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  • Hi. I'm going to talk to you today about laughter,

    譯者: Regina Chu 審譯者: Marssi Draw

  • and I just want to start by thinking about the first time

    大家好,我們今天來談笑聲,

  • I can ever remember noticing laughter.

    我想從回想我自己第一次

  • This is when I was a little girl. I would've been about six.

    注意到笑聲開始說起。

  • And I came across my parents doing something unusual,

    那時我還是一個小女孩, 大概六歲左右。

  • where they were laughing.

    我正好看見我的父母 在做一件不太尋常的事,

  • They were laughing very, very hard.

    他們當時正在笑。

  • They were lying on the floor laughing.

    他們笑得非常非常開心。

  • They were screaming with laughter.

    他們笑倒在地板上。

  • I did not know what they were laughing at, but I wanted in.

    他們尖聲大笑。

  • I wanted to be part of that,

    我不知道他們在笑什麼, 但我想和他們一起笑。

  • and I kind of sat around at the edge going, "Hoo hoo!" (Laughter)

    我想成為這個笑聲的一部分,

  • Now, incidentally, what they were laughing at

    我就坐在他們旁邊, 叫著 「呵呵!」(笑聲)

  • was a song which people used to sing,

    順帶一提, 他們當時在笑的

  • which was based around signs in toilets on trains

    是當時流行的一首歌,

  • telling you what you could and could not do

    這首歌把火車廁所的 標示寫進詞裡,

  • in toilets on trains.

    告訴你在火車廁所裡,

  • And the thing you have to remember about the English is, of course,

    什麼可以做, 什麼不可以做。

  • we do have an immensely sophisticated sense of humor.

    有件事你們一定要記得, 當然就是我們英國人

  • (Laughter)

    的確有著無限複雜的幽默感。

  • At the time, though, I didn't understand anything of that.

    (笑聲)

  • I just cared about the laughter,

    但是,我當時並不理解這些,

  • and actually, as a neuroscientist, I've come to care about it again.

    我只是很在意笑聲,

  • And it is a really weird thing to do.

    而且其實現在身為神經學家, 我開始重新關注這個問題。

  • What I'm going to do now is just play some examples

    笑真的是一件非常奇怪的事。

  • of real human beings laughing,

    我現在要放幾段

  • and I want you think about the sound people make and how odd that can be,

    真人在笑的例子,

  • and in fact how primitive laughter is as a sound.

    我想讓大家想想人類發出的聲音, 這些聲音可以多麼奇怪,

  • It's much more like an animal call than it is like speech.

    以及,笑聲是一種多麼原始的聲音。

  • So here we've got some laughter for you. The first one is pretty joyful.

    笑聲更像是動物的叫聲, 而不像說話。

  • (Audio: Laughing)

    現在來聽聽這幾段笑聲。 第一段還挺好笑。

  • Now this next guy, I need him to breathe.

    (音訊:笑聲)

  • There's a point in there where I'm just, like,

    下一段的傢伙得去喘口氣。

  • you've got to get some air in there, mate,

    有一段到了一個地步,

  • because he just sounds like he's breathing out.

    我說老兄你真的需要吸氣,

  • (Audio: Laughing)

    因爲他聽起來真像喘不過氣了。

  • This hasn't been edited; this is him.

    (音訊:笑聲)

  • (Audio: Laughing) (Laughter)

    這没有被編輯過, 就是他在笑。

  • And finally we have -- this is a human female laughing.

    (音訊:笑聲) (笑聲)

  • And laughter can take us to some pretty odd places in terms of making noises.

    最後,我們有一段女人的笑聲。

  • (Audio: Laughing)

    從發出聲音的角度來看, 笑聲能讓我們聯想到奇怪的地方。

  • She actually says, "Oh my God, what is that?" in French.

    (音訊:笑聲)

  • We're all kind of with her. I have no idea.

    她其實在用法語說: 「我的天啊,這是什麼東西?」

  • Now, to understand laughter, you have to look at a part of the body

    應該是這樣吧?我也不知道。

  • that psychologists and neuroscientists don't normally spend much time looking at,

    要理解笑聲, 你必須去觀察身體的某部分,

  • which is the ribcage,

    心理學家和神經學家 通常不會花很多時間去觀察這部分,

  • and it doesn't seem terribly exciting,

    就是胸腔,

  • but actually you're all using your ribcage all the time.

    聽起來沒什麼了不起喔?

  • What you're all doing at the moment with your ribcage,

    但事實上你一直在使用你的胸腔。

  • and don't stop doing it, is breathing.

    你無時無刻都在使用你的胸腔,

  • So you use the intercostal muscles, the muscles between your ribs,

    千萬不要停止使用它, 因為你在呼吸。

  • to bring air in and out of your lungs

    你使用肋間肌, 也就是在你肋骨之間的肌肉

  • just by expanding and contracting your ribcage,

    來擴張及收縮你的胸腔,

  • and if I was to put a strap around the outside of your chest

    讓空氣進出你的肺,

  • called a breath belt, and just look at that movement,

    如果我把一條帶子 繞在你的胸腔外部,

  • you see a rather gentle sinusoidal movement, so that's breathing.

    叫它呼吸帶吧, 然後看它的移動,

  • You're all doing it. Don't stop.

    你會看見緩和的正旋起伏律動, 那就是呼吸。

  • As soon as you start talking,

    你們全都在做這件事。 不要停止。

  • you start using your breathing completely differently.

    一旦你開始說話,

  • So what I'm doing now is you see something much more like this.

    你的呼吸會變得完全不同。

  • In talking, you use very fine movements of the ribcage

    所以我現在做的就很像這樣。

  • to squeeze the air out --

    在說話的時候, 你的胸腔進行細微的運動

  • and in fact, we're the only animals that can do this.

    把空氣擠出去。

  • It's why we can talk at all.

    事實上,我們是唯一 可以這樣做的動物。

  • Now, both talking and breathing has a mortal enemy,

    這也就是為什麼我們能說話。

  • and that enemy is laughter,

    說話及呼吸有個致命的敵人,

  • because what happens when you laugh

    那個敵人就是笑,

  • is those same muscles start to contract very regularly,

    因為當你在笑的時候,

  • and you get this very marked sort of zig-zagging,

    同樣的那群肌肉會開始規律地收縮,

  • and that's just squeezing the air out of you.

    你就會得到這樣 非常顯著的鋸齒狀訊號,

  • It literally is that basic a way of making a sound.

    這只是把空氣擠出你的肺,

  • You could be stamping on somebody, it's having the same effect.

    也是發出聲音的基本原理。

  • You're just squeezing air out,

    這套用到所有人身上 都有一樣的效果。

  • and each of those contractions -- Ha! -- gives you a sound.

    你只是把空氣擠出去,

  • And as the contractions run together, you can get these spasms,

    每一次的收縮「哈!」 都讓你發出聲音。

  • and that's when you start getting these -- (Wheezing) -- things happening.

    當這些收縮彼此相連的時候, 就有這些痙攣,

  • I'm brilliant at this. (Laughter)

    所以你就會有(喘氣聲) 這樣的聲音。

  • Now, in terms of the science of laughter, there isn't very much,

    這個我超會。 (笑聲)

  • but it does turn out that pretty much everything we think we know

    要講笑的科學, 這並沒有太大的意義。

  • about laughter is wrong.

    但是這告訴我們 基本上我們對笑的認知

  • So it's not at all unusual, for example, to hear people to say

    都是錯的。

  • humans are the only animals that laugh.

    所以舉個例子, 我們一點也不意外

  • Nietzsche thought that humans are the only animals that laugh.

    有人說人類是唯一會笑的動物。

  • In fact, you find laughter throughout the mammals.

    尼采就認為人類是唯一會笑的動物。

  • It's been well-described and well-observed in primates,

    事實上,很多哺乳類動物都會笑。

  • but you also see it in rats,

    靈長類的這種現象 已有很完整的觀察和紀錄,

  • and wherever you find it --

    但是你也能在老鼠身上看到,

  • humans, primates, rats --

    不管你在哪裡看到

  • you find it associated with things like tickling.

    ──人類、靈長類、老鼠──

  • That's the same for humans.

    都會發現這和搔癢 這類的事件有關係。

  • You find it associated with play, and all mammals play.

    人類也一樣。

  • And wherever you find it, it's associated with interactions.

    你會發現這和玩樂有關, 所有的哺乳類都會玩樂。

  • So Robert Provine, who has done a lot of work on this,

    不論你在哪裡看到, 這都和互動有關。

  • has pointed out that you are 30 times more likely to laugh

    羅伯特.普范對這做過很多研究,

  • if you are with somebody else than if you're on your own,

    他指出當你跟別人在一起的時候,

  • and where you find most laughter

    你笑的機會 比你獨自一人的時候多 30 倍,

  • is in social interactions like conversation.

    你聽到最多笑聲的地方,

  • So if you ask human beings, "When do you laugh?"

    是在有社會互動的時候,像是對話。

  • they'll talk about comedy and they'll talk about humor and they'll talk about jokes.

    如果你問人類: 「你什麼時候會笑?」

  • If you look at when they laugh, they're laughing with their friends.

    他們會說到喜劇、 會說到幽默、會說到笑話。

  • And when we laugh with people, we're hardly ever actually laughing at jokes.

    當你觀察他們什麼時候笑, 他們是與朋友一同歡笑。

  • You are laughing to show people that you understand them,

    當我們與人同樂的時候, 我們幾乎不是因為笑話而笑,

  • that you agree with them, that you're part of the same group as them.

    你用笑來表達你了解他們,

  • You're laughing to show that you like them.

    表示你同意他們, 表示你是團體的一份子。

  • You might even love them.

    你用笑來表示你喜歡他們。

  • You're doing all that at the same time as talking to them,

    甚至是愛他們。

  • and the laughter is doing a lot of that emotional work for you.

    你在和他們說話的同時 也做出上述所有的事。

  • Something that Robert Provine has pointed out, as you can see here,

    笑幫助你表達這樣的情緒。

  • and the reason why we were laughing

    羅伯特.普凡說過, 如同你在此所見,

  • when we heard those funny laughs at the start,

    我們在開頭聽到滑稽笑聲 跟著笑的原因,

  • and why I was laughing when I found my parents laughing,

    還有我在聽到我父母笑 而跟著笑的原因,

  • is that it's an enormously behaviorally contagious effect.

    是因為這是一種極具 傳染性的行為。

  • You can catch laughter from somebody else,

    你會因別人笑而跟著笑,

  • and you are more likely to catch laughter off somebody else if you know them.

    如果你認識笑的那個人, 你跟著笑的機率更高。

  • So it's still modulated by this social context.

    這依然受到社會脈絡的控制。

  • You have to put humor to one side

    你得把幽默感放一邊,

  • and think about the social meaning of laughter

    然後去思考笑的社會意義,

  • because that's where its origins lie.

    因為那是笑的根本來源。

  • Now, something I've got very interested in is different kinds of laughter,

    我對各種不同的笑很有興趣,

  • and we have some neurobiological evidence about how human beings vocalize

    根據神經生物學 關於人類如何發聲的證據,

  • that suggests there might be two kinds of laughs that we have.

    學者提出笑分成兩種。

  • So it seems possible that the neurobiology for helpless, involuntary laughter,

    這意味著在神經生物學上, 不由自主、無法控制的笑,

  • like my parents lying on the floor screaming about a silly song,

    就像我父母因為一首滑稽的歌 笑倒在地上尖叫,

  • might have a different basis to it than some of that more polite

    可能和你所見到的社交禮儀上的笑 有不同的根源,

  • social laughter that you encounter, which isn't horrible laughter,

    這種禮貌的笑並不可怕,

  • but it's behavior somebody is doing as part of their communicative act to you,

    而是他們對你表現社交的一部分,

  • part of their interaction with you; they are choosing to do this.

    是和你互動的一部分; 他們選擇這麼做。

  • In our evolution, we have developed two different ways of vocalizing.

    我們在演化過程中 發展出兩種發聲方式。

  • Involuntary vocalizations are part of an older system

    非自主的發聲屬於較古老系統,

  • than the more voluntary vocalizations like the speech I'm doing now.

    比自主性的發聲系統還老, 我現在演講就是自主性發聲。

  • So we might imagine that laughter might actually have two different roots.

    我們可以想像 笑有兩個不同的根源。

  • So I've been looking at this in more detail.

    於是我深入研究。

  • To do this, we've had to make recordings of people laughing,

    為了研究, 我們得錄製人們的笑聲,

  • and we've had to do whatever it takes to make people laugh,

    我們也必須想盡辦法讓人們笑,

  • and we got those same people to produce more posed, social laughter.

    我們也設法讓同一群人產生 更做作、社交式的笑。

  • So imagine your friend told a joke,

    想像你朋友說了一個笑話,

  • and you're laughing because you like your friend,

    然後你笑了, 因為你喜歡你朋友,

  • but not really because the joke's all that.

    並不是因為笑話本身好笑。

  • So I'm going to play you a couple of those.

    我要放幾段給你們聽。

  • I want you to tell me if you think this laughter is real laughter,

    我希望你們告訴我 你們覺得這是真的在笑,

  • or if you think it's posed.

    還是做做樣子。

  • So is this involuntary laughter or more voluntary laughter?

    這是自然發笑還是刻意的笑?

  • (Audio: Laughing)

    (音訊:笑聲)

  • What does that sound like to you?

    你們覺得聽起來如何?

  • Audience: Posed. Sophie Scott: Posed? Posed.

    聽眾:做做樣子。 蘇菲.史考特:做做樣子?沒錯。

  • How about this one?

    那這個呢?

  • (Audio: Laughing)

    (音訊:笑)

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I'm the best.

    我最會笑了。

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    (笑聲)(掌聲)

  • Not really.

    開玩笑的。

  • No, that was helpless laughter,

    那是無法控制的笑。

  • and in fact, to record that, all they had to do was record me

    事實上要錄這段,他們只需要錄下

  • watching one of my friends listening to something I knew she wanted to laugh at,

    我看我的朋友 聽一段我知道她一定會笑的東西,

  • and I just started doing this.

    我就笑成這樣了。

  • What you find is that people are good at telling the difference

    你會發現人們其實很能分辨

  • between real and posed laughter.

    真笑與假笑。

  • They seem to be different things to us.

    兩種笑對我們來說是不同的。

  • Interestingly, you see something quite similar with chimpanzees.

    有趣的是,你在大猩猩身上 也能觀察到類似現象。

  • Chimpanzees laugh differently if they're being tickled

    大猩猩在被搔癢時候

  • than if they're playing with each other,

    和在玩的時候, 笑的方式不一樣,

  • and we might be seeing something like that here,

    在這裡我們也能看到類似情形,

  • involuntary laughter, tickling laughter, being different from social laughter.

    自然發笑、搔癢的笑, 和社交的笑是不同的。

  • They're acoustically very different.

    聽起來就很不一樣。

  • The real laughs are longer. They're higher in pitch.

    真正的笑持續較久,音調較高。

  • When you start laughing hard,

    你用力笑的時候,

  • you start squeezing air out from your lungs

    你會把空氣擠出你的肺,

  • under much higher pressures than you could ever produce voluntarily.

    這比你故意做的任何動作 產生的壓力都還要大。

  • For example, I could never pitch my voice that high to sing.

    例如,我絕對無法 用那麼高的音調來唱歌。

  • Also, you start to get these sort of contractions and weird whistling sounds,

    你也會有類似這種收縮 和奇怪的哨聲,

  • all of which mean that real laughter is extremely easy,

    這些都意味著真的笑很容易,

  • or feels extremely easy to spot.

    或讓人覺得很容易分辨。

  • In contrast, posed laughter, we might think it sounds a bit fake.

    相反的,做作的笑, 我們可能認為這聽起來有點假。

  • Actually, it's not, it's actually an important social cue.

    其實並非如此。 這種笑真的是很重要的社交線索。

  • We use it a lot, we're choosing to laugh in a lot of situations,

    我們很常使用, 我們在許多場合中選擇笑,

  • and it seems to be its own thing.

    而且這種笑聲似乎很獨特。

  • So, for example, you find nasality in posed laughter,

    舉個例子, 你在做作的笑中發現鼻音,

  • that kind of "ha ha ha ha ha" sound

    那種像「哈哈哈哈」的音,

  • that you never get, you could not do, if you were laughing involuntarily.

    你永遠無法在非自主性的笑中 聽到或發出這種聲音。

  • So they do seem to be genuinely these two different sorts of things.

    這兩種不同的東西似乎都很真實。

  • We took it into the scanner to see how brains respond

    我們以掃描器看腦部 在我們聽到笑聲時的反應。

  • when you hear laughter.

    做這個實驗 真的是無聊到極點,

  • And when you do this, this is a really boring experiment.

    我們就是播放人 真笑與假笑的聲音。

  • We just played people real and posed laughs.

    我們沒有告訴他們 這是對笑聲的研究。

  • We didn't tell them it was a study on laughter.

    我們同時還播放 其他的聲音讓他們分心,

  • We put other sounds in there to distract them,

    他們要做的就是躺在那裡聽。

  • and all they're doing is lying listening to sounds.

    我們不告訴他們要做什麼。

  • We don't tell them to do anything.

    然而,你聽到真笑與假笑的時候,

  • Nonetheless, when you hear real laughter and when you hear posed laughter,

    腦部的反應迥然不同,

  • the brains are responding completely differently,

    顯著不同。

  • significantly differently.

    你們看到這塊藍色的區域, 位於聽覺皮質,

  • What you see in the regions in blue, which lies in auditory cortex,

    是腦部對真笑 有較多反應的地方,

  • are the brain areas that respond more to the real laughs,

    情況似乎是這樣,

  • and what seems to be the case,

    當你聽到非自主的笑時,

  • when you hear somebody laughing involuntarily,

    你會聽到在其他情況下 都不會聽到的聲音。

  • you hear sounds you would never hear in any other context.

    這非常明確,

  • It's very unambiguous,

    這可能與要處理這些新聲音

  • and it seems to be associated with greater auditory processing

    需要更大的聽覺處理歷程有關。

  • of these novel sounds.

    相反的,聽到做作的笑聲時,

  • In contrast, when you hear somebody laughing in a posed way,

    你看到的是這塊粉紅色區域,

  • what you see are these regions in pink,

    位於大腦與心智化有關的區域,

  • which are occupying brain areas associated with mentalizing,

    思索著別人在想什麼。

  • thinking about what somebody else is thinking.

    我想這意味著,

  • And I think what that means is,

    即使你正在掃描大腦, 這是件極其無聊、

  • even if you're having your brain scanned, which is completely boring

    沒什麼樂趣的事,

  • and not very interesting,

    當你聽到有人「呵呵呵呵」笑時,

  • when you hear somebody going, "A ha ha ha ha ha,"

    你仍然想搞懂他們為什麼笑。

  • you're trying to work out why they're laughing.

    笑聲永遠都有意義。

  • Laughter is always meaningful.

    你總是想知道 背後的情境是什麼,

  • You are always trying to understand it in context,

    即使在那個當下, 在你關心的範圍內,

  • even if, as far as you are concerned, at that point in time,

    那個笑與你一點關係都沒有,

  • it has not necessarily anything to do with you,

    你還是很想知道 為什麼這些人在笑。

  • you still want to know why those people are laughing.

    我們有機會看不同年齡層的人

  • Now, we've had the opportunity to look at how people hear real and posed laughter

    如何聽真笑與假笑。

  • across the age range.

    這是個網路實驗, 我們與皇家學會合作,

  • So this is an online experiment we ran with the Royal Society,

    我們在實驗中只問大家兩個問題。

  • and here we just asked people two questions.

    第一,他們聽到一些笑聲,

  • First of all, they heard some laughs,

    他們必須說出 這些笑聲有多真或多假?

  • and they had to say, how real or posed do these laughs sound?

    真的笑聲以紅色顯示, 假笑則以藍色顯示。

  • The real laughs are shown in red and the posed laughs are shown in blue.

    你可以看見有一段快速開展期。

  • What you see is there is a rapid onset.

    隨著年齡增長, 你辨識真笑的能力愈來愈好。

  • As you get older, you get better and better at spotting real laughter.

    所以六歲小孩幾乎聽不出差別。

  • So six-year-olds are at chance, they can't really hear the difference.

    到你長大一點, 你表現就好一點,

  • By the time you are older, you get better,

    但有意思的是, 這組資料集顯示

  • but interestingly, you do not hit peak performance in this dataset

    你要到 30 好幾 40 出頭 才會達到顛峰。

  • until you are in your late 30s and early 40s.

    青春期開始時 你對於笑聲不甚了解。

  • You don't understand laughter fully by the time you hit puberty.

    青春期結束,你的大腦成熟後,

  • You don't understand laughter fully by the time your brain has matured

    對於笑聲還是不甚了解。

  • at the end of your teens.

    你要花整段成年初期來學習笑聲。