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  • Consider, my dear viewers, a world.

    我親愛的觀眾們,想像一個世界。

  • A world without money, without class divisions, where everyone gives according to their abilities and takes according to their needs.

    一個沒有金錢、沒有社會階級的世界,在那裡人人都盡其所能的貢獻,並按其所需的領取報償。

  • Sounds pretty sweet, no?

    聽起來很美好,不是嗎?

  • To German poet and philosopher Karl Marx, such a Communist utopia was not only possible, it was inevitable, or what he called "the march of history".

    對德國詩人暨哲學家卡爾.馬克思而言,這樣一個共產的烏托邦非但可能發生,它還是無法避免的,或者按照他的說法,是「歷史的必然走向」。

  • Though deeply influenced by Hegel, who proposed that history develops through the abstract concept ofWorld Spirit", Marx believed that it is not conflict of ideas that propels history, but rather, conflict arising out of our relation to material goods, that will bring history to its end - specifically, our working conditions.

    儘管深受黑格爾,也就是提出歷史發展是由抽象的「世界精神」所推動的哲學家影響,馬克思深信,促進歷史前進的因素並不是概念的衝突;相反地,人類與物質之間的衝突,才會使歷史走到終點。確切來說,就是我們的工作環境。

  • Marx calls this historical processDialectical Materialism.”

    馬克思稱這個歷史進程為「辯證唯物主義」。

  • Initially, humanity was concerned only with the most basic acts of our species - producing for personal survival.

    起初,人類只關心與自身根本行為,也就是為了生存而生產。

  • But as the population multiplied, “economic systemswere established to address the needs of all.

    但隨著人口日益增多,「經濟體系」的就是為了滿足眾多人的需求而生。

  • And with economics, an individual's relationship to the products they create changes - for one is no longer producing for their immediate needs.

    人類與其所生產的物質之間的關係,也因為經濟體系的出現而改變,因為人們不再為了自己迫切的需求而生產。

  • They are producing for others.

    他們為了別人而勞動因為人們不再為了自己迫切的需求而生產

  • Fast forward to the Industrial Revolution where mankind created mechanisms to fulfill the needs of many with unprecedented efficiency.

    時間快轉到工業革命,此時人們發明了機器,並以前所未有的效率來滿足大眾化的需求。

  • These mechanisms, or "capital", are owned by individuals leading to enormous concentrations of wealth.

    這些機器,或稱為「資本」,是由少數人所擁有,並且使他們聚積龐大的財富。

  • And for the tired worker who must operate these machines, there is no getting ahead.

    而對那些操作機器的疲勞工人來說,他們的日子永遠不會有所突破。

  • For in order for the capitalist to maximize profit, he must pay the workers little more than is necessary to survive.

    為了使資本家的利益最大化,他只須支付這些工人略高於他們生存所需的報酬。

  • To Marx, this economic system of capitalism thrives on exploitation and creates widespread unhappiness through what he calls"alienation".

    馬克思認為,這個資本主義的經濟體系奠基於剝削之上,並且也經由他所謂的「異化」,造就人類普遍的不快。

  • For starters, I am alienated from the fruits of my labor.

    異化這個概念的基礎是,我和我生產的成果被隔離開來了。

  • If I create a turnip, it will be sold to another, and in exchange I will be paid a wage and become as much of a commodity as the thing I produce.

    如果我生產了一個蕪菁,它會被賣給別人,而我也會得到一筆金錢作為交換,但我也同時成為一種商品,就像我方才生產的東西。

  • Thus, I am removed from my work. I do not see myself in my labor.

    因此,我從我自己的工作被抽離。我無法在我的勞動中體現自我。

  • Capitalism also alienates us from each other.

    資本主義也使我們與他人疏離。

  • For the worker to produce efficiently, the capitalist tells them they are in constant competition for their job, thereby turning our fellow man in to an adversary, rather than an ally.

    為了要讓工人有效率地生產,資本家告誡他們,他們的工作隨時都處在競爭狀態中,迫使他們化友為敵,而非化敵為友。

  • Furthermore, capitalism alienates us from our very nature.

    更進一步,資本主義使我們與我們的本性脫節。

  • Creating is a great source of satisfaction for our species.

    對人類來說,生產是一個獲得成就感的巨大來源。

  • But because we are forced to make things that we have no personal investment in, our lives become a burden.

    但因為我們被迫生產一些與我們無關的商品,我們的生命成為一種累贅。

  • As time goes on, and industrial powers become increasingly concentrated among a select elite, the gap between the working class and the capitalist will only become wider.

    久而久之,菁英階級就會壟斷工業資本,勞動階級與資本家之間的差距只會越來越大。

  • To Marx, this gap will eventually become so pronounced that the workers, in their profound frustration, will rise up and overthrow the oppression of the few and usher in a new society

    馬克思認為,這之間的差距終究會鮮明到,工人們在深痛的挫敗感中將揭竿而起,推翻少數人的壓迫,並迎來一個嶄新的社會。

  • society in which there is no private property, there are no class divisions, where people's labor is held for the common good and (where) all work according to their ability.

    一個沒有私人財產,沒有社會階級的社會,在這裡,人們都是為了公眾利益而勞動,而且大家都盡其所能地貢獻。

  • And that, my friends, is Communism.

    我的朋友,這就是共產主義。

  • Even today, Marxism is one of the most powerful ideologies in the world.

    直到今天,馬克思主義仍是世界上相當強而有力的意識形態。

  • And to some, the ushering in of the Marxist utopia still lies in the not-too-distant future.

    某些人深信馬克思式的烏托邦在不久的將來就會實現。

Consider, my dear viewers, a world.

我親愛的觀眾們,想像一個世界。

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 馬克思 生產 勞動 階級 工人 資本主義

馬克思主義到底是什麼? (What is Marxism? (Karl Marx + Super Mario Bros.) – 8-Bit Philosophy)

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    Jacky Avocado Tao 發佈於 2019 年 02 月 14 日
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