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  • We're going to do a little test togetherTake a look at this image and tell me what you see.

    讓我們一起來做個小測驗 - 看看這個圖案,然後告訴我你看到的是什麼

  • Okay, and now this one, this one and this one.

    好的,再來是這個、這個和這個

  • This is an inkblot test, similar to the famous Rorschach test, designed by Swiss psychologist

    這是墨跡測驗,和著名的羅夏克測驗很相似,由瑞典心理學家

  • Hermann Rorschach in the 1920s. It’s been used since 1939 to examine your personality

    赫曼·羅夏克於1920年所設計。自1939年開始被用以測試性格,

  • by looking at what you associate with these random ink blots.

    藉由你看這些墨跡所聯想到的事物判斷你的人格

  • So when I look at them I see… a masquerade mask, two people surrounded by evil leg-eating

    當我看這些圖案時我看到... 一個化妝舞會面具、兩個人被吃腳的魚包圍、

  • fish, a leaf and a clown face.

    一片葉子和一張小丑臉

  • But we haven't only tested these images with people.

    但我們不只用這些圖像來測試人類

  • Recently Google researchers showed these images to four different artificial intelligence

    最近Google研究人員讓四個人工智慧觀看這些圖片

  • systems. They labelled their participants robot 1, 2, 3 and 4. And the robots all had

    這些機器人被標上1到4的編號。所有的機器人

  • quite different responses.

    都有很不同的反應

  • In the first image, the robots saw a hook, barrette, art and one said it was a Rorschach inkblot.

    第一張圖片,機器人們看到了鉤子、髮夾、藝術,還有其中一個說這是羅夏克墨跡

  • In the second a jigsaw puzzle, fleur-de-lis, a design and a black ink splotch illustration.

    第二張圖片為一片拼圖、鳶尾花紋章、一個設計和汙漬

  • In the third a mask, pin, isolated and another Rorschach inkblot.

    第三張圖片為面具、別針、孤立和另一個羅夏克墨跡

  • And in the fourth image a hook, handle-bar mustache, a print and a black face paint print.

    然後第四張圖片則是鉤子、八字鬍、一張印刷圖和印刷的人臉塗鴉

  • Soif a machine can understand and independently answer a personality test... Can computers

    所以...如果機器可以了解並獨立回答人格測驗... 那電腦

  • have personalities?

    會有人格嗎?

  • The termRobotwas coined by Czech playwright Karel Capek, in his 1920 play Rossum’s Universal

    "Robot(機器人)"這個詞是由捷克劇作家卡雷爾·恰佩克於其1920年的的劇本《羅素姆的萬能機器人》

  • Robots. Typically the word makes people think of a metal-clad machine with blinking lights

    首次使用。通常這個詞會讓人聯想到閃亮的金屬外殼

  • and a monotone voice, or a modern version of that, but robots include machines that

    和機器人單調的聲音,或是更現代化的版本。但機器人也包含那些

  • dispose of bombs, perform delicate surgeries and virtual software agents, what we also

    能除掉炸彈、進行繁複手術和虛擬軟件代理的機器

  • call Artificial Intelligence or A.I.

    我們稱其為人工智慧,簡稱A.I.

  • In his 1950 paper, "Computing Machinery and Intelligence". Alan Turing proposed a test

    艾倫・圖靈在其1950年的論文《計算機器和智能》設計了一項測試,

  • called 'The Imitation Game', where a human examiner would listen to a conversation between

    稱為「模仿遊戲」。主試者必須聽一段人類和機器人的對話

  • another human and a machine. If the examiner can’t tell who is human or machine, the

    如果主試者無法分辨何者為人類、何者為機器人,

  • machine wins the imitation game. It’s artificially intelligent. That test is now widely known

    則機器人獲勝且具有人工智能。這項測驗也就是現在被廣為所知的

  • as The Turing test.

    圖寧測試 (當一台機器能和人類對話並不被發現其機器身份則表示電腦通過測試,且稱其具有智能)

  • A strength of the Turing test is that it’s really simple. It doesn’t matter how we

    圖寧測試的優勢是操作非常簡單,無關乎我們如何定義智能

  • define intelligence, the examiner sits there and decides who is human and who is machine.

    主試者只要坐在那並判斷哪個是人類、哪個是機器

  • It’s still considered a milestone in Artificial Intelligence.

    至今仍被視為人工智慧的里程碑

  • Though in contrast, the Rorschach test is pretty out of date. A big part of the test

    雖然相較之下,羅夏克測驗顯得很過時。測驗中有很大部分

  • involves you explaining why you see what you see. And an examiner uses a scoring system

    是在解釋為什麼你會看到你所看到的。之後考官會用評分系統

  • to tell you what this says about your personality.

    來判斷你的人格

  • But studies have shown it’s not reliable or valid.

    但研究顯示羅夏克測驗並沒有可信度且不準確

  • Really, the Rorschach test is better described as a problem solving task that gives us some

    的確,羅夏克測驗更適合用來解決問題,

  • indication of your past and future behaviours, or at least some of your thoughts.

    提供一些關於你過去和未來行為,或至少想法的線索

  • And the fact that mechanical brains can have unique thoughts, enough to distinguish responses

    就單以電腦能擁有特殊想法,且足以針對這種問題做回應而言

  • in a task like this, is pretty cool.

    其實還蠻酷的

  • It does set them apart in some waybut is it personality?

    這確實使它們有所區別 ,但這是人格嗎?

  • Personality can be defined asThe unique psychological qualities of an individual that

    人格可被定義為 : 特殊的個體心理特質,

  • influence a variety of characteristic behavior patterns across different situations and over time.”

    在不同的情境和時間下,影響著人的許多特徵和行為模式

  • But how does it apply to robots?

    但這要如何應用到機器上?

  • In his collection of stories I, Robot, Isaac Asimov introducedRobopsychologyas

    艾薩克·阿西莫夫於他的短篇小說集《我,機器人》提到"機器人心理學"

  • the study of the personalities of intelligent machines.

    為針對機器人的人格研究

  • It started out as fantasy but Heather Knight, a roboticist from Carnegie Mellon University,

    最初是以科幻小說發表,但卡內基美隆大學的機器人專家

  • argues that robots need personality so we can achieve things with machines that neither

    反駁機器人需要人格的說法,如此一來我們才得以藉由使用機器

  • of us could do alone.

    完成我們無法獨立做到的事

  • And earlier this year Google patented a method to download and customise personality to a robot.

    在今年前陣子Google取得下載並客制化機人人格的專利

  • But, what does a robot personality look like? In humans our personality traits are our thoughts,

    但,機器的人格到底是什麼樣? 人類的人格特質因為想法、

  • feelings and behaviours that distinguish us from each other.

    感情和行為而彼此有所不同

  • The Five Factor Model of personality suggests your traits are organised in terms of five

    在五大人格特質模型理論中,人的特質是由五大廣泛的因素所形成

  • broad factors. Research indicates these traits are present from a young age, come from both

    研究顯示這些特質會在幼年時顯現,受到先天基因與後天教養的影響

  • nature and nurture and can change throughout your life.

    而且在人的一生中會不斷改變

  • The plasticity principle suggests personality is an open system that can be influenced by

    因為可塑性原則,人格會受環境影響而改變

  • your environment. Research suggests change is most likely at certain ages or life stages

    研究指出改變最可能發生在特定的年齡或人生階段

  • (think 20-40 or when you become a parent).

    (在20-40左右或當你為人父母時)

  • We tend to think of robot personality like we think about human personality, that everyone’s

    我們容易把機器人格想得和人類人格一樣,也就是每個個體的差異

  • different based on our makeup and experience. After all, those different A.I. saw different

    來自其本身的經驗。畢竟這些人工智慧做墨跡測驗

  • things in the inkblot test.

    所看到的都不同

  • But if one A.I., like Apple’s Siri, has millions of interactions every day, what does

    但假設一個人工智慧,像蘋果的Siri,每天都有數百萬個互動,

  • that mean for its personality?

    那它的人格又代表什麼?

  • Siri, do you have a personality?

    Siri,你有人格嗎?

  • I can’t answer that.

    這我無法回答

  • Let me know what you think in the comments. And see you next week.

    留言讓我知道你的想法,我們下周見

  • And if you don’t already, subscribe to BrainCraft! For a new brainy video every week.

    如不留言,也請訂閱BrainCraft以觀看每周全新的影片!

We're going to do a little test togetherTake a look at this image and tell me what you see.

讓我們一起來做個小測驗 - 看看這個圖案,然後告訴我你看到的是什麼

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 多益 人格 機器人 測驗 人工 測試

電腦能有個性嗎? (Can Computers Have Personalities?)

  • 2822 97
    Adam Huang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字