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  • We are losing our listening.

    我們正在失去傾聽的能力。

  • We spend roughly 60 percent of our communication time listening,

    我們花大約60%的時間傾聽我們的溝通,

  • but we're not very good at it.

    但我們不是傾聽得很有效。

  • We retain just 25 percent of what we hear.

    我們只保留我們聽到的25%。

  • Now not you, not this talk,

    不是說你現在,不是說這演說,

  • but that is generally true.

    但這是一般是事實。

  • Let's define listening

    讓我們定義傾聽

  • as making meaning from sound.

    為從聽聲音搜索到意思。

  • It's a mental process,

    這是一個心理過程,

  • and it's a process of extraction.

    一個提取的過程。

  • We use some pretty cool techniques to do this.

    我們使用一些很酷的技術來做到這一點。

  • One of them is pattern recognition.

    其中一樣是模式識別。

  • (Crowd Noise) So in a cocktail party like this,

    (人群噪音)例如在一個雞尾酒會這樣,

  • if I say, "David, Sara, pay attention,"

    假如我說:「大衛,薩拉,注意, 」

  • some of you just sat up.

    你們有些便會坐起來。

  • We recognize patterns

    我們認識到模式

  • to distinguish noise from signal,

    來區分噪聲的信號,

  • and especially our name.

    尤其是我們的名字。

  • Differencing is another technique we use.

    「過濾削減法」是我們使用的另一種技術。

  • If I left this pink noise on for more than a couple of minutes,

    如果我讓這吵雜的聲音播放着兩分鐘,

  • you would literally cease to hear it.

    你會漸漸停止聽到它。

  • We listen to differences,

    我們辨聽到差異,

  • we discount sounds that remain the same.

    我們對保持不變的聲音逐漸地不理會。

  • And then there is a whole range of filters.

    接著便是一個整體範圍的過濾器。

  • These filters take us from all sound

    這些過濾器把我們帶到所有的聲音

  • down to what we pay attention to.

    直至到我們注意的聲音。

  • Most people are entirely unconscious

    大部分人是對這些過濾器

  • of these filters.

    完全​​無意識的。

  • But they actually create our reality in a way,

    但它們實際上創造了

  • because they tell us what we're paying attention to right now.

    我們的現實,因為它們正在告訴我們現在正在關注什麼。

  • Give you one example of that:

    給你們一個例子:

  • Intention is very important in sound, in listening.

    聽和聲音的意圖是非常重要的。

  • When I married my wife,

    當我太太嫁給我時,

  • I promised her that I would listen to her every day

    我答應她我會每天聽從她

  • as if for the first time.

    彷彿像是第一次一樣。

  • Now that's something I fall short of on a daily basis.

    現在,這是我每天功虧一簣的事情。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But it's a great intention to have in a relationship.

    但對關係它是一個偉大的意圖。

  • But that's not all.

    但這還不是全部。

  • Sound places us in space and in time.

    聲音將我們放在空間和時間。

  • If you close your eyes right now in this room,

    如果你現在在這個房間裡閉上眼睛,

  • you're aware of the size of the room

    你會從混響和聲音

  • from the reverberation

    彈跳離開不同表面

  • and the bouncing of the sound off the surfaces.

    而察覺到房間的大小。

  • And you're aware of how many people are around you

    而從收到周圍的微噪音

  • because of the micro-noises you're receiving.

    你便會察覺到有多少人。

  • And sound places us in time as well,

    而聲音更加把我們察覺到時間

  • because sound always has

    因為聲音總是有

  • time embedded in it.

    時間嵌入其中。

  • In fact, I would suggest that our listening is the main way

    其實,我認為,聆聽是我們主要途徑

  • that we experience the flow of time

    來讓我們經歷時間從過去

  • from past to future.

    到未來的流動。

  • So, "Sonority is time and meaning" -- a great quote.

    那麼,“聲響是時間和意義” -- 一個偉大的引用句。

  • I said at the beginning, we're losing our listening.

    在一開始我說,我們正在失去我們的聽力。

  • Why did I say that?

    為什麼我這樣說呢?

  • Well there are a lot of reasons for this.

    有很多原因的。

  • First of all, we invented ways of recording --

    第一,我們發明了記錄的方法

  • first writing, then audio recording

    首先, 寫作,然後錄音

  • and now video recording as well.

    和以及現在, 錄像。

  • The premium on accurate and careful listening

    那獨特的準確和仔細的聆聽

  • has simply disappeared.

    簡直已消失了。

  • Secondly, the world is now so noisy,

    其次,世界上現在那麼吵,

  • (Noise) with this cacophony going on

    (噪音)與此視覺

  • visually and auditorily,

    和聽覺的雜音,

  • it's just hard to listen;

    是十分很難聆聽,

  • it's tiring to listen.

    要聆聽很是累人。

  • Many people take refuge in headphones,

    許多人躲避於聽筒內,

  • but they turn big, public spaces like this,

    但他們因此將這又大,又公眾共享

  • shared soundscapes,

    音景的場所,

  • into millions of tiny, little personal sound bubbles.

    改變成為百萬個微小的和個人的聲音小氣泡。

  • In this scenario, nobody's listening to anybody.

    在這種情況下,沒有人在聆聽任何人。

  • We're becoming impatient.

    我們越來越不耐煩。

  • We don't want oratory anymore,

    我們不希望再聽演講,

  • we want sound bites.

    我們只擷取片段的句子。

  • And the art of conversation

    而談話的藝術被

  • is being replaced -- dangerously, I think --

    危險地替換成為--我認為的 --

  • by personal broadcasting.

    由個人廣播。

  • I don't know how much listening there is in this conversation,

    我不知道有多少人在聽這次談話,

  • which is sadly very common,

    這是很可悲的普遍,

  • especially in the U.K.

    尤其是在英國。

  • We're becoming desensitized.

    我們變得麻木。

  • Our media have to scream at us with these kinds of headlines

    為以獲得我們的注意力, 我們的媒體紛紛在用

  • in order to get our attention.

    這類型的標題以博取我們的注意。

  • And that means it's harder for us to pay attention

    這意味著我們漸有困難地注意

  • to the quiet, the subtle,

    安靜,含蓄

  • the understated.

    和低調的事物。

  • This is a serious problem that we're losing our listening.

    這是一個嚴重的問題,我們正在失去我們的聆聽力。

  • This is not trivial.

    這不是小事。

  • Because listening is our access to understanding.

    因為聆聽力是我們獲得理解的通路。

  • Conscious listening always creates understanding.

    有意識的聆聽總會創造有意識的理解。

  • And only without conscious listening

    而只有無意識的聆聽

  • can these things happen --

    能令這些事情發生 --

  • a world where we don't listen to each other at all,

    變成這個世界上,我們不再傾聽對方的一切,

  • is a very scary place indeed.

    變成一個非常可怕的地方。

  • So I'd like to share with you

    所以我想與大家

  • five simple exercises, tools you can take away with you,

    分享可以採取的, 五個簡單的練習工具,

  • to improve your own conscious listening.

    來提高你自己的意識和聆聽力。

  • Would you like that?

    你想要嗎?

  • (Audience: Yes.) Good.

    (觀眾:想要。)好。

  • The first one is silence.

    第一: 是沉默。

  • Just three minutes a day of silence

    僅僅每天三分鐘的沉默

  • is a wonderful exercise

    是一種奇妙的練習,

  • to reset your ears and to recalibrate

    以重復你的耳朵,並重新調整,

  • so that you can hear the quiet again.

    使你能聽到安靜。

  • If you can't get absolute silence,

    如果你不能得到絕對的沉默,

  • go for quiet, that's absolutely fine.

    去一個較安靜的地方,這是沒有問題的。

  • Second, I call this the mixer.

    第二,我稱此為混合器。

  • (Noise) So even if you're in a noisy environment like this --

    (噪音)即使你在一個這樣嘈雜的環境中 --

  • and we all spend a lot of time in places like this --

    我們都花很多時間在這樣的地方 --

  • listen in the coffee bar

    在咖啡吧試試可以聽到

  • to how many channels of sound can I hear?

    多少聲音的頻道?

  • How many individual channels in that mix am I listening to?

    你實際上在聽到多少不同的頻道呢?

  • You can do it in a beautiful place as well, like in a lake.

    你可以在一個美麗的地方練習,像一個湖泊。

  • How many birds am I hearing?

    你在聽到多少隻鳥呢?

  • Where are they? Where are those ripples?

    牠們在哪裡?波紋在哪裡呢?

  • It's a great exercise

    這是一個很好的

  • for improving the quality of your listening.

    鍛煉來提高你聆聽的素質。

  • Third, this exercise I call savoring,

    第三,這項練習我稱之為品嚐,

  • and this is a beautiful exercise.

    這是一個美麗的練習。

  • It's about enjoying mundane sounds.

    這是關於享受平凡的聲音。

  • This, for example, is my tumble dryer.

    例如,我的乾衣機。

  • (Dryer) It's a waltz.

    (乾衣機)這是一首華爾茲。

  • One, two, three. One, two, three. One, two, three.

    一,二,三。一,二,三。一二三。

  • I love it.

    我喜歡它。

  • Or just try this one on for size.

    或者試試這個。

  • (Coffee grinder)

    (磨咖啡機)

  • Wow!

    哇!

  • So mundane sounds can be really interesting if you pay attention.

    所以,如果你留意, 平凡的聲音會很有趣。

  • I call that the hidden choir.

    我稱之為隱藏的合唱團。

  • It's around us all the time.

    我們身邊通通皆是。

  • The next exercise

    接下來的練習

  • is probably the most important of all of these,

    可能是這些最重要的,

  • if you just take one thing away.

    若然你只採取一樣練習。

  • This is listening positions --

    這是聆聽的位置 --

  • the idea that you can move your listening position

    意思是,你可以移動你聆聽的位置

  • to what's appropriate to what you're listening to.

    到適合你聆聽的什麼。

  • This is playing with those filters.

    這是把弄那些過濾器。

  • Do you remember, I gave you those filters at the beginning.

    你還記得嗎?我開始時給你們這些過濾器。

  • It's starting to play with them as levers,

    開始將它們如槓桿般把弄,

  • to get conscious about them and to move to different places.

    以獲得有關它們的知覺和移動到不同的地方。

  • These are just some of the listening positions,

    這些只是一些可以使用的聆聽位置,

  • or scales of listening positions, that you can use.

    或尺度聽的位置。

  • There are many.

    有很多。

  • Have fun with that. It's very exciting.

    很有樂趣的。非常令人興奮。

  • And finally, an acronym.

    最後,一個縮寫。

  • You can use this in listening, in communication.

    你可以在聆聽上和在溝通上使用這個。

  • If you're in any one of those roles --

    如果你在這任何一個些任務 --

  • and I think that probably is everybody who's listening to this talk --

    我認為這可能是在聽這談論的任何人 --

  • the acronym is RASA,

    縮寫是RASA,

  • which is the Sanskrit word

    這是梵文,

  • for juice or essence.

    意思是果汁或本質。

  • And RASA stands for Receive,

    而RASA的R代表要接收,

  • which means pay attention to the person;

    意思是要注意著人;

  • Appreciate, making little noises

    要賞識,製造小噪音

  • like "hmm," "oh," "okay";

    像嗯,哦,還好;

  • Summarize, the word "so" is very important in communication;

    要總結,"因此"這個詞在溝通是非常重要;

  • and Ask, ask questions afterward.

    並且要問,之後提出問題。

  • Now sound is my passion, it's my life.

    現在,聲音是我的激情,是我的生命。

  • I wrote a whole book about it. So I live to listen.

    我對於這個寫了一整本書。所以,我活著為了聆聽。

  • That's too much to ask from most people.

    這對大多數人是過分的要求。

  • But I believe that every human being

    但我相信每個人

  • needs to listen consciously

    為了充分體驗生活

  • in order to live fully --

    需要有意識地傾聽 --

  • connected in space and in time

    來連接在我們身邊

  • to the physical world around us,

    物理世界的空間和時間,

  • connected in understanding to each other,

    來連接相互理解,

  • not to mention spiritually connected,

    更何況是精神上的相連,

  • because every spiritual path I know of

    因為我知道每一個精神心路上的歷程

  • has listening and contemplation

    都以聆聽和沉思

  • at its heart.

    為核心。

  • That's why

    這就是為什麼

  • we need to teach listening in our schools

    我們要在學校需要教聆聽

  • as a skill.

    為一門技能。

  • Why is it not taught? It's crazy.

    為什麼不教這個?這實在是瘋狂。

  • And if we can teach listening in our schools,

    如果我們可以在學校教導聽聆,

  • we can take our listening off that slippery slope

    我們可以把我們的聆聽能力拉回來,

  • to that dangerous, scary world that I talked about

    避免滑落去這個我談及的危險和可怕的世界,

  • and move it to a place where everybody is consciously listening all the time --

    並將其移動到一個大家在任何時間都自覺地聆聽著對方的地方,

  • or at least capable of doing it.

    -- 或至少有能力這樣做的地方。

  • Now I don't know how to do that,

    現在我不知道該怎麼做,

  • but this is TED,

    但這是TED,

  • and I think the TED community is capable of anything.

    我覺得的TED社群是有能力做任何事情。

  • So I invite you to connect with me, connect with each other,

    因此,我邀請你與我連縶,與每個人相互連接,

  • take this mission out and let's get listening taught in schools,

    採取這個任務,讓我們在學校教導聽聆,

  • and transform the world in one generation to a conscious listening world --

    改造世界的一代成為有意識地傾聽的世界 --

  • a world of connection,

    一個有連縶的世界,

  • a world of understanding and a world of peace.

    一個有理解和和平的世界。

  • Thank you for listening to me today.

    謝謝今天你的聆聽。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

We are losing our listening.

我們正在失去傾聽的能力。

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A2 初級 中文 TED 聆聽 聲音 過濾器 傾聽 練習

【TED】Julian Treasure: :5種令傾聽更有效的方法 (5 ways to listen better | Julian Treasure)

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    VoiceTube   發佈於 2013 年 04 月 17 日
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