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  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • These bees are in my backyard in Berkeley, California.

    這些是我在加州柏克萊房子後院的蜜蜂。

  • Until last year, I'd never kept bees before,

    一直到去年,我從來沒有飼養過蜜蜂,

  • but National Geographic asked me to photograph a story about them,

    但是國家地理頻道請我拍下蜜蜂的故事,

  • and I decided, to be able to take compelling images,

    於是我決定,為了拍到令人信服的照片,

  • I should start keeping bees myself.

    我應該開始自己養蜂。

  • And as you may know,

    如你所知,

  • bees pollinate one third of our food crops,

    蜜蜂為我們三分之一的農作物傳粉,

  • and lately they've been having a really hard time.

    最近蜜蜂的生存狀況不是很好。

  • So as a photographer, I wanted to explore what this problem really looks like.

    所以,身為攝影師, 我想探索這個問題的真實長相。

  • So I'm going to show you what I found over the last year.

    所以接下來將展示我去年的發現成果。

  • This furry little creature

    這個毛茸茸的小生物

  • is a fresh young bee halfway emerged from its brood cell,

    是一隻正從撫幼室出來的新蜜蜂,

  • and bees right now are dealing with several different problems,

    目前蜜蜂正面臨幾個生存難題,

  • including pesticides, diseases, and habitat loss,

    包括殺蟲劑,疾病,和棲息地的減少。

  • but the single greatest threat is a parasitic mite from Asia,

    其中,最大一種威脅來自亞洲的寄生蟲,

  • Varroa destructor.

    瓦螨。

  • And this pinhead-sized mite crawls onto young bees

    這個針頭大小的螨蟲爬到幼蜂身上,

  • and sucks their blood.

    吸吮他們的血。

  • This eventually destroys a hive

    這最後造成整個蜂窩的毀滅,

  • because it weakens the immune system of the bees,

    因為瓦螨會降低蜜蜂的免疫力,

  • and it makes them more vulnerable to stress and disease.

    讓他們無法抵抗壓力和疾病。

  • Now, bees are the most sensitive

    這時蜜蜂處於其最敏感時期,

  • when they're developing inside their brood cells,

    他們正在撫幼室內進行發育。

  • and I wanted to know what that process really looks like,

    為了解這個過程到底真相為何,

  • so I teamed up with a bee lab at U.C. Davis

    所以我和加州大學戴維斯分校的蜜蜂實驗室合作,

  • and figured out how to raise bees in front of a camera.

    設法在攝影機前養育蜜蜂。

  • I'm going to show you the first 21 days of a bee's life

    下面將為你展示一隻蜜蜂生命最開始的21天,

  • condensed into 60 seconds.

    濃縮成60秒鐘。

  • This is a bee egg as it hatches into a larva,

    這是一個蜜蜂卵,他正在孵化成幼蟲,

  • and those newly hatched larvae swim around their cells

    這些新孵化的幼蟲在撫幼室中到處游動,

  • feeding on this white goo that nurse bees secrete for them.

    吃這些保育蜂分泌的白色粘液。

  • Then, their head and their legs slowly differentiate

    然後,他們的頭和腿慢慢的分化出來,

  • as they transform into pupae.

    變態成蛹。

  • Here's that same pupation process,

    這是同一次蛹化過程,

  • and you can actually see the mites running around in the cells.

    但你可看到螨在撫幼室內到處爬動。

  • Then the tissue in their body reorganizes

    然後他們體內組織重新排列,

  • and the pigment slowly develops in their eyes.

    色素慢慢在其眼中積累。

  • The last step of the process is their skin shrivels up

    最後一步是表皮變皺,

  • and they sprout hair.

    體毛開始生長。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • So -- (Applause)

    所以---(掌聲)

  • As you can see halfway through that video,

    就像你在影片中途所看到的,

  • the mites were running around on the baby bees,

    螨蟲在幼蜂周圍爬,

  • and the way that beekeepers typically manage these mites

    養蜂人一般控制這些螨蟲的方法為

  • is they treat their hives with chemicals.

    對著蜂巢噴灑化學藥品。

  • In the long run, that's bad news,

    長久來說,這非好事,

  • so researchers are working on finding alternatives

    所以研究員正尋找其他方案,

  • to control these mites.

    來控制這些螨蟲。

  • This is one of those alternatives.

    這就是其中一個方案。

  • It's an experimental breeding program at the USDA Bee Lab in Baton Rouge,

    這個實驗性的育種計畫, 由位於巴頓魯治市的美國農業部 (USDA) 蜜蜂實驗室負責,

  • and this queen and her attendant bees are part of that program.

    這個蜂后和其侍衛蜂為本計畫的一份子。

  • Now, the researchers figured out

    現在,研究員已經弄清楚

  • that some of the bees have a natural ability to fight mites,

    某些蜜蜂有天生抵抗螨蟲的能力,

  • so they set out to breed a line of mite-resistant bees.

    所以他們開始同系交配出一種抗螨蟲蜜蜂。

  • This is what it takes to breed bees in a lab.

    這是如何在實驗室為蜜蜂育種過程。

  • The virgin queen is sedated

    先麻醉尚未生殖過的蜂后,

  • and then artificially inseminated using this precision instrument.

    接著研究員用精密儀器對她人工授精。

  • Now, this procedure allows the researchers

    現在,這個過程允許研究員

  • to control exactly which bees are being crossed,

    準確的控制哪些蜜蜂要用來繁殖。

  • but there's a tradeoff in having this much control.

    但是操控太多卻有個代價,

  • They succeeded in breeding mite-resistant bees,

    他們成功的繁殖了抗螨蟲的蜜蜂,

  • but in that process, those bees started to lose traits

    但是在這個過程中,這些蜜蜂也失去了一些特性

  • like their gentleness and their ability to store honey,

    比如他們的溫順性,和儲存蜂蜜的能力。

  • so to overcome that problem,

    所以為了解決這個問題,

  • these researchers are now collaborating with commercial beekeepers.

    這些研究員和商業養蜂人合作。

  • This is Bret Adee opening one of his 72,000 beehives.

    這是擁有72000個蜂巢的Bret Adee, 他正打開其中一個蜂巢。

  • He and his brother run the largest beekeeping operation in the world,

    他和弟弟經營著世界最大的養蜂企業,

  • and the USDA is integrating their mite-resistant bees into his operation

    美國農業部把抗螨蟲蜜蜂引進這個養蜂場,

  • with the hope that over time,

    希望一段時間之後,

  • they'll be able to select the bees that are not only mite-resistant

    他們可以挑選出既能抵抗螨蟲,

  • but also retain all of these qualities that make them useful to us.

    又能保留其他有用特性的蜜蜂。

  • And to say it like that

    這麼說,

  • makes it sound like we're manipulating and exploiting bees,

    聽起來好像我們正在操控和利用蜜蜂,

  • and the truth is, we've been doing that for thousands of years.

    事實上,我們已經這樣做了數千年。

  • We took this wild creature and put it inside of a box,

    我們把這野生的生物放進一個箱子裏,

  • practically domesticating it,

    實際馴養他們,

  • and originally that was so that we could harvest their honey,

    本來這是為了獲取其蜂蜜。

  • but over time we started losing our native pollinators,

    但是漸漸地我們也開始失去我們的天然傳粉者,

  • our wild pollinators,

    我們的野生傳粉者,

  • and there are many places now where those wild pollinators

    現在有很多地方,那些野生傳粉者

  • can no longer meet the pollination demands of our agriculture,

    已經無法應付我們農業的傳粉需求,

  • so these managed bees have become an integral part of our food system.

    所以這些受控的蜜蜂 已成為我們食物系統的重要一份子。

  • So when people talk about saving bees,

    所以當人們談論如何拯救蜜蜂的時候,

  • my interpretation of that

    我的看法是,

  • is we need to save our relationship to bees,

    我們需要拯救我們和蜜蜂的關係,

  • and in order to design new solutions,

    為了設計出新的解決方案,

  • we have to understand the basic biology of bees

    我們需要了解蜜蜂的基本生物學知識,

  • and understand the effects of stressors that we sometimes cannot see.

    及了解是否有什麼我們看不到的壓力來源對蜜蜂產生影響。

  • In other words, we have to understand bees up close.

    簡單的說,我們要更詳細了解蜜蜂這個物種。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

(Music)

(音樂)

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