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  • Hendrix, Cobain and Page.

    亨德里克斯,柯本和佩奇。

  • They can all shred,

    他們可以是少數,

  • but how exactly do the iconic contraptions in their hands

    但是偶像新作品是如何出自他們的手

  • produce notes, rhythm, melody and music.

    製作單音,節拍,旋律和音樂。

  • When you pluck a guitar string, you create a vibration called a standing wave.

    當你彈吉他弦,你產生出震動稱為驻波。

  • Some points on the string, called nodes, don't move at all,

    一些在弦的的點,稱為節點,沒完全移動,

  • while other points, anti-nodes, oscillate back and forth.

    而其他點,波腹,前後移動。

  • The vibration translates through the neck and bridge to the guitar's body,

    震動通過琴頸和琴橋到吉他的身體部分,

  • where the thin and flexible wood vibrates,

    往細薄和柔韌的木材震動,

  • jostling the surrounding air molecules together and apart.

    把周圍空氣擠在一起。

  • These sequential compressions create sound waves,

    這連續的壓縮產生出聲波,

  • and the ones inside the guitar mostly escape through the hole.

    在吉他裡面的人多數逃出洞口。

  • They eventually propagate to your ear,

    他們最終會傳到您的耳朵,

  • which translates them into electrical impulses

    并轉換成電波

  • that your brain interprets as sound.

    在腦中詮釋為聲音。

  • The pitch of that sound depends on the frequency of the compressions.

    聲音的高音將取決於壓縮的頻率。

  • A quickly vibrating string will cause a lot of compressions close together,

    迅速的震動弦將會導致大量的壓縮更密切,

  • making a high-pitched sound,

    製造出高音,

  • and a slow vibration produces a low-pitched sound.

    而緩慢的震動會產生低音。

  • Four things affect the frequency of a vibrating string:

    四種導致震動弦的頻率:

  • the length, the tension, the density and the thickness.

    長度,拉力,密度和厚度。

  • Typical guitar strings are all the same length,

    典型的吉他弦都是同樣長度,

  • and have similar tension, but vary in thickness and density.

    和擁有相似的拉力,但不同厚度和密度。

  • Thicker strings vibrate more slowly, producing lower notes.

    較厚的弦震動更慢,產生更低的單音。

  • Each time you pluck a string,

    每次您彈弦時,

  • you actually create several standing waves.

    事實上會產生出不同的驻波。

  • There's the first fundamental wave, which determines the pitch of the note,

    在那是第一基本音波,決定單音的高音,

  • but there are also waves called overtones,

    但是那也有音波稱為泛音,

  • whose frequencies are multiples of the first one.

    頻率是第一個的倍數。

  • All these standing waves combine to form a complex wave with a rich sound.

    這些驻波結合成合成充足的音波

  • Changing the way you pluck the string affects which overtones you get.

    不同的彈弦方法會等到不同的泛音。

  • If you pluck it near the middle,

    如果你彈接近中間,

  • you get mainly the fundamental and the odd multiple overtones,

    你得到主要的基音和單個的複雜泛音,

  • which have anti-nodes in the middle of the string.

    有波腹在中間的弦。

  • If you pluck it near the bridge, you get mainly even multiple overtones

    如果你彈接近琴橋,你會得到主要的雙個複雜泛音

  • and a twangier sound.

    和砰然的弦音。

  • The familiar Western scale is based on the overtone series of a vibrating string.

    熟悉的西方音階是根據泛音系列的震動弦。

  • When we hear one note played with another that has exactly twice its frequency,

    當我們聽到單音和其他一起播放時確實有雙倍的頻率,

  • its first overtone,

    它是第一泛音,

  • they sound so harmonious that we assign them the same letter,

    他们的聲音很和諧以致我们分配他们為同樣字母,

  • and define the difference between them as an octave.

    和規定他們的差別為音階

  • The rest of the scale is squeezed into that octave

    其餘的音階是擠壓進那音階

  • divided into twelve half steps

    分解成十二半音

  • whose frequency is each 2^(1/12) higher than the one before.

    那頻率是每一個2^(1/12)高過之前的。

  • That factor determines the fret spacing.

    那因素決定銅條之間的空隙。

  • Each fret divides the string's remaining length by 2^(1/12),

    每條銅條分配弦的長度為2^(1/12),

  • making the frequencies increase by half steps.

    頻率的形成被半音增加。

  • Fretless instruments, like violins,

    銅條的裝置,想小提琴,

  • make it easier to produce the infinite frequencies between each note,

    讓它更容易產生無限頻率和每個單音之間,

  • but add to the challenge of playing in tune.

    但增加演奏曲調的難度。

  • The number of strings and their tuning

    弦的數量和它的調音

  • are custom tailored to the chords we like to play

    是根據演奏和弦和

  • and the physiology of our hands.

    我們的手的生理而量身定做的。

  • Guitar shapes and materials can also vary,

    吉他形狀和材料也可以改變,

  • and both change the nature and sound of the vibrations.

    和兩者改變震動的聲音和性質。

  • Playing two or more strings at the same time

    同時彈兩或更多的弦

  • allows you to create new wave patterns like chords and other sound effects.

    讓你創造出新的波動就像弦音個其他的聲音效果。

  • For example, when you play two notes whose frequencies are close together,

    例如,當你彈兩個頻率相近的單音,

  • they add together to create a sound wave whose amplitude rises and falls,

    他們加在一起創造出寬闊升起和下降的音波,

  • producing a throbbing effect, which guitarists call the beats.

    產生抽動的效果,吉他彈奏者稱它為拍子。

  • And electric guitars give you even more to play with.

    電子吉他讓你更想彈。

  • The vibrations still start in the strings,

    震動仍然在弦開始,

  • but then they're translated into electrical signals by pickups

    接著他們翻譯成電訊通過拾音器

  • and transmitted to speakers that create the sound waves.

    並且傳送至產生音波的揚聲器。

  • Between the pickups and speakers,

    在拾音器與揚聲器之間,

  • it's possible to process the wave in various ways,

    它可能處理音波的各種方法,

  • to create effects like distortion, overdrive, wah-wah, delay and flanger.

    產生效果例如失真,超速傳動,哇哇,延遲效果器和flager.

  • And lest you think that the physics of music is only useful for entertainment,

    以免你認為音樂物理是只用在娛樂,

  • consider this.

    有鑑於此。

  • Some physicists think that everything in the universe

    一些物理學家認為宇宙的所有

  • is created by the harmonic series of very tiny, very tense strings.

    是被和諧系列的非常細小和非常緊的弦所創造的。

  • So might our entire reality

    這樣我們整個現實世界可能

  • be the extended solo of some cosmic Jimi Hendrix?

    是吉米·亨德里克斯的加長版的獨奏

  • Clearly, there's a lot more to strings than meets the ear.

    顯然,聲音在入耳之前在弦上早就花費一番工夫了

Hendrix, Cobain and Page.

亨德里克斯,柯本和佩奇。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 頻率 吉他 產生 聲音 長度

TED-Ed】彈吉他的物理學--奧斯卡-費爾南多-佩雷斯。 (【TED-Ed】The physics of playing guitar - Oscar Fernando Perez)

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    羅紹桀 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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