字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 Huckabee: We got nothing Cruz: Death to America Clinton: The agreement Graham: The weapon Trump: This is amateur night. Netanyahu: This is a bad mistake. Obama: This is the strongest nonproliferation agreement ever negotiated Jake: There’s a lot of noise about the Iran deal, but is it as important as President Obama says it is? [ music ] Mr. President, in your speech at American University yesterday, you called this the most important foreign policy debate that we’ve witnessed since the Iraq War. I think if you talk to most Americans, and particularly our generation, they don’t necessarily feel that. I wonder why you think that is? Obama: Well, I lived through the debate of the Iraq War. I wasn’t yet in the United States Senate. I was a state senator in Illinois. Archival Obama: I don’t oppose war in all circumstances. What I do oppose is a dumb war. Obama: At the time, there was a drumbeat that going into Iraq was the right thing to do. George W. Bush: We will answer every danger and every enemy that threatens the American people Obama: A lot of people didn’t get engaged in that debate then either. It was only after the decision was made. It was only after the initial push into Baghdad descended into massive chaos that suddenly the country realized That we had made a big, strategic mistake. And my point is that now is the time to have the debate, not after decisions are made. Jake Horowitz: Here’s what the deal is all about. Iran has to do three things: Reduce and limit its stockpile of enriched uranium, which is a key ingredient in making a nuclear weapon Significantly cut its number of centrifuges, which are used to enrich uranium And allow strict inspections to make sure they’re following these rules. In exchange, the US and other world powers will lift sanctions that have crippled Iran’s economy. Iran and the 6 countries involved in the negotiations have agreed to the deal, but Obama still needs to get it through Congress. He believes this is the only peaceful way forward. Barack Obama: The alternative to a negotiated agreement of the sort that we put together is At some point, us having to potentially take a military strike against Iran. Jake Horowitz: Republicans and even some Democrats disagree: Ted Cruz: I think this Iranian nuclear deal is a catastrophic mistake Scott Walker: Iran is not a place we should be doing business with Carly Fiorina: This is a bad deal, Obama broke every rule of negotiation Donald Trump: I would’ve doubled and tripled up the sanctions and I would’ve made a much better deal Bob Menendez: We didn’t end Iran’s nuclear program, we actually preserved it Mike Huckabee: He trusts our enemies and vilifies everyone who disagrees with him Jake Horowitz: And it’s not just politicians who have concerns. We asked people around the world what questions they have for the President. Then... we showed him. Barack Obama: Okay. So I can just press my button. Jake Horowitz: Press the uhh.. Barack Obama: Which? Which should I press?... Jake Horowitz: The video on the left. Barack Obama: The video on the left. This one right here? Jake Horowitz: Yeah, that’s it. Barack Obama: Here we go. Okay. Ghazal Hakami: Mr. President, you always speak of peace and you made it. But we, the Iranian people, paid a high price because you put very harsh sanctions on us. Don’t you think you had other ways to make this deal without hurting Iranian people so much? Barack Obama: Well, unfortunately we didn’t have a better way of doing this. What we had to do was to more severely enforce sanctions so that Iran had greater incentive to come to the table and negotiate. Jake Horowitz: In 2009, Obama sent a letter to the supreme leader of Iran to start negotiations over its nuclear program. But they never replied. Instead, they ramped up their nuclear efforts. So, starting in 2010, the US and other world powers enacted several rounds of new sanctions that cut Iran off from much of the global financial system. As part of this new deal, the sanctions will be lifted if they follow the rules. Barack Obama: Our hope is that the Iranian people are going to be benefiting from that. But until that happens, this was the only way for us to be able to get the Iranian government to take seriously the concerns of the international community. Jake Horowitz: 60% of Iran’s population is under 30, so young Iranians have grown up knowing only tension with the US and increasingly severe sanctions. Jake Horowitz: Today’s 20-somethings will be 40-somethings as this deal runs its course and will be in positions of power. What’s possible in the future of U.S.-Iran relations? Barack Obama: I’ve said many times that Iran is an extraordinarily gifted country. It is an ancient culture. It has incredibly smart and talented people. And I wish those people well. There’s going to have to be a transition inside of Iran, even if gradual, in which there’s a recognition that chanting “death to America” or denying the Holocaust among its leaders Or threatening Israel with destruction or, you know, providing arms to Hezbollah, which is on the terrorist list That those things make Iran a pariah in the eyes of a large part of the world. And I can guarantee you that the moment the Iranian regime stopped engaging in that kind of rhetoric and that kind of behavior That Iran would just by virtue of its size, talent, resources, immediately rise in its influence and its power in the eyes of the world. And that’s what I hope can happen. It will require a shift in the politics and the leadership of Iran A different mindset in terms of how they are approaching the rest of the world and how they’re approaching countries like the United States. And perhaps, it’ll be this new generation that’s able to make that happen. Jake Horowitz: It won’t be easy — when young Iranians took to the streets to protest a disputed election in 2009, the uprising was crushed by the government. The demonstrations were the largest protests against the government since the revolution in 1979 — and showed just how hard change will be. Neela Pack: I’d like to know if you believe that this deal can lead to a shift in the internal politics in Iran and bring about positive reforms there. And if so, is this deal going to be at the cost of our relationships with current allies in the Middle East. Barack Obama: This deal is a good deal regardless of whether the character of the current Iranian regime changes. As long as they are sticking with the deal, we’re solving a big problem, which is Iran not having a nuclear weapon and not triggering a nuclear arms race in the Middle East. Jake Horowitz: Lifting sanctions in Iran will provide an influx of cash to the current regime Which countries like Israel and Saudi Arabia fear will flow to terrorist organizations like Hezbollah and Hamas and increase Iran’s regional influence. Barack Obama: There is great suspicion of this deal among some of our closest allies, Israel in particular, but also some of the Gulf States Who have seen Iran’s actions — trying to destabilize their governments or sponsoring terrorist proxies. And what I’m convinced of is that this deal is a good deal even as we work with those allies to constrain Iranian actions in some of these other areas. But what I can also say for certain is that if Iran started behaving differently If it wasn’t sponsoring terrorist organizations like Hezbollah, if it wasn’t destabilizing its neighbors, that would be welcomed by those neighbors. And you could see a greater understanding and peace in the region. Jake Horowitz: Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is the fiercest critic of the deal, which he believes paves the way for Iran to get the bomb. Benjamin Netanyahu: What a stunning, historic mistake. Sam Grossberg: As an Israeli citizen, it’s very obvious that you oppose our prime minister. You’ve made a lot of promises in regards to our security as a people and as you know Hamas is right now basically at our doorstep. Why should we, as the Israeli people, trust you? Barack Obama: Well, as president, I have not only pledged and committed to make sure that America supports Israel’s security. But I’ve also provided more intelligence and military cooperation with Israel than any previous president. I think it’s important for Sam to understand, I don’t oppose the Israeli prime minister across the board. We have a strong disagreement about whether or not it makes sense for us to take a deal that cuts off all pathways for Iran getting a nuclear program Or whether we should reject a deal, in which case, Iran can break out and start installing advanced centrifuges and potentially pursue a nuclear weapon Without us having eyes on what’s going on on the ground or any significant constraints until it's too late. And that is a substantive disagreement that we have but -- on a whole range of issues -- particularly with respect to Israel’s security, we’ve been with Israel every step of the way. And even Prime Minister Netanyahu’s government would acknowledge that. Jake Horowitz: Let’s take it back home. In your speech yesterday, you seem to compare Republicans who are against this deal to some of the hardliners in Iran, who are chanting “death to America” in the streets. Barack Obama: It’s those hardliners chanting “Death to America” who’ve been most opposed to the deal. They’re making common cause with the Republican caucus. Jake Horowitz: There’s also Democrats you know who are on the fence about this deal. And what would you say to them? Barack Obama: Well, I’m talking to them all the time. And first of all, remember what I said was, that, it’s the hardliners in Iran who are most opposed to this deal. And I said in that sense, they’re making common cause with those who were opposed to this deal here. I didn’t say that they were equivalent. There are going to be some Democrats who end up opposing this deal, partly because as I said yesterday in the speech, the affinity that we all feel towards the state of Israel is profound, it’s deep. And you know when Israel is opposed to something a lot of Democrats, as well as Republicans, pay attention. The difference though, is that most of the Democratic senators have taken the time to actually read the bill and listen to the arguments. A sizeable proportion of the Republicans were opposed before the ink was even dry on the deal before it was even posted And that gives you some sense of the degree to which this is driven by partisan politics or ideology as opposed to analysis. Jake Horowitz: And is there any criticism of the deal that you do think is legitimate? Barack Obama: Oh, absolu— well, what I have said is that there are concerns that are legitimate. It is absolutely true that Iran has a history of trying to play it close to the line when it comes to its nuclear program. And so we do have to be very vigilant about inspections. Jake Horowitz: One of the major points of contention is the fact that the restrictions on enriching uranium expire after 15 years. Bob Menendez: In time, they will have the option if they choose to ultimately move towards a nuclear weapon. And our choices then will even be more limited than they are today. Barack Obama: At that point they could conceivably break out and try to get a nuclear weapon. The point there, that I’ve made, that I think is indisputable, and in fact, former Israeli intelligence officers have made the same point Is that we’ll have just as much if not more ability to stop them at that point than they would if they are doing it right now And in the meantime we would have purchased 15 years in which we know exactly what they’re doing and can have a lot more assurance about understanding their program. The point is, on all these, on any international agreement, there is always some give and take. You never get 100% of what you want. And the world is a big, complicated and sometimes dangerous place So you have to apply judgments to what is the most important thing and how do you best achieve it, given the realities of the situation. Jake Horowitz: So here’s what comes next: In September, Congress will vote on the deal Most experts believe it will survive, but no matter what, it’s sure to remain a huge issue on the campaign trail. To the Republican presidential hopefuls, Obama has one challenge: Barack Obama: Provide a detailed, plausible alternative. And I’ve been listening to them for a long time. I’m doubtful that they will.