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  • Rob: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Rob.

    羅勃:哈囉,歡迎來到6分鐘英語時間。我是羅勃。

  • Neil: and I'm Neil. Hello.

    尼爾:而我是尼爾。哈囉。

  • Rob: Hello, Neil! Today we're talking about evolution.

    羅勃:哈囉,尼爾!今天我們談的是演化。

  • Now the man most people think of when talking about evolution is of course Charles Darwin.

    談到演化,總是跟查爾斯 ‧ 達爾文息息相關

  • He was a bit of a genius, wasn't he?

    他可以堪稱是天才了,不是嗎?

  • Neil: He was. Evolution means the way living things change and develop over millions of years.

    尼爾:他的確是。演化代表的是生物在幾百萬年間所具有的發展和改變。

  • And a genius has great and unusual skills or abilities in a particular subject or area.

    而在此特別的學科或領域一個有著非凡且偉大的技術或能力的天才將其揭櫫世人。

  • Well Charles Darwin was a clever man

    當然查爾斯,達爾文是個聰明的人物,

  • but I happen to know that another man actually came up with the same idea, but many years before he did!

    但另一個人亦有相同地想法,且比達爾文早了許多年。

  • Rob: So how do you know that then, clever clogs

    羅勃:所以你是怎麼知道的阿,這個賣弄聰明的傢伙。

  • that's someone who thinks they know everything? What was his name?

    他自以為自己是個萬事通?他的名字是?

  • Neil: Well, his name was Patrick Matthew.

    尼爾:這個嘛,他叫做派翠克,馬修。

  • Rob: OK, well we're going to learn more about him on today's programme.

    羅勃:好的,那我們將會在今天的節目中談論他。

  • But first can you answer this, Neil? What was Patrick Matthew's job? Was he ... a) a politician?

    不過,首先尼爾你可否回答這個問題?這個派翠克,馬修的職業是什麼?他是...a)政治家?

  • b) a church minister? Or c) a horticulturalist?

    b)教士?或者是 c)園藝家?

  • Neil: Well, I don't know so I'll go for the most profession that sounds most interesting

    尼爾:這個嘛,我也不知道,所以要我選的話我會選擇聽起來最有趣的職業

  • ...a horticulturalist, so I'll choose that one!

    ...園藝家,我選這個!

  • That's a person who studies plants.

    也就是說是個研究植物為職業的人。

  • Rob: OK. We'll find out later whether you are right or wrong.

    羅勃:好的。我們待會公布答案就知道你對還錯了。

  • But let's listen now to Dr Mike Weale talking about Patrick Matthew.

    而現在就讓我們聽聽麥可,威爾博士談談派翠克・馬修吧。

  • Can you hear the word he uses to mean 'change-making'?

    看你是否能聽懂他用"顛覆性的"這個字的意思?

  • Dr Mike Weale: He published a brief outline of the idea of species being able to change

    麥可,威爾斯博士:他發表了一篇大綱,談論物種能夠透過天擇變化成

  • into other species through natural selection

    其他物種的想法。

  • this great, transformative idea that unites us all in a single tree of life.

    這個偉大、革命性的想法使得所有物種以及人類之間的關係能藉由一棵生命之樹枝葉相互連結般描繪。

  • And he did that 27 years before Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace did so.

    而且,他早了達爾文和阿弗瑞德,羅素・瓦樂司足足27年。

  • And they recognized that he did so

    而且這兩位先生明白派翠克的確早先提出此想法。

  • but other people since then have simplified the story and tended to concentrate just on Darwin.

    但是後人卻從此將故事簡化到只把焦點放在達爾文上。

  • Neil: So, Matthew believed that evolution happened by natural selection.

    尼爾:所以,馬修相信演化來自於天擇。

  • And natural selection describes the way that plants

    而天擇描述了動、植物

  • and animals adapt to their environment,

    為了適應環境而做出改變,

  • because some individuals survive and reproduce, and others don't.

    是由於其中某些個體存活下來並且繁殖後代,而其他個體沒有的結果。

  • Rob: And adapt means the way our bodies or our behaviour change to suit new conditions.

    羅勃:而且適應意指為了適應新的環境條件而在我們的身體或行為上所做出的因應、改變。

  • Neil: And what does Mike mean by "a single tree of life"?

    尼爾:那麥克所說的"一棵生命之樹"是什麼意思?

  • Rob: Well, the basic idea behind evolution is that

    羅勃:這個嘛,演化背後的基本概念是指

  • all the different species or types of living thing have evolved from the same simple life form.

    所有現今看到的所不同物種或是不同型態的生物都是由同一個簡單的生物形式演化而來。

  • Just like a family tree describes how the members of your family are related to each other,

    就像族譜訴說著家族成員間的相互關係一般,

  • so the "tree of life" describes how all living things are related.

    所以"生命樹"描述了所有生物彼此的關聯。

  • Neil: So if this was a transformative or change-making idea,

    尼爾:所以如果這是個革命性或者顛覆性的想法,

  • why don't more of us know about Patrick Matthew?

    為什麼我們大部分的人都對派翠克,馬修不是很認識?

  • Rob: A good question, Neil. We heard in the clip that

    羅勃:好問題,尼爾。我們聽到這段短篇專訪談到

  • Darwin acknowledged or accepted - Matthew's claim to the idea.

    達爾文接受或承認 - 馬修是先提出個想法的人。

  • But it seems to be down to us the general public wanting to simplify things.

    但是似乎普羅大眾喜歡將事情簡化造成的。

  • Neil: Well, I like to keep things simple, Rob.

    尼爾:好吧,我個人也喜歡讓事情簡單一點,羅勃。

  • Rob: You don't have to tell me that, Neil.

    羅勃:這件事我不是一定要知道,尼爾。

  • But let's hear more on why Matthew might have been passed over or ignored by some.

    不過,我們繼續聽更多關於究竟為什麼馬修遭到被忽略或是遺忘的待遇。

  • Here's Dr Patricia Fara, senior tutor at Clare College Cambridge.

    接下來是派翠克・法拉博士,克萊爾學院劍橋校區的資深助教。

  • She tells us why Darwin was so successful.

    她將告訴我們為什麼達爾文會如此成功地被後人記住。

  • And listen out for the word she uses to mean close friends and supporters.

    並且仔細聽她所指支持者和親近的朋友是什麼意思。

  • Dr Patricia Fara: He brought his allies on board.

    派翠克,法拉博士:達爾文利用他的盟友。

  • And although he was publishing from his stronghold down in Kent he had the most

    而儘管他在Kent的家鄉發表這個想法,他背後有著

  • famous, most prominent, eminent members of the scientific society

    當時(維多利亞時代)最有名氣、最有前景的科學社群成員們

  • in Victorian times who were pushing on his behalf.

    協助推廣、發展這個思想。

  • Having a scientific theory being accepted is not just a matter of whether the theory's right.

    由此可知,「理論正確」並非唯一讓眾人接受該理論的理由。

  • Rob: The word she used was allies.

    羅勃:她所用的字是"盟友"。

  • What are they Neil?

    尼爾,這是什麼?

  • Neil: Allies are people who help or support us in something

    尼爾:"盟友"是一群幫助或支持你去做某事的人,

  • having someone on board also means to have someone's support for an idea or project.

    而和某些人站在同一陣線也代表有人支持著個想法或計畫。

  • And Darwin's allies weren't just mates from down the pub, were they?

    而達爾文的盟友不只是那些酒吧裡的酒友而已,對吧?

  • Rob: No, they weren't! They were famous, prominent and eminent scientists.

    羅勃:不,不是那種盟友!他們是一群有名氣、前景和傑出的科學家們。

  • Prominent means important and well-known

    Prominent 指的是重要且有名的。

  • and eminent means important and respected.

    而 eminent 指的是重要且受尊敬的。

  • Neil: Ah yes! So you could say that I'm an eminent radio presenter, Rob?

    尼爾:對呀! 所以你可以說我是個傑出的廣播播報員對吧,羅勃?

  • Rob: Well, I could Neil, but ...

    羅勃:這個嘛,我是可以,但尼爾...

  • Neil: OK, OK, OK moving on! These eminent scientists were pushing on Darwin's behalf.

    尼爾:好、好、好,我們繼續!這些傑出的科學家驅策著達爾文去推廣他的點子。

  • In other words, they were taking strong action to promote his theory of evolution.

    也就是說,他們採取了強勢的行動去推廣他的演化理論。

  • Rob: And it's possible that Patrick Matthew did not enjoy the same level of support.

    羅勃:而這可能是派翠克・馬修所缺乏的優勢。

  • Neil: That could be true.

    尼爾:這可能是真的。

  • So do you remember the quiz question from the beginning of the show, Rob?

    所以你記得節目一開始的問題嗎,羅勃?

  • Rob: Indeed I do! I asked: What was Matthew's job? Was he ... a) a politician?

    羅勃:我的確記得!我問你:馬修的職業是什麼?他是... a) 政治家?

  • b) a church minister? Or c) a horticulturalist?

    b) 教士? 還是 c) 園藝家?

  • Neil: And I said c) horticulturalist.

    尼爾:而我回答 c) 園藝家?

  • Rob: Yes. And that was the right answer, so well done!

    羅勃:沒錯。而且那正是正確答案,幹得好!

  • Just to remind you: a horticulturalist is a person

    提醒你一下:園藝家的工作

  • whose job is to study and grow plants such as flowers, fruit and vegetables.

    是研究和培育植物像是花、水果和蔬菜的人。

  • But Matthew was interested in trees too.

    但是馬修也對種樹有興趣。

  • In fact, his ideas about evolution appear in an appendix

    事實上,他對於演化論的看法

  • or section giving extra information at the end of a 200-page book about wood!

    出現在一本200頁的、有關木頭一輸的附註中。

  • Neil: So maybe that's why we know Darwin's name but not Matthew's.

    尼爾:所以可能這就是為什麼我們記得達爾文而不是馬修的名字吧。

  • It doesn't seem fair.

    這樣說好像不太公平。

  • Rob: Well, life's not fair, Neil.

    羅勃:這個嘛,人生是不公平,尼爾。

  • You should know that by now!

    你現在應該知道了吧!

  • Neil: I should, I should.

    尼爾:應該吧,應該。

  • Rob: So why don't we hear the words we learned today?

    羅勃:所以我們何不來複習一下今天學到的單字?

  • Neil: OK. Here we go:

    尼爾:好的,它們分別是:

  • evolution

    演化

  • genius

    天才

  • clever clogs

    自以為聰明的傢伙

  • natural selection

    天擇

  • adapt

    適應

  • species

    物種

  • transformative

    顛覆性的

  • passed over

    忽略

  • allies

    盟友

  • on board

    參一腳

  • prominent

    有前途的

  • eminent

    傑出的

  • horticulturalist

    園藝家

  • appendix

    備註、附註、注釋

  • Rob: Thank you, Neil. Well, that's the end of today's 6 Minute English.

    羅勃:謝謝你,尼爾。這就是我們今天6分鐘英文的尾聲了。

  • There are plenty more to listen to at bbclearningenglish.com.

    還有更多的主題可以上bbclearningenglish.com上收聽。

  • Please join us again soon.

    期待盡快與您再次相會。

  • Both: Bye.

    齊聲:再見。

Rob: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Rob.

羅勃:哈囉,歡迎來到6分鐘英語時間。我是羅勃。

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 多益 尼爾 馬修 達爾文 演化 物種

BBC 6分鐘英語2015年8月27日--達爾文之前的進化論。 (BBC 6 Minute English August 27, 2015 - Evolution before Darwin)

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    Adam Huang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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