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  • Hi again. I'm Adam. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. Today we're going to look at some business English, with an introduction to investing.

    又見面了,我是Adam。歡迎回到www.engvid.com。今天我們要著重在商業英文之

  • Now, what is investing? Investing is putting your money someplace with the hope that more money will come back to you later. Okay?

    投資介紹。首先,什麼是投資?投資就是把

  • So it's making money over time. Many ways to do it, but today we're going to look more specifically at the stock market.

    你的錢放置在某些地方,並期許未來會有更多的錢回來。

  • Now, before we begin to look at the stock market, we need to know all the different words that you will find in the stock market discussion.

    這使得金錢更有價值,有很多方式可以達成,但今天我們要

  • Of course, we have to look at "stocks". So: "stocks" and "shares". Now, many people get confused: what is a stock? What is a share?

    特別著重在股票市場。在我們開始之前,我們必須要知道

  • Realistically, these are basically the same thing, but subtle differences between the two.

    你會在股票市場話題中,常碰到的字及其含意。

  • So, when a company decides that it wants to make money, so it can expand its business, it wants to raise capital.

    當然,我們必須要先知道"股票",所以:先說"股票"和"股份"。很多人常常搞混:

  • "Capital", it's a big word, there's lots of meanings to it. We're going to look at that a different time.

    什麼是股票?什麼是股份?現實來說,這些基本上都是同樣的東西,

  • But for our case, "capital" means money. They want to make money, they want to raise capital so they can grow their business.

    但這兩者仍有微妙的差異。當一間公司決定

  • So what they do is they sell stock. Stock is a partial ownership of the company.

    賺更多的錢,不僅能拓展事業,還可以增加資產。"Capital"是一個很重要的字彙,

  • So when you buy stock, you get a piece of paper, you get a certificate that says that you own part of this company.

    有很多的含意,我們下次會來探討這個字。

  • And because you own part of the company, you have certain rights.

    但在這情況下,"Capital"表示金錢。他們想賺錢,也就是增加資產,

  • You can make... You can vote for changes, you can vote for things that the company should do.

    這樣才能擴大他們的事業。他們要做的,就是銷售股票。股票代表公司的

  • Now, what is a share? A share is an equal piece of the stock. So, for example, a company sells $100 worth of stock.

    部分所有權,當你購買股票,你得到一張紙,你獲得了

  • That's the full amount of the ownership that the company makes available to the public.

    該公司部分所有權的認可。正因為你擁有公司的一部份,

  • Now, this stock, this total amount, they divide into 100 shares.

    你便擁有一些權力。你可以...透過投票來改變事情,

  • Okay? So you buy as many shares as you want of this stock.

    你可以藉由投票做決策,讓公司去執行。

  • So because you have 100 shares, the full stock is $100. Each share is, of course, $1.

    現在,什麼是股份?一個股份等於一小部分的股票。例如:一間公司

  • You buy 10 shares, that mean... That means you're buying 10% of the available stock. You're buying $10 worth of shares.

    銷售面額$100的股票,這是這間公司對外發布,在市面上可獲得的

  • Now, you own stock, you own shares in the company. In that case, it's the same thing.

    所有權總額。現在,這張股票的總額,被分割成100股(份)。

  • Now, when you talk about stocks, you can say: "I own stocks."

    懂了嗎?所以你可以為股票購入越多你需要的股份,因為你有100股,

  • So let's go to this word quickly: "portfolio". Your portfolio is the collection of your investments.

    整張股票的面額為$100,想當然爾每一股為$1。你買10股,等於...

  • You may have stocks, you may have mutual funds, you may have bonds, you may have commodities, you may have real estate.

    等於你買了可用股票的10%,購入價值$10的股份。

  • You may have all kinds of different investments.

    現在,你擁有這間公司的股票、股份。在某方面來說,這兩者是同樣的東西。

  • If part of your portfolio is stocks, you say: "I have some stocks." It means I can have five company's stocks.

    當我們談論到股票,你可以說:"我擁有股票。"

  • But when you say: "I have shares", then you have shares of a company. Okay?

    讓我們快速帶過這個字:"投資組合"。你的投資組合是你一系列的投資,

  • I have stocks in 10 different companies. I have shares... I have 10% or I have 100 shares in this company.

    你可能有股票、有共同基金、有債券、有商品、

  • I have 50 shares in that company, I have 2,000 shares in that company.

    有房地產,你有各種不同種類的投資。當你部分的

  • But all together, you have stock. Okay?

    投資組合是股票,你會說:"我有一些股票",ˋ這表示你擁有5家公司的股票,

  • So it's a total amount of the companies that you own.

    當你說:"我有一些股份",表示你有一家公司的股份。了解嗎?

  • Now, if you want to buy stocks or trade stocks, if you want to buy and sell your shares, you can contact a "stockbroker".

    我有10間不同公司的股票,我有股份...我有10%的股份或我在這家公司有

  • Okay? A broker is somebody who deals with trades; buys, sells stocks on the stock market.

    100股,我在那家公司有50股,我在另一家公司有2000股,

  • These days, you can just go online and find a "brokerage" which is a website or a company that lets you buy and sell your own stocks and shares.

    等整體來說,你有股票,懂了嗎?

  • Okay.

    這是你所擁有的公司總數。

  • Next: we have "IPO", this is "Initial Public Offering". Sorry I'm a little bit off line here.

    如果你想要購買或交易股票,或者你想要購買和銷售股份,你可以連繫

  • When a company decides: "Okay, we need to make more money. We need to raise capital. We need to sell some stock of our company."

    股票經紀人。股票經紀人是幫你在股票市場中

  • So the first time that they sell this stock, there's a big event, you know, like it's a big promotion, they have to market it, they have to tell the public: "Look, we're going to sell stock. Get ready."

    交易、購買、銷售股票。現在,你可以上網搜尋"證券經紀商"

  • This is the initial public offering. The first time that they sell stock.

    一個網站或公司讓你可以購買或銷售股票和股份的地方。

  • We actually don't say: "Sell". They don't sell stock; they issue stock.

    Okay

  • And then the stock brokerage or the stockbrokers, they buy and sell the stock.

    接下來:我們有"IPO",也就是"首次公開募股"。抱歉,我寫歪了。

  • Next: "ROI". This is a very important thing to consider. "Return On Investment".

    當一間公司決定:"我們需要賺更多的錢,必須增加我們的資產,

  • Before you buy anything, before you invest your money in anything, you always have to consider your ROI.

    必須要銷售一些公司的股票。"此時就是他們第一次銷售股票,

  • How much money do you hope to get back? How much money do you think you will get back?

    這是件大事,像大型推銷,必須要賣出,

  • Because at the end of the day, a stock market is a gamble. There's high-risk and there's low-risk companies.

    公司會告訴大眾:"大家快過來看,我們即將銷售股票,趕快準備好。"這就是

  • Your return on investment, obviously, you're hoping to make money.

    首次公開募股,第一次銷售股票。其實我們並不會說"銷售",

  • You hope to get a positive yield.

    公司不會銷售股票;他們發行股票,之後股票經紀商業或股票經紀人

  • A "yield" is basically the percentage gain that you will make on your investment.

    幫忙購買和銷售股票。

  • So, how much did you get back? What was your yield? Oh, 5%. It means if you sold...

    下一個:"ROI",這是非常重要的考慮事項,"投資報酬率"

  • If you bought $100 worth, and then you sold it for $105, your yield was 5%. Your return on investment was $5.

    在你買任何東西前,在你把錢投資在任何商品之前,

  • Okay? So that's how we talk about the money that you make from your investment.

    你必須要考慮到投資報酬率。

  • Now, you can also buy "bonds". Bonds are different from stocks. A bond is a debt. You are buying a debt.

    你期望有多少的錢收回?你認為你有多少錢可以贖回?

  • Basically, what you are doing is you are lending money to a company or the government.

    因為最終來說,股票市場是種賭博,包含著高風險和

  • You can buy government bonds or corporate bonds. And what you're doing, you're lending them money.

    低風險的公司,你的投資報酬率,很顯然的就是你期許賺錢,

  • And they guarantee you-the company or the government-guarantee you a certain percentage of interest and a certain amount of time.

    希望有正收益率。

  • So if you buy a five-year bond at 7%, at the end of the five years, you get your money back plus your 7% interest that you earned.

    "收益率"基本上是你將會在投資上獲得的百分比,

  • So it's guaranteed. It's a bit safer.

    你贖回了多少?你的收益率呢?喔,5%。表示當你賣....買進價值$100

  • We're not going to talk about safe and unsafe, because there's a lot of junk bonds, there's a lot of bad bonds.

    的股票,你以$105成交售出,收益率為5%,你的投資報酬為$5。

  • But generally speaking, bonds are very safe, but they're also... Have a low yield.

    這就是我們談論投資賺錢上的說法和用語。

  • Because they are guaranteed, the return is a bit lower. You could make some investments with a very high yield, but very high risk. Okay?

    你也可以購買"債券"。債券跟股票不一樣,債券是種債務,你在買債務。

  • "Risk" means the danger of losing, as opposed to gaining.

    基本上,你在做的就是把錢借給公司或政府,

  • Now, you can also buy "mutual funds". A mutual fund is a... Basically, it's a company that manages your money.

    你可以買公債或公司債。你所做的就是借錢給他們,

  • So you put money into this mutual fund, the mutual fund manager will then take your money, plus this guy's money, and that guy's money, and that woman's money, and that lady's money.

    而他們向你保證- 公司或政府 - 保證你可以在期限內,

  • He will take all this money and he will buy what he thinks are good investments.

    得到一定百分比的利率。如果你買一個5年期、利率7%的債券,

  • Stocks, bonds, commodities, equities, all kinds of things into one group and everybody gets their share.

    在5年期限結束時,你可以拿回你的本金外加賺取7%的利率。

  • Okay? So, when the entire group of investments goes up, each member of the mutual fund gets his or her return on investment, their yield.

    這是有保證的,比較安全。我們並不是在探討安全和不安全,

  • "Portfolio" we already talked about.

    因為市面上有很多垃圾債券,很多不好的債券,但總而言之,

  • Now, when we're talking about the actual stock market, these days, there's a lot of "volatility" in the stock market.

    債劵很安全,但...收益率也低,因為這是有保證的,

  • Volatility is the sense of excitement or nervousness that enters the equation.

    故報酬較低。你可以投資一些高收益率的商品

  • So people, they hear a bit of bad news from this part of the world.

    但也伴隨著高風險。 "風險"意旨損失的危險,獲得的相反面。

  • They get nervous because they think that will affect their stock, and they start selling all their stock.

    你可以買"共同基金",共同基金是....原則上是一間公司

  • So their stock price or their shares go down in value.

    管理你的金錢,你將錢放置在這筆共同基金上,共同基金管理者

  • So then other people, they say: "Oh my god, everybody's selling this. I better sell mine, too." So they start selling.

    會運用你的錢,外加這個人的,和那個人以及那女士、

  • And then the smart people, they see: "Oh, everybody's selling.

    女人的錢 - 他會將所有的金錢拿來購買他覺得不錯的

  • I'll wait until it gets really low, and then I'll start buying everything for really cheap because I know it will go back up."

    投資商品:股票、債券、商品、權益,所有的投資合併成一組

  • So volatility is more like the mood of the investors. And people get scared, they sell. People are stay calm, they buy. Okay?

    且每個人分別得到股份。當整組的投資上漲,

  • So it creates a lot of "fluctuation".

    每個共同基金的成員可以得到他或她投資上的報酬,也就是收益率。

  • A lot of fluctuation in the market. Fluctuation is the up and down movement.

    我們已經談論過"投資組合"。

  • So stocks go up, they go down, they go up, they go down. Something that is steady, goes up steadily or goes down steadily.

    當我們談到實際的股票市場,目前,在股票市場有很大的

  • If it's up and down, it fluctuates.

    "波動性",波動性是指興奮感或緊張感所牽涉的一個公式。

  • Okay? This is a very good word for all kinds of situations.

    當民眾聽到世界某地方傳出了壞消息,他們感到驚慌,

  • Now, there are two types of market activity. There is a "bear market" and there is a "bull market".

    因為大家認為這件事會影響到他們的股票,開始在市場上拋售,

  • The easiest way to think about these is to look at the animals themselves.

    所以他們的股票價格或股份會貶值,其他人看到,

  • A bear has claws, so when a bear uses his claws, he's pulling everything down.

    便認為:"天阿,大家都在賣股票,我也要跟進。"進而開始售出。

  • So a bear market is a market that is tending downwards, that is losing value.

    這時聰明的人會知道:"大家都在拋售,我會等到價格降到最低時,

  • A bull has horns, so when a bull uses its horns, it's pushing things up.

    大量購買這些低價股,因為我知道這支股票未來會上漲。"

  • So a bull market means the value of the market is going up.

    因此波動性比較像是投資者的心態,當民眾恐慌,他們拋售股票,

  • Usually it means there's a bit of a force, like something is making it go down, that's the bear; something is making it go up, that's the bull. Something is pushing it up.

    當民眾保持冷靜,他們購買股票,懂了嗎?這製造很多的"波動"。

  • Now, if you want to know how the markets are doing, you could look at any specific "index" or "indices". This is the plural of "index".

    市場上有很多的變動,波動是種上下起伏的形態,

  • Now, I know many of you have heard of the DOW Jones, or the NASDAQ, or the S&P 500, or the TSX here in Toronto. These are indices.

    當股票上漲,波動下降,上升,下降。穩定性高的商品,

  • Okay? An index means that the stock market took a group, a collection of companies...

    上漲或下跌很穩定,如果是上下來回,這就是波動。

  • It's not necessarily random; they have a reason to choose these companies.

    這是一個適用於任何情況的字。

  • But they look at all these companies, as a whole: are these companies going up in value or are they going down in value?

    現在有兩種市場活動的形態,一個是"熊市",一個是"牛市"。

  • So if the index is trending up, that means that the whole market is generally doing pretty well.

    最簡單判別兩者的方式是根據它們代表的動物,

  • If the index is going down, that means the market is going down as well.

    熊有爪子,當它使用熊爪時,會將東西拉下來,所以熊市指

  • This is... This gives you an idea of how the market is trending.

    市場開始逐漸下跌,貶值。牛有牛角,

  • So in a bear market, the index will probably start moving down; in a bull market, the index will start moving up. Okay.

    當一隻牛使用牛角時,會把東西往上挑,所以牛市指的是市場價值

  • Now, if you're a conservative investor, it means you don't like to take big risks.

    逐漸攀升。通常這種情況表示有外力介入,有某種事物讓股票

  • You want to put your money in, you want to be sure money comes back. It doesn't have to be big money, but it has to be more than what you put in.

    走下坡,就是熊市;如果讓股票開始上漲,就是牛市,某些因素

  • So then you would buy "blue chip stocks". A blue chicks...

    將它往上推。

  • A blue chip stock is owning stock in a company that is big, that is trusted, that has a long history of doing well, of growing.

    如果你想知道股票市場是如何運作的,你會注意任何特定的"指數"

  • For example, if you buy Microsoft or Apple, these are considered blue chip stocks.

    這是"index"的複數形。我知道很多人聽過

  • Why? Because they're big, they're stable.

    道瓊指數、納斯達克綜合指數、標準普爾500指數或多倫多的TSX,這些都是指數。

  • Over the... If you look at their history, they're generally going up for a long time.

    指數表示股票市場抽取某群組,或一些公司,

  • You can be sure that they will pay you a good return or that they will pay dividends.

    並不一定要隨機挑選;而是有理由去挑出這些公司,但他們視

  • "Dividends" are when they have the profits, they share the profits among all the stockholders.

    這些公司為整體:這些公司的價值是否上漲,或者是他們會

  • So, blue chip companies generally pay good dividends.

    慘跌?當指數顯示向上攀升,表示整個市場普遍表現

  • Lastly, we have "equity". Equity is basically what you owe... Own. Sorry. Not what you owe.

    良好;當指數下降,市場也整體往下滑。

  • What you own minus what you owe. Okay? So, for example, if you own a house, every part of that house that you own is your equity.

    這...這讓你對市場趨勢有概念。所以在熊市,

  • If you have a mortgage, if you're paying the bank every month to pay for your house, then you take the full house, minus the mortgage, and whatever's left over - that is yours.

    指數大概會開始向下滑;在牛市中,指數開始往上攀升。

  • You own it. That is your equity. So, when you own stocks, that's part of your equity.

    如果你是一個保守的投資者,表示你不喜歡挑戰太大的風險,

  • So it's basically all your "net assets".

    你想要投資,也想要確實拿回自己的錢。這並不一定是一筆

  • All your assets, everything you own, minus all your liabilities, everything that you owe somebody; all your debt. Okay?

    龐大的金錢,但至少比當初投資的錢還要多,這時你會買

  • So now that we know all these words, we can start thinking about investing.

    "績優股"。績優股....是由大公司所發行的股票,

  • And I say "thinking" because you want to be very, very, very careful before you put your money somewhere.

    可信任、且擁有良好的營收獲利和經營歷史。例如:當你購買

  • A stock market is not that much different from a casino. Okay? You can gain a lot of money; you can lose a lot of money.

    微軟或蘋果的股票,這些被視為績優股,為什麼?因為它們是大公司,

  • Find out what you need to know, do a lot of research about the company you want to invest in.

    經營穩定,縱觀他們的歷史,這些公司普遍已經經營了

  • Do a lot of research about the mutual fund manager.

    很長一段時間,你可以確信拿到該有的報酬或者是公司會付你

  • Is he or she good at what they do? Do they have a history of success?

    股利。"股利"是當公司賺錢,他們將利潤分成給

  • Then invest your money.

    所有的股東,績優公司經常給予不錯的股利。

  • If you want to test your knowledge of these words, go to www.engvid.com.

    最後,我們來看到"權益"這個字。權益是你所欠..擁有的。抱歉,我口誤了。

  • There's a quiz there that you can try out. Ask questions in the comments section.

    你所擁有的,減去你所欠的。例如:假設你有一間房子,你所擁有

  • And, of course, don't forget to subscribe to my YouTube channel, and come see us again. Bye.

    房子每一處都是你的權益。假設你有抵押貸款,你每個月

Hi again. I'm Adam. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. Today we're going to look at some business English, with an introduction to investing.

又見面了,我是Adam。歡迎回到www.engvid.com。今天我們要著重在商業英文之

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 股票 投資 公司 股份 市場 銷售

【商業英語】股災席捲全球怎麼辦?正解:忘掉股票、好好學英文 (Business English Vocabulary: The Stock Market)

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    Ping Chung Hsieh 發佈於 2015 年 08 月 25 日
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