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  • I think we're all aware

    我想大家都意識到

  • that the world today is full of problems.

    現在世界上充滿了各種問題。

  • We've been hearing them

    我們聽到這些問題,

  • today and yesterday and every day for decades.

    不論是今天還是昨天,日復一日,已長達數十年。

  • Serious problems, big problems, pressing problems.

    嚴重的問題、大問題、急迫的問題。

  • Poor nutrition, access to water,

    營養不良、水源缺乏、

  • climate change, deforestation,

    氣候變遷、森林砍伐、

  • lack of skills, insecurity, not enough food,

    技能匱乏、治安不好、食物短缺、

  • not enough healthcare, pollution.

    醫療照護不足和環境污染。

  • There's problem after problem,

    接二連三的問題,

  • and I think what really separates this time

    我認為真正能突顯此時此刻

  • from any time I can remember in my brief time

    和我有記憶以來的其它日子不同的是

  • on Earth is the awareness of these problems.

    人們意識到這些問題,

  • We're all very aware.

    我們都很清楚地意識到這些事。

  • Why are we having so much trouble

    那麼為什麼我們處理這些問題

  • dealing with these problems?

    會有那麼多麻煩?

  • That's the question I've been struggling with,

    這是一直以來,我嘗試用自己的不同角度

  • coming from my very different perspective.

    去思考解決的問題。

  • I'm not a social problem guy.

    我不是那種解決社會問題的人,

  • I'm a guy that works with business,

    我是和企業合作的人,

  • helps business make money.

    幫企業賺錢。

  • God forbid.

    老天啊。

  • So why are we having so many problems

    那麼為什麼我們在社會中

  • with these social problems,

    有這麼多問題呢?

  • and really is there any role for business,

    企業可擔任什麼角色嗎?

  • and if so, what is that role?

    可以的話那角色是什麼?

  • I think that in order to address that question,

    我認為要解決這個問題,

  • we have to step back and think about

    我們應該先往後退一步,並思考

  • how we've understood and pondered

    如何了解與衡量

  • both the problems and the solutions

    我們所面臨的重大社會挑戰

  • to these great social challenges that we face.

    所帶來的問題和解決辦法。

  • Now, I think many have seen business

    我想,現今有許多人把企業

  • as the problem, or at least one of the problems,

    視為問題,或者說至少是

  • in many of the social challenges we face.

    我們所面臨的社會挑戰中的問題之一。

  • You know, think of the fast food industry,

    你想想速食業、

  • the drug industry, the banking industry.

    藥品業和銀行業。

  • You know, this is a low point

    你知道,社會上普遍對

  • in the respect for business.

    企業毫無敬意可言。

  • Business is not seen as the solution.

    企業並不被視為解決方式,

  • It's seen as the problem now, for most people.

    對大部分人來說,企業是問題所在,

  • And rightly so, in many cases.

    而且在許多案例中確實如此。

  • There's a lot of bad actors out there

    外面有很多糟糕的企業,

  • that have done the wrong thing,

    做出許多錯誤決定,

  • that actually have made the problem worse.

    讓問題變得更嚴重。

  • So this perspective is perhaps justified.

    因此這個觀點也許情有可原。

  • How have we tended to see the solutions

    我們傾向如何解決

  • to these social problems,

    這些社會問題,

  • these many issues that we face in society?

    這些我們在社會中所面對的眾多爭議呢?

  • Well, we've tended to see the solutions

    一直以來,我們傾向見到出面解決的

  • in terms of NGOs,

    是非政府組織、

  • in terms of government,

    公部門

  • in terms of philanthropy.

    和慈善團體。

  • Indeed, the kind of unique organizational entity

    而確實,這類獨特的組織,

  • of this age is this tremendous rise of NGOs

    在這個年代崛起的是大量的非政府組織

  • and social organizations.

    和社會組織。

  • This is a unique, new organizational form

    這是一種獨特的、新型的組織形式,

  • that we've seen grown up.

    是目前已發展的形式。

  • Enormous innovation, enormous energy,

    大幅度的革新、龐大的能源,

  • enormous talent now has been mobilized

    和無數有才能的人們都被動員來

  • through this structure

    進入這個體系,

  • to try to deal with all of these challenges.

    嘗試接受這些挑戰。

  • And many of us here are deeply involved in that.

    在座有許多人也致力於此。

  • I'm a business school professor,

    我是商學院的教授,

  • but I've actually founded, I think, now, four nonprofits.

    但其實我現在設立了四個非營利組織。

  • Whenever I got interested and became aware

    每當我開始關注並意識到

  • of a societal problem, that was what I did,

    一項社會問題時,如同我一貫的做法,

  • form a nonprofit.

    就是成立非營利組織。

  • That was the way we've thought about how to deal

    那是我們大家會想到能夠解決

  • with these issues.

    這些議題的方式,

  • Even a business school professor has thought about it that way.

    即使是商學院教授都會往這個方向思考。

  • But I think at this moment,

    但我想在此時此刻,

  • we've been at this for quite a while.

    我們已有很長一段時間處於這種狀態,

  • We've been aware of these problems for decades.

    我們意議到這些問題已經好幾十年了,

  • We have decades of experience

    我們有數十年的經驗,

  • with our NGOs and with our government entities,

    透過我們的非政府組織和公部門來處理,

  • and there's an awkward reality.

    但是現實慘不忍睹。

  • The awkward reality is we're not making

    慘不忍睹的原因是我們的

  • fast enough progress.

    進展太慢。

  • We're not winning.

    我們沒能戰勝。

  • These problems still seem very daunting

    這些問題依舊讓人洩氣、

  • and very intractable,

    十分棘手,

  • and any solutions we're achieving

    任何我們採取的解決方式

  • are small solutions.

    都只能用在枝微末節上。

  • We're making incremental progress.

    我們只能緩慢前進。

  • What's the fundamental problem we have

    我們在處理這些社會問題時

  • in dealing with these social problems?

    所面臨的根本問題是什麼呢?

  • If we cut all the complexity away,

    如果無視於這些錯綜複雜的麻煩,

  • we have the problem of scale.

    就會發現我們的問題在於規模。

  • We can't scale.

    我們無法擴大規模。

  • We can make progress. We can show benefits.

    我們能有進展,讓你看見好處,

  • We can show results. We can make things better.

    能夠看得見結果,讓事情好轉。

  • We're helping. We're doing better. We're doing good.

    我們提供協助,做得更好、更棒。

  • We can't scale.

    但是我們無法擴大規模,

  • We can't make a large-scale impact on these problems.

    我們無法在這些問題上造成大規模的影響。

  • Why is that?

    為什麼會這樣?

  • Because we don't have the resources.

    因為我們沒有資源,

  • And that's really clear now.

    而現況一目瞭然,

  • And that's clearer now than it's been for decades.

    現況較過往數十年更清楚。

  • There's simply not enough money

    問題只在於沒有足夠的錢

  • to deal with any of these problems at scale

    使用現今的模式

  • using the current model.

    來處理現當前的任何問題。

  • There's not enough tax revenue,

    我們沒有足夠的稅收,

  • there's not enough philanthropic donations,

    沒有足夠的慈善捐款,

  • to deal with these problems the way we're dealing with them now.

    能提供我們用目前處理這些問題的方式來處理它們。

  • We've got to confront that reality.

    我們得面對現實。

  • And the scarcity of resources

    缺乏足夠的資源

  • for dealing with these problems is only growing,

    來處理這些問題的情況只會越來越多,

  • certainly in the advanced world today,

    尤其是現今的先進國家

  • with all the fiscal problems we face.

    面臨的所有財政問題。

  • So if it's fundamentally a resource problem,

    因此如果根本上是資源的問題,

  • where are the resources in society?

    那麼社會上的資源跑哪去了?

  • How are those resources really created,

    那些資源是怎麼產生的,

  • the resources we're going to need to deal

    我們需要用那些資源來處理

  • with all these societal challenges?

    這些社會挑戰?

  • Well there, I think the answer is very clear:

    我想答案很清楚:

  • They're in business.

    資源都在企業裡,

  • All wealth is actually created by business.

    事實上所有財富都是靠企業創造出來的。

  • Business creates wealth

    企業創造財富,

  • when it meets needs at a profit.

    只要它滿足市場需求而獲利,

  • That's how all wealth is created.

    所有的財富都是這樣產生的。

  • It's meeting needs at a profit

    滿足需求而獲得利潤

  • that leads to taxes

    就能帶來稅金,

  • and that leads to incomes

    能帶來收入,

  • and that leads to charitable donations.

    而且也能帶來慈善捐款。

  • That's where all the resources come from.

    這是所有資源的來源。

  • Only business can actually create resources.

    只有企業可以真的創造資源,

  • Other institutions can utilize them

    其它組織能利用資源

  • to do important work,

    進行重要的工作,

  • but only business can create them.

    但是只有企業能夠創造資源。

  • And business creates them

    企業創造資源,

  • when it's able to meet a need at a profit.

    只要它滿足市場需求而有利可圖。

  • The resources are overwhelmingly

    資源毫無疑問都是

  • generated by business.

    由企業所創造的。

  • The question then is, how do we tap into this?

    隨之而來的問題是,我們要如何運用?

  • How do we tap into this?

    我們要如何運用?

  • Business generates those resources

    當企業賺錢時,

  • when it makes a profit.

    就產生出那些資源。

  • That profit is that small difference

    那些利潤就是價格和

  • between the price and the cost it takes to produce

    生產所需的支出之間的細微差別,

  • whatever solution business has created

    不論企業創造了什麼方式來解決

  • to whatever problem they're trying to solve.

    他們試圖解決的問題。

  • But that profit is the magic.

    但是那樣的利潤就是魔法,

  • Why? Because that profit allows whatever solution

    為什麼呢?因為那份利潤能讓任何

  • we've created

    我們所創造的解決方式

  • to be infinitely scalable.

    變得力量無窮。

  • Because if we can make a profit,

    因為如果我們能獲利,

  • we can do it for 10, 100, a million,

    我們就能獲得十、一百、一百萬、

  • 100 million, a billion.

    一億,甚至十億。

  • The solution becomes self-sustaining.

    解決方式變得能夠自己自足。

  • That's what business does

    當企業獲利時,

  • when it makes a profit.

    它就是這樣。

  • Now what does this all have to do

    現在我們要怎麼把它運用在

  • with social problems?

    社會問題上呢?

  • Well, one line of thinking is, let's take this profit

    你可以這樣思考,我們把利潤

  • and redeploy it into social problems.

    放進社會問題中。

  • Business should give more.

    企業應該要付出更多,

  • Business should be more responsible.

    企業應該要負擔更大的責任。

  • And that's been the path that we've been on

    那是我們一直以來在企業中

  • in business.

    所採取的方式。

  • But again, this path that we've been on

    然而同樣的,我們所採取的這個方式

  • is not getting us where we need to go.

    並不會把我們帶到應該要去的地方。

  • Now, I started out as a strategy professor,

    我以擔任策略教授起家,

  • and I'm still a strategy professor.

    至今仍是,

  • I'm proud of that.

    我以此為傲。

  • But I've also, over the years,

    但是幾年來我也同樣

  • worked more and more on social issues.

    致力於越來越多的社會議題。

  • I've worked on healthcare, the environment,

    我處理健康照護、環境、

  • economic development, reducing poverty,

    經濟發展、降低貧窮率,

  • and as I worked more and more in the social field,

    當我涉足社會領域越深,

  • I started seeing something

    我開始看見

  • that had a profound impact on me

    某樣東西以某種方式深深地影響了我,

  • and my whole life, in a way.

    以及我的人生。

  • The conventional wisdom in economics

    經濟學傳統的思考模式,

  • and the view in business has historically been

    以及在商業中的觀點都已隨著歷史

  • that actually, there's a tradeoff

    變成那樣,而事實上

  • between social performance and economic performance.

    社會表現和經濟表現間已取得平衡。

  • The conventional wisdom has been

    傳統思維認為

  • that business actually makes a profit

    企業能夠獲利的原因其實是

  • by causing a social problem.

    由於它製造了社會問題,

  • The classic example is pollution.

    經典的例子就是污染。

  • If business pollutes, it makes more money

    如果企業造成污染,就會賺更多的錢,

  • than if it tried to reduce that pollution.

    相較於降低污染的情況。

  • Reducing pollution is expensive,

    降低污染是昂貴的,

  • therefore businesses don't want to do it.

    因此企業並不想這麼做。

  • It's profitable to have an unsafe working environment.

    不安全的工作環境是有利可圖的,

  • It's too expensive to have a safe working environment,

    要有安全的工作環境成本太高,

  • therefore business makes more money

    因此企業寧可賺更多錢,

  • if they don't have a safe working environment.

    即使他們沒有安全的工作環境。

  • That's been the conventional wisdom.

    這就是傳統思維。

  • A lot of companies have fallen into that conventional wisdom.

    有許多公司都陷入這樣的傳統思維裡,

  • They resisted environmental improvement.

    他們抗拒改善環境,

  • They resisted workplace improvement.

    他們抗拒改善工作場所,

  • That thinking has led to, I think,

    這樣的想法會演變成,我猜,

  • much of the behavior

    大部分的反應

  • that we have come to criticize in business,

    會出現在對企業的批評,

  • that I come to criticize in business.

    變成了我對企業的批評。

  • But the more deeply I got into all these social issues,

    但是當我越深入這些社會議題,

  • one after another,

    一個接一個,

  • and actually, the more I tried to address them

    實際上,當我嘗試

  • myself, personally, in a few cases,

    親自解決更多案例,

  • through nonprofits that I was involved with,

    透過我參與的非營利組織,

  • the more I found actually that the reality

    其實就會發現越多與事實

  • is the opposite.

    相反的情況。

  • Business does not profit

    企業的利潤

  • from causing social problems,

    並不是從製造社會問題中獲得,

  • actually not in any fundamental sense.

    事實上完全不是這回事。

  • That's a very simplistic view.

    那是非常簡化的觀點。

  • The deeper we get into these issues,

    當我越深入探究這些議題,

  • the more we start to understand

    我就越能了解

  • that actually business profits

    實際上企業的利潤

  • from solving social problems.

    是從解決社會問題中獲得。

  • That's where the real profit comes.

    那才是真正的利潤來源。

  • Let's take pollution.

    以污染的問題來說吧,

  • We've learned today that actually

    我們可以從當今的情況中發現,其實

  • reducing pollution and emissions

    減少污染源

  • is generating profit.

    就能獲利,

  • It saves money.

    能夠省錢。

  • It makes the business more productive and efficient.

    能讓企業生產更多、更有效率,

  • It doesn't waste resources.

    而且不會浪費資源。

  • Having a safer working environment actually,

    其實還能有更安全的工作環境,

  • and avoiding accidents,

    避免意外發生,

  • it makes the business more profitable,

    讓企業更容易獲利,

  • because it's a sign of good processes.

    因為這是良好流程的證明。

  • Accidents are expensive and costly.

    發生意外要花很多錢,代價很高。

  • Issue by issue by issue, we start to learn

    接二連三的問題讓我們開始學習,

  • that actually there's no trade-off

    其實並沒有所謂的平衡

  • between social progress

    存在於社會進步

  • and economic efficiency

    和經濟效率之間,

  • in any fundamental sense.

    不論是從哪個基礎觀點來看。

  • Another issue is health.

    另一項議題是健康,

  • I mean, what we've found is actually

    我的意思是,其實我們發現

  • health of employees is something

    員工的健康

  • that business should treasure,

    應該是企業要珍惜的一項資產,

  • because that health allows those employees

    因為員工身體健康就能

  • to be more productive and come to work

    更有生產力,就會來上班,

  • and not be absent.

    不請假。

  • The deeper work, the new work, the new thinking

    更深入的工作、新的工作和新的思維

  • on the interface between business and social problems

    存在企業和社會問題之間,

  • is actually showing that there's a fundamental,

    事實上這顯示了有一種重要、

  • deep synergy,

    密切的合作,

  • particularly if you're not thinking in the very short run.

    尤其是當你並不是從短期來思考。

  • In the very short run, you can sometimes

    從短期來看,有時候你可以

  • fool yourself into thinking

    騙自己

  • that there's fundamentally opposing goals,

    有一項重要的相反目標,

  • but in the long run, ultimately, we're learning

    但是以長期來看,最終我們會

  • in field