Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Seventy-thousand years ago, our ancestors were insignificant animals.

    七萬年前,我們的先祖 不過是各種動物中的一種。

  • The most important thing to know about prehistoric humans

    當你想到原人時,最重要的是

  • is that they were unimportant.

    他們一點也不重要。

  • Their impact on the world was not much greater than that of jellyfish

    他們對世界的影響力

  • or fireflies or woodpeckers.

    和水母、螢火蟲、啄木鳥差別不大。

  • Today, in contrast, we control this planet.

    今天,我們卻變成地球的霸主。

  • And the question is:

    所以問題是:

  • How did we come from there to here?

    我們是怎麼走到這一步的?

  • How did we turn ourselves from insignificant apes,

    我們是如何從毫不起眼的人猿,

  • minding their own business in a corner of Africa,

    在非洲的角落自生自滅,

  • into the rulers of planet Earth?

    搖身一變成為地球霸主的?

  • Usually, we look for the difference between us and all the other animals

    通常我們會在個體差異上

  • on the individual level.

    檢視我們與其它動物的分別,

  • We want to believe -- I want to believe --

    我們想信 - 我想要相信

  • that there is something special about me,

    我們與眾不同,

  • about my body, about my brain,

    我的身體,我的大腦,

  • that makes me so superior to a dog or a pig, or a chimpanzee.

    讓我遠比狗、豬,或是黒猩猩優越。

  • But the truth is that, on the individual level,

    但事實是,就個體差異來說

  • I'm embarrassingly similar to a chimpanzee.

    我和黑猩猩驚人的相似。

  • And if you take me and a chimpanzee and put us together on some lonely island,

    如果你把我和一頭黒猩猩置於同一孤島

  • and we had to struggle for survival to see who survives better,

    看我們之中誰能存活的更好,

  • I would definitely place my bet on the chimpanzee, not on myself.

    我會把籌碼放在黒猩猩身上, 而不是我自己。

  • And this is not something wrong with me personally.

    這不是因為我個人的缺陷,

  • I guess if they took almost any one of you, and placed you alone

    我想如果有人把你們其中任何人

  • with a chimpanzee on some island,

    與一頭黒猩猩一起放在孤島上,

  • the chimpanzee would do much better.

    黑猩猩絕對會生存的更好。

  • The real difference between humans and all other animals

    真正讓人類與其它動物分別開來的特質

  • is not on the individual level;

    不是個體的,

  • it's on the collective level.

    而是群體的。

  • Humans control the planet because they are the only animals

    人類控制地球, 是因為我們是唯一

  • that can cooperate both flexibly and in very large numbers.

    可以大規模靈活合作的動物。

  • Now, there are other animals --

    其它動物,

  • like the social insects, the bees, the ants --

    那些昆蟲,蜜蜂、螞蟻,

  • that can cooperate in large numbers, but they don't do so flexibly.

    牠們也可以大規模地合作, 但沒有像我們這樣靈活。

  • Their cooperation is very rigid.

    牠們的合作方式是固定的。

  • There is basically just one way in which a beehive can function.

    蜂窩總是用同一種方式運作。

  • And if there's a new opportunity or a new danger,

    就算遇上新的機會、新的威脅,

  • the bees cannot reinvent the social system overnight.

    蜜蜂無法在一夜之間改變分工方式

  • They cannot, for example, execute the queen

    譬如說,牠們無法處死蜂后,

  • and establish a republic of bees,

    建立蜜蜂共和國,

  • or a communist dictatorship of worker bees.

    工蜂也不能組成共產獨裁政權。

  • Other animals, like the social mammals --

    其它動物,那些群居的哺乳類動物

  • the wolves, the elephants, the dolphins, the chimpanzees --

    狼、大象、海豚、黒猩猩 -

  • they can cooperate much more flexibly,

    牠們的合作性更靈活,

  • but they do so only in small numbers,

    但規模有限,

  • because cooperation among chimpanzees

    因為黑猩猩合作的基礎是

  • is based on intimate knowledge, one of the other.

    對於彼此的瞭解與認知。

  • I'm a chimpanzee and you're a chimpanzee,

    假設你我都是黒猩猩,

  • and I want to cooperate with you.

    我想和你合作,

  • I need to know you personally.

    我需要先認識你。

  • What kind of chimpanzee are you?

    你是哪種黒猩猩?

  • Are you a nice chimpanzee?

    你是頭善良的黒猩猩?

  • Are you an evil chimpanzee?

    還是邪惡的黒猩猩?

  • Are you trustworthy?

    你可靠嗎?

  • If I don't know you, how can I cooperate with you?

    如果我不認識你, 我怎麼和你合作呢?

  • The only animal that can combine the two abilities together

    唯一擁有這兩種特質

  • and cooperate both flexibly and still do so in very large numbers

    既能大規模合作,又能保持靈活的,

  • is us, Homo sapiens.

    只有我們,智人。

  • One versus one, or even 10 versus 10,

    一比一,甚至十比十,

  • chimpanzees might be better than us.

    黒猩猩可能都比我們優秀。

  • But, if you pit 1,000 humans against 1,000 chimpanzees,

    但,如果數目提高到 一千個人和一千頭黒猩猩

  • the humans will win easily, for the simple reason

    人類就能輕易獲勝,

  • that a thousand chimpanzees cannot cooperate at all.

    因為上千頭黒猩猩無法共同合作。

  • And if you now try to cram 100,000 chimpanzees

    如果你嘗試把十萬頭黒猩猩,

  • into Oxford Street, or into Wembley Stadium,

    塞進牛津街、溫布萊體育館

  • or Tienanmen Square or the Vatican,

    天安門廣場或梵諦岡,

  • you will get chaos, complete chaos.

    絕對會陷入一片混亂。

  • Just imagine Wembley Stadium with 100,000 chimpanzees.

    想像塞滿十萬頭黒猩猩的溫布萊體育館,

  • Complete madness.

    那個景象將有多瘋狂。

  • In contrast, humans normally gather there in tens of thousands,

    相對的,成千上萬的人時常一同在那,

  • and what we get is not chaos, usually.

    也通常不會陷入混亂。

  • What we get is extremely sophisticated and effective networks of cooperation.

    我們有效率、有制度地合作。

  • All the huge achievements of humankind throughout history,

    人類在歷史上達成的巨大成就,

  • whether it's building the pyramids or flying to the moon,

    無論是金字塔還是上月球,

  • have been based not on individual abilities,

    都不是建立在個體的能力,

  • but on this ability to cooperate flexibly in large numbers.

    而是群體的靈活合作。

  • Think even about this very talk that I'm giving now:

    就像現在,我在這裡演講,

  • I'm standing here in front of an audience of about 300 or 400 people,

    面對三、四百個觀眾,

  • most of you are complete strangers to me.

    絕大多數我都不認識。

  • Similarly, I don't really know all the people who have organized

    同樣的,我不認識所有策劃

  • and worked on this event.

    或參與這個活動的人員。

  • I don't know the pilot and the crew members of the plane

    我不認識昨日帶我飛抵倫敦的

  • that brought me over here, yesterday, to London.

    駕駛員和機組人員。

  • I don't know the people who invented and manufactured

    我不認識這些設備的發明和製造者,

  • this microphone and these cameras, which are recording what I'm saying.

    但錄影機和麥克風正在拍攝這段演講。

  • I don't know the people who wrote all the books and articles

    為了準備這段演講, 我讀了不少書和文章,

  • that I read in preparation for this talk.

    卻不認識這些作者。

  • And I certainly don't know all the people

    我當然更不認識這場演講的 網路觀眾,

  • who might be watching this talk over the Internet,

    此刻可能正在布宜諾斯艾利斯、 或新德里。

  • somewhere in Buenos Aires or in New Delhi.

    然而,我們雖不認識彼此,

  • Nevertheless, even though we don't know each other,

    卻能合作創造這個世界平台, 互相交流。

  • we can work together to create this global exchange of ideas.

    這是黑猩猩所做不到的。

  • This is something chimpanzees cannot do.

    當然,牠們也能溝通,

  • They communicate, of course,

    但你絕不會看到一隻黑猩猩 遠渡重洋

  • but you will never catch a chimpanzee traveling to some distant chimpanzee band

    對另一群黑猩猩講解香蕉或大象,

  • to give them a talk about bananas or about elephants,

    或任何黑猩猩有興趣的事。

  • or anything else that might interest chimpanzees.

    合作自然不是只有好事,

  • Now cooperation is, of course, not always nice;

    人類歷史上所有恐怖的事件 -

  • all the horrible things humans have been doing throughout history --

    我們的確做過一些非常恐怖的事 -

  • and we have been doing some very horrible things --

    同樣也是用大規模合作達成的。

  • all those things are also based on large-scale cooperation.

    監獄是一種合作系統,

  • Prisons are a system of cooperation;

    屠宰場是一種合作系統,

  • slaughterhouses are a system of cooperation;

    集中營是一種合作系統,

  • concentration camps are a system of cooperation.

    黒猩猩沒有屠宰場、監獄、或集中營。

  • Chimpanzees don't have slaughterhouses and prisons and concentration camps.

    現在或許我已經說服你

  • Now suppose I've managed to convince you perhaps that yes,

    我們的確掌控了世界, 因為我們能大規模靈活合作。

  • we control the world because we can cooperate flexibly in large numbers.

    下一個問題隨之而來,

  • The next question that immediately arises

    好奇的聽眾心裡想:

  • in the mind of an inquisitive listener is:

    我們是怎麼做到的?

  • How, exactly, do we do it?

    在所有動物中, 為什麼只有我們這樣合作?

  • What enables us alone, of all the animals, to cooperate in such a way?

    答案是我們的想像力。

  • The answer is our imagination.

    我們之所以能和無數陌生人 靈活的合作,

  • We can cooperate flexibly with countless numbers of strangers,

    因為在這星球上的所有動物中,

  • because we alone, of all the animals on the planet,

    只有我們能創造和相信虛構的故事。

  • can create and believe fictions, fictional stories.

    只要大家相信同一個故事,

  • And as long as everybody believes in the same fiction,

    每個人服從並執行一樣的規則,

  • everybody obeys and follows the same rules,

    一樣的基準,一樣的價值觀。

  • the same norms, the same values.

    其它動物的溝通,

  • All other animals use their communication system

    只限於描述真實的物事。

  • only to describe reality.

    黒猩猩說:「看啊!有獅子!快跑!」

  • A chimpanzee may say, "Look! There's a lion, let's run away!"

    或是:「看啊!有棵香蕉樹! 去摘香蕉吧!」

  • Or, "Look! There's a banana tree over there! Let's go and get bananas!"

    而人類呢,我們的語言 不只是用來描述現實,

  • Humans, in contrast, use their language not merely to describe reality,

    更能用來創造新的現實, 想像的現實。

  • but also to create new realities, fictional realities.

    人可以說:「看啊!雲上有神!

  • A human can say, "Look, there is a god above the clouds!

    如果你不聽從命令,

  • And if you don't do what I tell you to do,

    你死後,神會懲罰你下地獄。」

  • when you die, God will punish you and send you to hell."

    如果你們都相信我發明的故事,

  • And if you all believe this story that I've invented,

    就會依循一樣的基準、法則、價值觀,

  • then you will follow the same norms and laws and values,

    你們就會合作。

  • and you can cooperate.

    這件事只有人類做得到。

  • This is something only humans can do.

    你永遠無法說服一隻黑猩猩交出香蕉,

  • You can never convince a chimpanzee to give you a banana

    就算你承諾牠:「死後, 你會上黑猩猩天堂..... 」

  • by promising him, "... after you die, you'll go to chimpanzee heaven ..."

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    「... 到時候你的善行 會為你贏得無數的香蕉。

  • "... and you'll receive lots and lots of bananas for your good deeds.

    現在,快把香蕉給我。」

  • So now give me this banana."

    沒有任何黑猩猩會相信這種故事,

  • No chimpanzee will ever believe such a story.

    只有人類會相信這種故事。

  • Only humans believe such stories,

    這就是我們稱霸世界,

  • which is why we control the world,

    而黑猩猩卻淪落到 動物園和實驗室的原因。

  • whereas the chimpanzees are locked up in zoos and research laboratories.

    或許你同意,

  • Now you may find it acceptable that yes,

    的確,在宗教領域,

  • in the religious field, humans cooperate by believing in the same fictions.

    人們因為信仰相同而彼此合作,

  • Millions of people come together to build a cathedral or a mosque

    百萬人同心合力建造教堂、清真寺,

  • or fight in a crusade or a jihad, because they all believe in the same stories

    奮身投入各種聖戰,

  • about God and heaven and hell.

    全都是因為對於 神、天堂與地獄有著相同的信仰。

  • But what I want to emphasize is that exactly the same mechanism

    但我想說的是同樣的運作機制,

  • underlies all other forms of mass-scale human cooperation,

    存在於所有人類的大規模合作,

  • not only in the religious field.

    不限於宗教領域。

  • Take, for example, the legal field.

    譬如,法治概念。

  • Most legal systems today in the world are based on a belief in human rights.

    現在世界上大部分的法律, 都以人權為基礎。

  • But what are human rights?

    但人權是什麼?

  • Human rights, just like God and heaven, are just a story that we've invented.

    人權,就像神和天堂, 都是我們發明的故事。

  • They are not an objective reality;

    不是客觀的事實;

  • they are not some biological effect about homo sapiens.

    也不是智人的某種生理反應。

  • Take a human being, cut him open, look inside,

    解剖人體,往裡探看,

  • you will find the heart, the kidneys, neurons, hormones, DNA,

    裡面有心臟、腎臟、神經元、 荷爾蒙、基因,

  • but you won't find any rights.

    但找不到什麼權利。

  • The only place you find rights are in the stories

    權利只存在於故事裡,

  • that we have invented and spread around over the last few centuries.

    我們在近代世紀裡創造、散播的故事。

  • They may be very positive stories, very good stories,

    這些故事可能很正面、很好,

  • but they're still just fictional stories that we've invented.

    但仍然是我們虛構的。

  • The same is true of the political field.

    政治領域也一樣。

  • The most important factors in modern politics are states and nations.

    國族是今日政治裡最重要的元素。

  • But what are states and nations?

    但國族是什麼?

  • They are not an objective reality.

    它並不是客觀事實。

  • A mountain is an objective reality.

    山嶽才是客觀事實。

  • You can see it, you can touch it, you can ever smell it.

    你看得到,摸得到,甚至聞得到。

  • But a nation or a state,

    但國族,

  • like Israel or Iran or France or Germany,

    像以色列、伊朗、法國或德國,

  • this is just a story that we've invented

    只是我們創造的故事,

  • and became extremely attached to.

    並且變得深信不疑。

  • The same is true of the economic field.

    經濟領域也一樣。

  • The most important actors today in the global economy

    今日全球經濟的主角

  • are companies and corporations.

    是公司和企業。

  • Many of you today, perhaps, work for a corporation,

    你們當中可能有許多人為企業工作,

  • like Google or Toyota or McDonald's.

    像谷歌或豐田汽車或麥當勞。

  • What exactly are these things?

    這些到底是什麼?

  • They are what lawyers call legal fictions.

    律師叫它們法人。

  • They are stories invented and maintained

    是虛構並且需要維持的故事,

  • by the powerful wizards we call lawyers.

    由厲害的巫師負責- 不過我們叫他們律師。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And what do corporations do all day?

    企業都在做些什麼?

  • Mostly, they try to make money.

    他們最大的目的是賺錢圖利。

  • Yet, what is money?

    但錢是什麼?

  • Again, money is not an objective reality; it has no objective value.

    錢也不是客觀事實; 沒有任何客觀價值。

  • Take this green piece of paper, the dollar bill.

    這張綠色的紙,一元鈔票,

  • Look at it -- it has no value.

    根本一文不值。

  • You cannot eat it, you cannot drink it,

    不能拿來吃,不能拿來喝,

  • you cannot wear it.

    也不能穿在身上。

  • But then came along these master storytellers --

    但這些故事高手出現了 -

  • the big bankers,

    大銀行家、

  • the finance ministers,

    各國的財政部長、

  • the prime ministers --

    總理、首相 -

  • and they tell us a very convincing story:

    他們說著同一個動人的故事:

  • "Look, you see this green piece of paper?

    「你們看到這張綠色的紙嗎?

  • It is actually worth 10 bananas."

    它可以換十根香蕉。」

  • And if I believe it, and you believe it,

    如果我信了,你也信了,

  • and everybody believes it,

    大家都信了,

  • it actually works.

    手段就成功了。

  • I can take this worthless piece of paper,

    我可以拿著這張一文不值的紙,

  • go to the supermarket,

    到任何超市,

  • give it to a complete stranger whom I've never met before,

    把它交給一位素昧平生的陌生人,

  • and get, in exchange, real bananas which I can actually eat.

    換到真的香蕉,可以給我吃。

  • This is something amazing.

    這未免太神奇了!

  • You could never do it with chimpanzees.

    黑猩猩可辦不到。

  • Chimpanzees trade, of course:

    當然,黑猩猩也懂得交換:

  • "Yes, you give me a coconut, I'll give you a banana."

    「你給我一顆椰子,我給你一根香蕉」

  • That can work.

    也行。

  • But, you give me a worthless piece of paper

    但如果你給我一張廢紙,

  • and you except me to give you a banana?

    然後要我給你一根香蕉?

  • No way!

    做夢吧你!

  • What do you think I am, a human?

    你把我當什麼了,人類嗎?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Money, in fact, is the most successful story

    錢,其實是人類史上,

  • ever invented and told by humans,

    最成功的故事。

  • because it is the only story everybody believes.

    因為它是唯一一個所有人都相信的故事。

  • Not everybody believes in God,

    不是每個人都相信神,

  • not everybody believes in human rights,

    不是每個人都追求人權,

  • not everybody believes in nationalism,

    不是每個人都愛國,

  • but everybody believes in money, and in the dollar bill.

    但每個人都相信錢,相信現金。

  • Take, even, Osama Bin Laden.

    就像賓拉登。

  • He hated American politics and American religion

    他憎恨美國的政策和信仰,

  • and American culture,

    美國文化,

  • but he had no objection to American dollars.

    但他完全不排斥美金,

  • He was quite fond of them, actually.

    其實挺愛的。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • To conclude, then:

    結論是:

  • We humans control the world because we live in a dual reality.

    人類稱霸世界, 因為我們活在雙重現實裡。

  • All other animals live in an objective reality.

    其它動物活在客觀事實裡。

  • Their reality consists of objective entities,

    牠們的真實世界存在於客觀現實,

  • like rivers and trees and lions and elephants.

    像河流、樹木、獅子和大象。

  • We humans, we also live in an objective reality.

    我們人類也活在客觀現實裡。

  • In our world, too, there are rivers and trees and lions and elephants.

    我們也有河流、樹木、獅子和大象。

  • But over the centuries,

    但幾個世紀來,

  • we have constructed on top of this objective reality

    我們在客觀現實上,

  • a second layer of fictional reality,

    建構了另一個層次的虛構現實,

  • a reality made of fictional entities,

    一個由虛構元素組成的現實:

  • like nations, like gods, like money, like corporations.

    國族、神、錢、企業。

  • And what is amazing is that as history unfolded,

    厲害的是在歷史進程裡,

  • this fictional reality became more and more powerful

    這一層虛構的現實日漸強大,