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  • When I was president of the American Psychological Association,

    在我擔任美國心理學會會長時

  • they tried to media-train me,

    他們希望使我熟悉媒體運作

  • and an encounter I had with CNN

    之前上CNN的節目中

  • summarizes what I'm going to be talking about today,

    簡介了我今天要談的內容

  • which is the eleventh reason to be optimistic.

    那是樂觀的第11個理由

  • The editor of Discover told us 10 of them,

    “發現”的編輯已經告訴我們10個理由

  • I'm going to give you the eleventh.

    我要講的是第11個理由

  • So they came to me -- CNN -- and they said, "Professor Seligman,

    所以他們來找我,CNN他們說,“塞利格曼教授

  • would you tell us about the state of psychology today?

    你可以告訴我們今天心理學的現況嗎?

  • We'd like to interview you about that." And I said, "Great."

    我們將向你請教這問題”,我說“很好”

  • And she said, "But this is CNN, so you only get a sound bite."

    她說,“但這是CNN,你只有講一聲的時間”

  • So I said, "Well, how many words do I get?"

    所以我說,“好的,那我可以用幾個字?”

  • And she said, "Well, one."

    她說,“好,一個”

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And cameras rolled, and she said, "Professor Seligman,

    然後攝影機開動,她說,“塞利格曼教授,

  • what is the state of psychology today?"

    今天心理學的現況如何?

  • "Good."

  • (Laughter)

    笑聲

  • "Cut. Cut. That won't do.

    ”停,停,這樣不行,

  • We'd really better give you a longer sound bite."

    我們最好讓你講長一點。”

  • "Well, how many words do I get this time?" "I think, well, you get two.

    “好吧,這次我可以講幾個字?”“我想,好,你講兩個

  • Doctor Seligman, what is the state of psychology today?"

    塞利格曼教授,今天心理學現況如何?”

  • "Not good."

    “不好”

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • "Look, Doctor Seligman,

    “看,塞利格曼博士,

  • we can see you're really not comfortable in this medium.

    我們知道你對這媒體不很習慣

  • We'd better give you a real sound bite.

    我們最好給你長一點的時間

  • This time you can have three words.

    這次你可以說三個字

  • Professor Seligman, what is the state of psychology today?"

    塞利格曼教授,今天心理學現況如何?”

  • "Not good enough." And that's what I'm going to be talking about.

    “不夠好”那是我現在要談的

  • I want to say why psychology was good, why it was not good

    我想說明為什麼心理學是好,為什麼不好

  • and how it may become, in the next 10 years, good enough.

    以及它可能轉變,在未來10年,成為夠好

  • And by parallel summary, I want to say the same thing about technology,

    用同樣的道理,我想應用在科技

  • about entertainment and design, because I think the issues are very similar.

    用在娛樂、還有設計,因為這些問題都很相似。

  • So, why was psychology good?

    所以,為什麼心理學現況是好?

  • Well, for more than 60 years, psychology worked within the disease model.

    因為,過去60多年,心理學主要應用在心理病治療

  • Ten years ago, when I was on an airplane

    10年前,我坐飛機時

  • and I introduced myself to my seatmate, and told them what I did,

    我對座位旁邊的人自我介紹,告訴他們我的工作,

  • they'd move away from me.

    他們就會離開我

  • And because, quite rightly, they were saying

    因為,他們說的沒錯

  • psychology is about finding what's wrong with you. Spot the loony.

    心理學是關於找出你毛病原因的,辨識問題所在的

  • And now, when I tell people what I do, they move toward me.

    但現在當我告訴人們我做什麼時,他們向我接近

  • And what was good about psychology,

    心理學好在什麼呢

  • about the 30 billion dollar investment NIMH made,

    是美國心理健康研究院NIMH投資300億美元

  • about working in the disease model,

    它研究心理疾病

  • about what you mean by psychology,

    研究你心理的意義

  • is that, 60 years ago, none of the disorders were treatable --

    60年以前,所有的心理病都無法治療

  • it was entirely smoke and mirrors.

    說治療也是騙人的

  • And now, 14 of the disorders are treatable,

    現在則有14種心理失衡可以治療

  • two of them actually curable.

    其中兩種可以治愈

  • And the other thing that happened is that a science developed,

    其他發生的事,是心理科學得以發展開來

  • a science of mental illness.

    一個關於心理疾病的科學

  • That we found out that we could take fuzzy concepts -- like depression, alcoholism --

    我們發現可以將以前模糊的概念如憂鬱症、酗酒

  • and measure them with rigor.

    予以精確的衡量

  • That we could create a classification of the mental illnesses.

    能夠對心理疾病加以分類

  • That we could understand the causality of the mental illnesses.

    我們能夠了解心理疾病的因果關系

  • We could look across time at the same people --

    我們能夠長期的觀察同一個人

  • people, for example, who were genetically vulnerable to schizophrenia --

    例如,一個在基因上有可能患精神分裂症的人

  • and ask what the contribution of mothering, of genetics are,

    研究母親或基因的影響

  • and we could isolate third variables

    我們也能隔離其他的變數

  • by doing experiments on the mental illnesses.

    對心理疾病進行實驗研究

  • And best of all, we were able, in the last 50 years,

    最好的是,在過去50年,我們能夠

  • to invent drug treatments and psychological treatments.

    發明藥物治療以及心理治療

  • And then we were able to test them rigorously,

    然後能夠嚴謹的測試他們

  • in random assignment, placebo controlled designs,

    經由隨機分組、藥劑控制的實驗設計

  • throw out the things that didn't work, keep the things that actively did.

    剔除無效的東西,保留有作用的東西

  • And the conclusion of that is that psychology and psychiatry, over the last 60 years,

    這些研究的結論是,心理學與精神病治療法,經過60年

  • can actually claim that we can make miserable people less miserable.

    可以宣稱我們可以減少病患們的苦惱

  • And I think that's terrific. I'm proud of it.

    我覺得這是很棒的,我對此感到榮耀

  • But what was not good, the consequences of that were three things.

    但什麼是心理學還不好的呢,這些成績的結果,導致三件事

  • The first was moral,

    第一個是道德問題,

  • that psychologists and psychiatrists became victimologists, pathologizers,

    心理學家與精神病醫生變成受害者心理研究專家,病理學者

  • that our view of human nature was that if you were in trouble, bricks fell on you.

    我們一般對人性的觀點是如果你有毛病,不幸就會朝你而來

  • And we forgot that people made choices and decisions.

    我們忘記病人們也做選擇、做決定

  • We forgot responsibility. That was the first cost.

    我們忘記病人自己也有責任,這是第一個代價

  • The second cost was that we forgot about you people.

    第二個代價是我們忘記一般正常的人們

  • We forgot about improving normal lives.

    我們忘記要改進一般人的日常生活

  • We forgot about a mission to make relatively untroubled people happier,

    我們忘記要幫助一般人們快樂些的使命

  • more fulfilled, more productive. And "genius," "high-talent," became a dirty word.

    忘記幫人們更加自我實現,更有生產力,使得關心天才或高度才能變成不好的字眼

  • No one works on that.

    沒有人在研究這些題目

  • And the third problem about the disease model is,

    而心理治療模式的第三個問題是

  • in our rush to do something about people in trouble,

    我們趕著做些事幫助有困難的人

  • in our rush to do something about repairing damage,

    在我們趕著做些事以修正傷害時

  • it never occurred to us to develop interventions

    我們沒有人研究一點調控的方法

  • to make people happier, positive interventions.

    以使一般人們變得更加快樂的正面調控方法

  • So that was not good.

    所以說心理學還不好

  • And so, that's what led people like Nancy Etcoff, Dan Gilbert,

    而這導致一些人如伊蔻夫、吉爾伯特

  • Mike Csikszentmihalyi and myself to work in something I call positive psychology,

    麥克還有我等人投入所謂正面心理學的研究

  • which has three aims.

    它有三個目標

  • The first is that psychology should be just as concerned

    第一個是心理學應該關心

  • with human strength as it is with weakness.

    除了人性的弱點外也要關心人性的優點

  • It should be just as concerned with building strength as with repairing damage.

    就如它修補傷害一樣,它也應該關心在建立優點上

  • It should be interested in the best things in life.

    應該關心生命中的美好事物

  • And it should be just as concerned with making the lives of normal people fulfilling,

    應該關心如何使一般人的生活更為充實

  • and with genius, with nurturing high talent.

    更發揮天分,發揮高度天賦

  • So in the last 10 years and the hope for the future,

    所以在過去10年以及可能在未來

  • we've seen the beginnings of a science of positive psychology,

    我們看到一門正面心理學這科學的起步

  • a science of what makes life worth living.

    一個使得生命更為值得活著的科學

  • It turns out that we can measure different forms of happiness.

    這科學顯示我們可以衡量快樂的不同形式

  • And any of you, for free, can go to that website

    你們任何人可以免費到那個網站

  • and take the entire panoply of tests of happiness.

    進行整套快樂程度的測試

  • You can ask, how do you stack up for positive emotion, for meaning,

    你可以要求,如何增進你的正面情緒,增進生命的意義

  • for flow, against literally tens of thousands of other people?

    讓數以千計的人心情流暢

  • We created the opposite of the diagnostic manual of the insanities:

    我們創造了一個與治療精神病相反的領域

  • a classification of the strengths and virtues that looks at the sex ratio,

    將優點及特質依據性別分類

  • how they're defined, how to diagnose them,

    如何定義它們,如何診斷它們

  • what builds them and what gets in their way.

    什麼會增進它們及什麼會干擾它們

  • We found that we could discover the causation of the positive states,

    我們可以發現正面狀態的因果關係

  • the relationship between left hemispheric activity

    左腦活動與右腦活動間的關係

  • and right hemispheric activity as a cause of happiness.

    如何影響我們的快樂

  • I've spent my life working on extremely miserable people,

    我一生許多時間用於研究極為悲慘的人們

  • and I've asked the question,

    我問的問題是

  • how do extremely miserable people differ from the rest of you?

    極為悲慘的人是怎麼會與大家不同的

  • And starting about six years ago, we asked about extremely happy people.

    約6年前,我們開始問極端快樂的人

  • And how do they differ from the rest of us?

    他們是怎麼會與大眾不同的

  • And it turns out there's one way.

    結果顯示有一個共通性

  • They're not more religious, they're not in better shape,

    他們不是更相信宗教,他們不是身體較好

  • they don't have more money, they're not better looking,

    他們不是較有錢,他們不是長得較好看

  • they don't have more good events and fewer bad events.

    他們不是有較多的好事及較少的壞事

  • The one way in which they differ: they're extremely social.

    他們唯一的不同:他們非常參與社交活動

  • They don't sit in seminars on Saturday morning.

    他們不是在周六上午坐著聽演講

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • They don't spend time alone.

    他們不常獨處

  • Each of them is in a romantic relationship

    他們每個人都處於在感情交往的關係中

  • and each has a rich repertoire of friends.

    每個人都有許多不同種類的朋友

  • But watch out here. This is merely correlational data, not causal,

    但這裡要注意,這只代表相關性,不是因果關係

  • and it's about happiness in the first Hollywood sense I'm going to talk about:

    這是關於好萊塢式的快樂,第一個我要談論的

  • happiness of ebullience and giggling and good cheer.

    是熱情、傻笑與歡呼這種快樂

  • And I'm going to suggest to you that's not nearly enough, in just a moment.

    一會兒我會告訴你這是不夠的

  • We found we could begin to look at interventions over the centuries,

    我們知道我們可以從過去幾世紀來的調控方法開始研究

  • from the Buddha to Tony Robbins.

    從佛法到近代的羅賓斯

  • About 120 interventions have been proposed

    約有120種調控方法被提出過

  • that allegedly make people happy.

    宣稱能使人快樂

  • And we find that we've been able to manualize many of them,

    我們知道能將其中許多手冊化

  • and we actually carry out random assignment

    我們確曾執行隨機指派

  • efficacy and effectiveness studies.

    進行有效果的研究

  • That is, which ones actually make people lastingly happier?

    就是,那些方法實際使人們持續的快樂些

  • In a couple of minutes, I'll tell you about some of those results.

    稍後我將告訴你們一些研究結果

  • But the upshot of this is that the mission I want psychology to have,

    但最終結果,是我希望心理學達成的使命

  • in addition to its mission of curing the mentally ill,

    除了治療心理疾病的使命外

  • and in addition to its mission of making miserable people less miserable,

    除了使悲慘的人少些苦痛這使命外

  • is can psychology actually make people happier?

    是心理學可能使人們更為快樂嗎?

  • And to ask that question -- happy is not a word I use very much --

    在研究這個問題時--我並不是常使用快樂這字眼的--

  • we've had to break it down into what I think is askable about happy.

    我們需要將快樂細分,成為可以研究快樂的題目

  • And I believe there are three different --

    我相信有三個不同種類的快樂

  • and I call them different because different interventions build them,

    我說它們不同,是因為它們各有不同的調控方法

  • it's possible to have one rather than the other --

    而且有可能是有一種而沒有另一種

  • three different happy lives.

    這樣三種不同的快樂生活

  • The first happy life is the pleasant life.

    第一種快樂生活是愉快的生活

  • This is a life in which you have as much positive emotion as you possibly can,

    這是一種你擁有最多的正面情緒的生活

  • and the skills to amplify it.

    而且有技巧去擴大它

  • The second is a life of engagement --

    第二種快樂是種投入的生活

  • a life in your work, your parenting, your love, your leisure, time stops for you.

    投入你的工作、你的家庭、你的情愛、你的休閑的生活,時間為你停止

  • That's what Aristotle was talking about.

    那是以前亞里士多德討論的

  • And third, the meaningful life.

    第三種的快樂是有意義的生活

  • So I want to say a little bit about each of those lives

    我想就這三種各做簡單說明

  • and what we know about them.

    說明我們對它們的了解

  • The first life is the pleasant life and it's simply, as best we can find it,

    第一種愉快的生活,就如我們看到最好的

  • it's having as many of the pleasures as you can,

    它讓你可擁有最多的愉快

  • as much positive emotion as you can,

    有你可擁有最多的正面情緒

  • and learning the skills -- savoring, mindfulness -- that amplify them,

    而可以經學習技巧,增添風味,在意培養,而擴大它們

  • that stretch them over time and space.

    讓它們在不同的時間地點下都存在

  • But the pleasant life has three drawbacks,

    但是愉快的生活有三個缺點

  • and it's why positive psychology is not happy-ology and why it doesn't end here.

    這是為什麼正面心理學不是快樂學,不僅只是討論快樂而已的原因

  • The first drawback is that it turns out the pleasant life,

    第一個缺點是愉快的生活顯示

  • your experience of positive emotion, is heritable,

    你正面情緒的經驗,是可經由遺傳的

  • about 50 percent heritable, and, in fact, not very modifiable.

    約50%經由遺傳,而實在很難修改

  • So the different tricks that Matthieu [Ricard] and I and others know

    所以一些馬修與我及一些其他人所知道的不同的修改技巧

  • about increasing the amount of positive emotion in your life

    關於增進生活中正面情緒的數量

  • are 15 to 20 percent tricks, getting more of it.

    因為處理技巧而只能增加15%到20%

  • Second is that positive emotion habituates. It habituates rapidly, indeed.

    第二個缺點是正面情緒具有習慣性,它很快的會變成習慣而不再有吸引力

  • It's all like French vanilla ice cream, the first taste is a 100 percent;

    它就像法國香草冰淇淋,第一口感覺是100分

  • by the time you're down to the sixth taste, it's gone.

    到你繼續吃到第六口時,這愉快的感覺已經消失了

  • And, as I said, it's not particularly malleable.

    而如我所說的,它不很能夠修改

  • And this leads to the second life.

    這導致第二種生活

  • And I have to tell you about my friend, Len,

    我必須談我的朋友,連先生

  • to talk about why positive psychology is more than positive emotion,

    要說明為什麼正面心理學不僅只是正面情緒

  • more than building pleasure.

    不僅只是增進愉快

  • In two of the three great arenas of life, by the time Len was 30,

    在連兄30歲時,生活三大領域中的兩個

  • Len was enormously successful. The first arena was work.

    他已經非常成功,第一個領域是工作

  • By the time he was 20, he was an options trader.

    在他20歲時,他就是期權的交易員

  • By the time he was 25, he was a multimillionaire

    在25隨時,他已經是百萬富翁

  • and the head of an options trading company.

    並是一家期權交易公司的總管

  • Second, in play -- he's a national champion bridge player.

    第二,在遊戲方面,他的橋牌打到全國冠軍賽

  • But in the third great arena of life, love, Len is an abysmal failure.

    但在生活的第三個領域,愛這方面,他是個徹底的失敗者

  • And the reason he was, was that Len is a cold fish.

    原因是他是個冷酷無情的人

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Len is an introvert.

    連兄是個內向的人

  • American women said to Len, when he dated them,

    在約會時,美國女性對他說,

  • "You're no fun. You don't have positive emotion. Get lost."

    你沒有趣,你沒有正面情緒,走開。

  • And Len was wealthy enough to be able to afford a Park Avenue psychoanalyst,

    連兄有錢可以付擔得起看紐約公園大道的心理分析醫生

  • who for five years tried to find the sexual trauma

    醫生在5年期間試圖找出他在性慾上的障礙

  • that had somehow locked positive emotion inside of him.

    認為是這將他的正面情緒封鎖住

  • But it turned out there wasn't any sexual trauma.

    但結果顯示,他並沒有性慾上的障礙

  • It turned out that -- Len grew up in Long Island

    連兄在紐約長島長大

  • and he played football and watched football, and played bridge --

    他打足球,看足球賽,也玩橋牌

  • Len is in the bottom five percent of what we call positive affectivities.

    但他屬於最不具正面感情的5%的人

  • The question is, is Len unhappy? And I want to say not.

    問題是,連兄不快樂嗎?我想說不是

  • Contrary to what psychology told us about the bottom 50 percent

    與一般心理學告訴我們後半段的情形相反的,

  • of the human race in positive affectivity,

    對正面感情在下半部的人

  • I think Len is one of the happiest people I know.

    我想連兄是我所知的人中最快樂的之一

  • He's not consigned to the hell of unhappiness

    他不屬於那些不快樂的人

  • and that's because Len, like most of you, is enormously capable of flow.

    那是因為連兄,與你們多數人一樣,很善於專注投入

  • When he walks onto the floor of the American Exchange at 9:30 in the morning,

    當他早晨9點半進入美國交易所的大廳

  • time stops for him. And it stops till the closing bell.

    時間為他停止,直到收盤鈴聲響

  • When the first card is played,

    當第一張牌出手

  • until 10 days later, the tournament is over, time stops for Len.

    直到10天後比賽結束,時間為他停止

  • And this is indeed what Mike Csikszentmihalyi has been talking about,

    這是麥克一直談論的

  • about flow. And it's distinct from pleasure in a very important way.

    心情流暢,它與愉快有一點很重要的不同

  • Pleasure has raw feels: you know it's happening. It's thought and feeling.

    愉快是有感覺的:你知道它在發生,它是思考與感覺合成的

  • But what Mike told you yesterday -- during flow, you can't feel anything.

    但是如麥克昨天告訴你們的,在心流期間,你不會感覺什麼

  • You're one with the music. Time stops.

    你隨音樂流動,時間靜止沒有感覺

  • You have intense concentration.

    你是在高度專心的狀態

  • And this is indeed the characteristic of what we think of as the good life.

    而這確實是我們認為良好生活的特質

  • And we think there's a recipe for it,

    我們認為有達到這狀態的辦法

  • and it's knowing what your highest strengths are.

    那是要知道你最大的特長在那

  • And again, there's a valid test

    同時,有個有效的測試方法

  • of what your five highest strengths are.

    可以知道你最強的五個特長在那

  • And then re-crafting your life to use them as much as you possibly can.

    然後重新調整你的生活,盡量運用到它們

  • Re-crafting your work, your love,

    調整你的工作,你的感情生活

  • your play, your friendship, your parenting.

    你的遊樂、你的友情、你的家庭生活

  • Just one example. One person I worked with was a bagger at Genuardi's.

    舉個例子,我的一個研究對象在Genuardi's超市做裝袋工

  • Hated the job.

    她恨她的工作

  • She's working her way through college.

    她半工半讀完成學院教育

  • Her highest strength was social intelligence,

    她的最大特長在社交智慧

  • so she re-crafted bagging to make the encounter with her

    所以她調整裝袋工作變得適合她

  • the social highlight of every customer's day.

    要成為每個客戶當天的社交亮點

  • Now obviously she failed.

    很明顯的這是辦不到的

  • But what she did was to take her highest strengths,

    但她做的是應用她最大的特長

  • and re-craft work to use them as much as possible.

    調整工作以盡量運用她的特長

  • What you get out of that is not smiley-ness.