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  • We hear the wordterrorism” a lot despite that fact that it is a term that is

    我們常聽到「恐怖主義」一詞,儘管事實上也是個

  • notoriously hard to

    出了名地難解釋的名詞

  • explain. There is no international consensus on the definition, legally or academically

    這個詞在國際上沒有一致的定義,無論是在法律上還是學術上

  • for the

    關於

  • termterrorist”. In fact, the U.S. government has more than 20 definitions for it. And in

    「恐怖主義者」一詞,美國政府就有超過20個定義

  • 1996, the

    在1996年

  • UN formed its own Ad Hoc Committee to draft an official explanation of the term, and that

    聯合國的特設委員會對於「恐怖主義者」定出一個官方的定義

  • took

    就花了

  • 10 years. So, what exactly constitutes terrorism?

    10年的時間,到底恐怖主義是什麼?

  • A mix of those definitions results in something like this: terrorism is violence, or the threat

    有個綜合所有定義的解釋是──恐怖主義是殘暴或具有威脅的

  • of violence, against non-combatants or civilians, usually motivated by political, religious

    暴力,武力脅迫非戰鬥人員或平民,以政治、宗教

  • or

  • ideological beliefs.

    思想名義為動機

  • Outside of that broad definition, it might be better to explain terrorism by talking

    撇除廣泛的定義不說,或許應該來區分一下

  • about what it

    恐怖主義

  • is not.

    和有組織犯罪

  • Terrorism is not organized crime. There are a few key differences. One is motivation.

    恐怖主義與有組織犯罪不同,它們之中有些差異性,第一是動機

  • Terrorism is usually politically or socially motivated. Organized crime is profit motivated.

    恐怖主義是以政治和社會為動機,有組織犯罪是以利益為動機

  • Secondly, people in organized crime do not usually seek media attention, something terrorists

    第二,有組織犯罪不會去引起媒體的關注,而恐怖份子會

  • do. Third, organized crime doesn’t usually desire government recognition, unlike most

    第三,有組織犯罪不會期望獲得政府的重視,這點和大多數

  • Terrorist

    恐怖組織

  • groups.

    不一樣

  • Terrorism is not violence carried out by one mentally ill person. This can be confusing,

    恐怖主義不是因精神病所產生的暴力行為,這常令人混淆

  • because when it comes to violent acts, it’s not immediately apparent who is sane and who

    當暴力行為產生時,很難去分辨誰是神智健全的

  • is

    還是

  • insane. For example, Man Haron Monis took hostages in an

    不健全的,譬如說雪梨人質事件

  • Australian cafe in December 2014. He claimed that it was an official attack on Australia

    發生在2014,挾持人質者聲稱這是一場

  • by the

    來自

  • Islamic State. However, after the siege ended, many people, like Australia’s Prime Minister,

    伊斯蘭國的攻擊。然而在事件落幕後,許多人像是澳洲總理

  • agreed that he was mentally ill at the time and thus should not be considered a terrorist.

    都認為他患有精神疾病因此不應該被當成恐怖份子

  • Monis

    而劫匪莫尼斯

  • was killed in the siege and his true intentions and affiliations remain unknown. Research

    在警方攻堅過程中身亡,他的目的以及與伊斯蘭國的關係仍是個謎。研究

  • shows

    顯示

  • that 40% oflone wolfattacks are perpetrated by mentally ill individuals.

    有4成的性格孤僻者因精神疾病而犯下攻擊事件

  • Terrorism is not violence perpetrated by a government against another nation. If a nation

    恐怖主義並不是一國政府武力脅迫某一民族或國家,如果一個國家

  • commits an act of violence, it’s usually referred to as anact of waror, under

    行使暴力,這通常被稱為「戰爭行為」,或者

  • certain

    在某個

  • circumstances, an act ofself-defense”. There are some exceptions to this rule. If

    情況下,被稱為「自衛」,不過也有例外,

  • a nation

    如果一個國家

  • indirectly commits an act of terrorism by funding a terrorist organization or covertly

    提供資金給恐怖組織或是暗地

  • organizing

    策劃

  • the terrorist act, that is still considered by some, like the United States, to be a terrorist

    攻擊,有些人像是美國認為這就是

  • action.

    恐怖行動

  • Terrorism is also not an act of violence by a government against it’s own people. Nations

    恐怖主義也不是一國政府武力威脅自己國民

  • like

    例如

  • Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia had a history of terrorizing their own civilians, but those

    德國納粹和蘇俄都有一段脅迫自己國人的歷史

  • were

    但是這些事件

  • generally considered to be acts of oppression or repression and not terrorism.

    都只被認定為是壓迫手段而非恐怖主義

  • These definitions are based on how the UN, the U.S., and many international Scholars

    這些定義是根據聯合國、美國以及許多國際學者

  • interpret these terms. If you disagree or have a dissenting opinion, you are not alone.

    所解釋的,如果你有不同的看法,你並非獨自一人

  • As we

    就像我們

  • said at the top this, “terrorismis notoriously hard to define and often used to mean many

    一開始說過的,「恐怖主義」很難去定義且在

  • different things by pundits, politicians, and the media.

    學者、政治人物和媒體都有不同的見解

  • If you want to know more, watch this video onWhy Terrorist Groups Can’t Last Forever”.

    如果你想了解更多相關議題,可以參考「為什麼恐怖組織無法永遠存在」這部影片

  • Thanks for watching, and subscribe! We put out new videos 6 days a week.

    謝謝觀賞並請按訂閱!我們固定每週6天都會推出新的視頻

We hear the wordterrorism” a lot despite that fact that it is a term that is

我們常聽到「恐怖主義」一詞,儘管事實上也是個

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 恐怖 主義 定義 組織 暴力 事件

恐怖主義的定義是什麼? (What Is The Definition Of Terrorism?)

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    羅紹桀 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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