWS.

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September 24, 2015 - CNN Student News with subtitle

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