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  • Recently there has been a lot of talk about measles.

    最近出現了很多有關麻疹的談論

  • What does measles actually do, and should you vaccinate against it?

    麻疹實際上做什麼,你應該接種疫苗嗎?

  • Or is this just hysteria?

    或者這只是歇斯底里?

  • Measles is a virus:

    麻疹是一種病毒:

  • a hull of proteins, RNA,

    蛋白質軀殼的RNA

  • plus some more proteins for reproduction.

    加上一些蛋白質進行複製

  • It cannot reproduce by itself; it needs a host cell to do so.

    它不能靠自己繁殖,它需要宿主細胞

  • To understand measles, we have to understand the immune system.

    為了理解麻疹,我們要先了解免疫系統

  • You might already have seen

    你可能已經看到

  • the visual system we developed to help here.

    我們做了較可看的系統在這裡幫助了解

  • Now, let’s focus on the parts of the immune system relevant to measles.

    現在,讓我們關注在有關麻疹的免疫系統。

  • The measles virus enters humans through the nose, mouth, or eyes.

    麻疹病毒進入人體 通過鼻,口,或眼睛。

  • The measles infection starts in the lungs.

    麻疹先在肺部開始感染

  • Measles is especially good at infecting the body’s first line of defence:

    麻疹在人體的第一道防線效果群拔

  • macrophages, powerful guard cells that protect the lungs from intruders.

    也就是巨噬細胞 強大的保衛細胞保護肺部以免受入侵

  • They enter a cell and take it over.

    它們進入細胞,並殺死細胞

  • The virus reprograms the cell and

    病毒重新編輯細胞

  • transforms it into a dangerous virus production center.

    並轉換成一種危險的 病毒製作中心

  • Once a cell is filled with viruses,

    一旦一個細胞裡有病毒

  • they leave the crippled cell and begin the cycle over again.

    它們離開受損的細胞 並且再開始循環一遍

  • But the immune system has powerful weapons against virus infections:

    但免疫系統具有 強大的武器來對付病毒感染

  • natural killer cells.

    自然殺手細胞

  • These cells basically patrol the body and check other cells for infections.

    這些細胞基本上是巡邏人體 並檢查其他細胞是否受感染

  • If they find an infected cell, they order it to commit suicide.

    如果他們發現被感染的細胞 則會命令細胞自殺

  • This is so effective that for the first 10 days or so,

    之所以如此 這在前10天左右有效

  • you will not even notice that youre infected with measles.

    你甚至不會注意到你感染了麻疹

  • And now, the reason why measles is so powerful.

    現在,麻疹之所以 如此的強大

  • After a period of fighting and dying,

    經過一段時間的戰鬥和死亡

  • macrophages alert the brain of the immune system:

    巨噬細胞警報大腦 要求一些免疫系統

  • the dendritic cells.

    樹突狀細胞

  • The job of the dendritic cells is to collect samples of intruders,

    樹突狀細胞的工作是 收集入侵者的樣本

  • travel to the lymph nodes,

    行進到淋巴結,

  • and then activate the heavy weapons

    然後啟動重型武器

  • that eradicate the infection very fast in a team effort.

    這種武器在團隊的努力下 根除感染的速度非常快

  • But the measles virus uses a dreadful tactic.

    但麻疹病毒用一個可怕的戰術

  • It infects the dendritic cells

    它感染的樹突狀細胞

  • and uses them as a Trojan horse to enter deeper into the body.

    並使用它們當作一個木馬 進入更深層的體內

  • The infected cells travel to the next lymph node

    在感染的細胞裡行進到下一個淋巴結

  • to alert other immune cells.

    警戒其他免疫細胞

  • Once it arrives,

    一旦它到達目的地

  • the measles virus spreads around the virgin T and B cells

    病毒在處女型T細胞和B細胞周圍開始傳播

  • and infects them.

    並感染它們

  • It attacks the very system that evolved to fight it.

    它的攻​​擊非常有系統 把細胞們進化後讓它們去打仗

  • Now, things happen very fast.

    現在,整件事發生的非常快

  • The lymph system spreads the virus everywhere

    淋巴系統傳播病毒到每個地方

  • and it enters the bloodstream,

    並且進入血液中

  • infecting cells while traveling.

    在行進中感染其他細胞

  • Measles infects organs like

    麻疹也是如此的感染器官

  • the spleen, the liver, the intestines, and, most importantly, the lungs.

    脾,肝,腸 而最重要的是肺部

  • The symptoms range from

    症狀的範圍從

  • a very high fever, headache, sickness, bronchitis, and, of course, a rash.

    非常高的發燒,頭痛,嘔吐 支氣管炎,當然,還有皮疹

  • In the lungs, the immune system was doing pretty okay.

    在肺裡 免疫系統做得相當不錯

  • But now, millions of viruses attack a second time

    但現在 數以百萬計的病毒進行第二次攻擊

  • and kill countless cells, wiping out the defense systems.

    殺死了無數的細胞 殲滅防禦系統

  • In this phase, you start coughing out millions of measles viruses.

    在這個階段 你開始咳出幾百萬個麻疹病毒

  • Measles is so contagious at this stage,

    麻疹的傳染性在這個階段很強烈

  • that if you meet someone who isn’t vaccinated,

    如果你遇到有人沒接種疫苗

  • there’s about a 90% chance youll infect them.

    會有大約90%的機率會感染他們

  • Without the protective army in the lungs, other bacteria or viruses that

    而不在肺部的軍隊 其他細菌或病毒

  • would usually not stand a chance can now enter the lungs and develop into

    通常會沒有機會再進入肺部或發展成

  • harmful parallel infections that can cause pneumonia,

    有害的併發感染可引起肺炎

  • the most common way to die from measles.

    麻疹最常見的死亡方式

  • Your body’s immune system is now seriously wounded.

    你的免疫系統現在身受重傷

  • Various protective systems are hurt and disrupted.

    各種防護系統受到傷害和破壞

  • The virus spreads everywhere, infecting the skin all over the body.

    病毒傳播無所不在 感染皮膚遍布全身

  • The typical measles rash now becomes visible.

    典型麻疹的皮疹現在明顯可見

  • And in some cases, the measles virus

    在某些情況下,麻疹病毒

  • reaches the brain and causes a brain infection.

    到達大腦並造成腦部感染

  • If it does so, the chances of dying are between 20 to 40 percent,

    如果演變成這樣的話 死亡的機率介於20%至40%

  • and there may be long-term damage.

    並且有可能造成長期損害

  • But your body is far from giving up at this stage,

    但是你的身體在這階段 離放棄這一步還很遠

  • and it fights back agressively.

    它還擊侵略者

  • Some dendritic cells survive long enough to activate

    一些樹突狀細胞存活 夠長的時間以激發

  • the anti-virus forces of the body.

    具有防病毒力的身體

  • Plasma cells in the lymph nodes start producing billions of antibodies,

    漿細胞在淋巴結 開始生產數十億個抗體

  • tiny proteins that mark infected cells for destruction

    微小的蛋白質 標記感染細胞得以銷毀

  • or clump the virus together.

    或把病毒聚集在一起

  • Killer T cells flood the body and kill infected cells left and right.

    殺手T細胞湧入身體 並殺死所有被感染的細胞

  • After 2 to 3 weeks, the body usually gets

    2〜3週後,體內通常會獲得

  • the upper hand and overwhelms the infection.

    佔上風的位子並壓倒那些感染病毒

  • But the immune system is now seriously weakened,

    但是免疫系統現在被嚴重削弱

  • and may take weeks or months to recover,

    並且可能需要數週或數個月才能恢復

  • leaving the body vulnerable to other diseases.

    讓身體離開容易感染疾病的地方

  • But, if you make it, you are now immune:

    但是,如果你撐過來 你就會對它免疫了

  • the immune system remembers the virus forever.

    免疫系統會永遠記住那病毒

  • Measles is no joke.

    麻疹不是在開玩笑

  • Although 84% of all humans are vaccinated against measles,

    雖然有84%的人接種麻疹疫苗

  • 122,000 people died because of the infection in 2014.

    卻有122000人因為感染而在2014年死亡

  • Some people cannot get vaccinations,

    有些人無法獲得接種疫苗

  • either because theyre too young, because of chemotherapy or HIV,

    因為他們太年輕 或是因為化療或艾滋病毒

  • or because theyre allergic to the vaccine.

    或者是因為他們對疫苗過敏

  • They need the rest of us to stop the disease for them.

    他們需要 剩下的我們去阻止病毒感染他們

  • The measles vaccination is safe, cheap, and available.

    麻疹疫苗接種 安全,便宜,可用的

  • There are no benifits from having measles at all.

    得到麻疹並沒有任何好處

  • You don’t strengthen your immune system and it’s not more natural.

    你不會增強你的免疫系統,它不會更自然

  • Most people who don’t vaccinate only want the best for their children,

    大多數不接種疫苗的人 只想給他們的孩子最好的

  • which is honorable.

    這是光榮的

  • But if you ask yourself,

    但如果你問自己

  • Am I putting the life of my child and other children at risk by

    “我是把我孩子的生命 和其他的孩子處於危險之中

  • not vaccinating against measles?”

    因為沒接種麻疹疫苗?“

  • The sad answer is yes. Yes, you are.

    這不幸的答案是肯定的。是的,你是。

  • Let’s not play the blame game, though.

    我們不要玩指責遊戲

  • Let’s work together and eradicate this virus.

    讓我們攜手合作消除這種病毒

  • Together, we can get rid of these dreadful monsters and

    總之,我們可以擺脫這些 可怕的怪物

  • consign them to their rightful place: the history books.

    和給他們應有的地位: 史書

  • Subtitles by the Amara.org community

    翻譯By 酆

Recently there has been a lot of talk about measles.

最近出現了很多有關麻疹的談論

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B2 中高級 中文 英國腔 細胞 病毒 免疫 接種 疫苗 肺部

麻疹解釋--接種疫苗還是不接種? (Measles Explained — Vaccinate or Not?)

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    mommy 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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