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  • In the great 1980s movie "The Blues Brothers,"

    1980 年代一部很贊的電影 《福祿雙霸天》

  • there's a scene where John Belushi goes to visit Dan Aykroyd in his apartment

    當中有一幕是約翰·貝魯奇 第一次去拜訪

  • in Chicago for the very first time.

    丹·艾克洛德在芝加哥的家。

  • It's a cramped, tiny space

    屋子又窄又小,

  • and it's just three feet away from the train tracks.

    三尺之外就是火車軌道。

  • As John sits on Dan's bed,

    約翰坐在丹的床上,

  • a train goes rushing by,

    一列火車快速駛過,

  • rattling everything in the room.

    整個屋子裡的東西都晃動起來。

  • John asks, "How often does that train go by?"

    約翰問:「火車駛過有多頻繁?」

  • Dan replies, "So often, you won't even notice it."

    丹就回答:「很頻繁, 頻繁到你根本不會察覺。」

  • And then, something falls off the wall.

    然後,有東西從牆上掉下來。

  • We all know what he's talking about.

    我們懂他指的是什麼。

  • As human beings, we get used to everyday things

    我們人類,

  • really fast.

    對日常事物習慣得相當迅速。

  • As a product designer, it's my job to see those everyday things,

    作為一名產品設計師, 我的職責是察看日常事物,

  • to feel them, and try to improve upon them.

    感受、然後試著改善這些事物。

  • For example, see this piece of fruit?

    譬如,看到這個水果嗎?

  • See this little sticker?

    看見這個小標籤嗎?

  • That sticker wasn't there when I was a kid.

    我小的時候, 根本沒有這樣標籤。

  • But somewhere as the years passed,

    但隨著歲月的流逝,在某個地方

  • someone had the bright idea to put that sticker on the fruit.

    有某位人士想法很了不起 將這小標籤黏在水果上。

  • Why?

    目的是什麼?

  • So it could be easier for us

    目的是方便我們

  • to check out at the grocery counter.

    在商店櫃檯過機。

  • Well that's great,

    這很棒,

  • we can get in and out of the store quickly.

    我們可以快速購物。

  • But now, there's a new problem.

    但現在有一個新的問題。

  • When we get home and we're hungry

    當我們到家,肚子餓壞了,

  • and we see this ripe, juicy piece of fruit on the counter,

    我們看見桌上這個豐富多汁的水果,

  • we just want to pick it up and eat it.

    我們想拿起就吃。

  • Except now, we have to look for this little sticker.

    不過現在,我們得找出這個小標籤。

  • And dig at it with our nails, damaging the flesh.

    用手指甲把它挖出來, 同時也破壞了果肉。

  • Then rolling up that sticker --

    然後捲起這個小標籤——

  • you know what I mean.

    你懂我的。

  • And then trying to flick it off your fingers.

    然後試著把它甩走。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • It's not fun,

    不好玩。

  • not at all.

    一點都不好玩。

  • But something interesting happened.

    但有趣的事情發生了。

  • See the first time you did it, you probably felt those feelings.

    看,你第一次經歷時, 你可能有上述的感想。

  • You just wanted to eat the piece of fruit.

    你不過想吃掉這個水果。

  • You felt upset.

    你覺得不爽。

  • You just wanted to dive in.

    你只想一口咬下去。

  • By the 10th time,

    但經歷過十次之後,

  • you started to become less upset

    你就開始習慣了

  • and you just started peeling the label off.

    然後你就開始把標籤摘掉。

  • By the 100th time, at least for me,

    經歷過 100 次之後, 至少對於我來說,

  • I became numb to it.

    我開始對此麻木了。

  • I simply picked up the piece of fruit,

    我只會簡單拿起這水果,

  • dug at it with my nails, tried to flick it off,

    用指甲挖走標籤, 試著把它甩走,

  • and then wondered,

    然後就想,

  • "Was there another sticker?"

    「還有第二個標籤嗎?」

  • So why is that?

    為什麼會這樣?

  • Why do we get used to everyday things?

    為什麼我們 會對日常事物習以為常?

  • Well as human beings, we have limited brain power.

    作為人類,我們的腦力有限。

  • And so our brains encode the everyday things we do into habits

    因此我們的大腦內化 我們經常做的日常事物,

  • so we can free up space to learn new things.

    這樣我們就可以騰出空間 去學習新的東西。

  • It's a process called habituation

    這個內化過程叫「習慣化」

  • and it's one of the most basic ways, as humans, we learn.

    這是我們人類最基本的 學習方式之一。

  • Now, habituation isn't always bad.

    其實,習慣化不總是壞事。

  • Remember learning to drive?

    記不記得學開車?

  • I sure do.

    我當然記得。

  • Your hands clenched at 10 and 2 on the wheel,

    雙手緊抓方向盤的 十點鐘和兩點鐘方向,

  • looking at every single object out there --

    觀察著外面的每樣事物——

  • the cars, the lights, the pedestrians.

    車輛、燈光、行人。

  • It's a nerve-wracking experience.

    這經歷相當神經緊張。

  • So much so, that I couldn't even talk to anyone else in the car

    緊張得不行,緊張得 無法跟車裡的人聊天

  • and I couldn't even listen to music.

    甚至連音樂也聽不進去。

  • But then something interesting happened.

    但是有趣的事情發生了。

  • As the weeks went by, driving became easier and easier.

    數週之後,開車變得越來越簡單。

  • You habituated it.

    你習慣開車了。

  • It started to become fun and second nature.

    開車變得有趣了, 成了你的第二天性。

  • And then, you could talk to your friends again

    你又可以跟車裡的朋友聊天

  • and listen to music.

    可以在車裡聽音樂。

  • So there's a good reason why our brains habituate things.

    所以我們的大腦習慣化事情 是好事。

  • If we didn't, we'd notice every little detail,

    如果我們不去習慣, 我們得每時每刻都關注著

  • all the time.

    每樣瑣碎的細節。

  • It would be exhausting,

    這樣得多費神,

  • and we'd have no time to learn about new things.

    我們就沒有時間去學習新事物。

  • But sometimes, habituation isn't good.

    但有時習慣化不是好事。

  • If it stops us from noticing the problems that are around us,

    如果習慣讓我們 無法留神身邊的問題,

  • well, that's bad.

    那就不妙了。

  • And if it stops us from noticing and fixing those problems,

    如果習慣讓我們無法 注意、解決這些問題,

  • well, then that's really bad.

    那就真不妙。

  • Comedians know all about this.

    喜劇演員懂得這個道理。

  • Jerry Seinfeld's entire career was built on noticing those little details,

    傑里·賽恩菲爾德的整個演藝生涯 就是建立在注意細節上,

  • those idiotic things we do every day that we don't even remember.

    我們每天都做的蠢事, 自己也記不得。

  • He tells us about the time he visited his friends

    他說有一次他去朋友家,

  • and he just wanted to take a comfortable shower.

    想洗一個舒服的澡。

  • He'd reach out and grab the handle and turn it slightly one way,

    他伸手去抓住把手 稍微往一邊扭開,

  • and it was 100 degrees too hot.

    水燙得不行,

  • And then he'd turn it the other way, and it was 100 degrees too cold.

    然後他將把手調往另一邊, 水又變得太冷。

  • He just wanted a comfortable shower.

    他不過想洗個舒服澡。

  • Now, we've all been there,

    嗯,我們都有過這樣的經歷。

  • we just don't remember it.

    只是記不住而已。

  • But Jerry did,

    但是傑里記住了,

  • and that's a comedian's job.

    這就是喜劇演員的工作。

  • But designers, innovators and entrepreneurs,

    但是設計師、革新者、企業家,

  • it's our job to not just notice those things,

    我們的工作不只是注意到這些東西,

  • but to go one step further and try to fix them.

    還要再邁一步,試著解決這些問題。

  • See this, this person,

    看,這個人,

  • this is Mary Anderson.

    這是瑪麗·安德森。

  • In 1902 in New York City,

    1902 年她來到紐約。

  • she was visiting.

    她去拜訪紐約。

  • It was a cold, wet, snowy day and she was warm inside a streetcar.

    那天又冷又濕,雪下不停, 她在電車上挺暖和的。

  • As she was going to her destination, she noticed the driver opening the window

    列車前進時, 她注意到電車司機打開窗戶

  • to clean off the excess snow so he could drive safely.

    去清理窗上堆積的雪 好讓他安全開車。

  • When he opened the window, though, he let all this cold, wet air inside,

    但是,當他打開車窗, 他讓滿面的冷濕空氣入侵,

  • making all the passengers miserable.

    車上的乘客都痛苦不堪。

  • Now probably, most of those passengers just thought,

    可能大部分乘客只會想:

  • "It's a fact of life, he's got to open the window to clean it.

    「這就是人生,他得開窗清雪。」

  • That's just how it is."

    「很正常。」

  • But Mary didn't.

    但是瑪麗不這樣想。

  • Mary thought,

    瑪麗想:

  • "What if the diver could actually clean the windshield from the inside

    「要是司機可以從裡面清理車窗,

  • so that he could stay safe and drive

    讓他可以安全駕駛,

  • and the passengers could actually stay warm?"

    也讓乘客不受寒侵?」

  • So she picked up her sketchbook right then and there,

    她馬上拿出掃描本,

  • and began drawing what would become the world's first windshield wiper.

    開始描畫世界上第一個雨刮。

  • Now as a product designer, I try to learn from people like Mary

    作為一名產品設計師, 我致力向像瑪麗那樣的人學習,

  • to try to see the world the way it really is,

    致力觀察世界真正的運作方式,

  • not the way we think it is.

    而不老是理所當然。

  • Why?

    為什麼?

  • Because it's easy to solve a problem that almost everyone sees.

    因為人人都注意到的問題 很容易解決。

  • But it's hard to solve a problem that almost no one sees.

    但是無人注意到的問題 很難解決。

  • Now some people think you're born with this ability

    有些人認為自己天生 有能力解決這些問題

  • or you're not,

    或者相反,

  • as if Mary Anderson was hardwired at birth to see the world more clearly.

    以為瑪麗·安德森天生異才 才看世界看得特別清楚。

  • That wasn't the case for me.

    那不是我。

  • I had to work at it.

    我得花功夫。

  • During my years at Apple,

    我在蘋果工作的那幾年,

  • Steve Jobs challenged us to come into work every day,

    史蒂夫·賈伯斯會挑戰我們, 每天來上班,

  • to see our products through the eyes of the customer,

    讓我們從客戶的眼光 看自己的產品,

  • the new customer,

    從新客戶的角度考慮,

  • the one that has fears and possible frustrations

    新客戶會有恐懼、 可能感受過挫敗、

  • and hopeful exhilaration that their new technology product

    會興奮地期望 他們的新技術產品

  • could work straightaway for them.

    能夠為他們提供便捷服務。

  • He called it staying beginners,

    賈伯斯稱之為「保持初始心態」,

  • and wanted to make sure that we focused on those tiny little details

    他想確保我們專注微小細節,

  • to make them faster, easier and seamless for the new customers.

    給新客戶呈現 更快、更簡單、更無暇的產品。

  • So I remember this clearly in the very earliest days of the iPod.

    我清楚記得剛開發 iPod 時 的這個經歷。

  • See, back in the '90s,

    90 年代的時候,

  • being a gadget freak like I am,

    像我這樣喜歡科技產品的怪胎,

  • I would rush out to the store for the very, very latest gadget.

    我會跑去商店 買最新最新的科技產品。

  • I'd take all the time to get to the store,

    我會專門花時間去商店,

  • I'd check out, I'd come back home, I'd start to unbox it.

    付款之後,回到家, 我就開始拆包裝。

  • And then, there was another little sticker:

    然後,上面又有一個小標籤:

  • the one that said, "Charge before use."

    寫著:「使用前請充電」

  • What!

    什麼!

  • I can't believe it!

    難以置信!

  • I just spent all this time buying this product

    我剛剛才花這麼多時間 去買這產品,

  • and now I have to charge before use.

    現在我得充了電才能用。

  • I have to wait what felt like an eternity to use that coveted new toy.

    我得遙遙無期地等待, 等著使用這新寶貝。

  • It was crazy.

    簡直要瘋掉。

  • But you know what?

    但你知道嗎?

  • Almost every product back then did that.

    那時候幾乎所有產品都這樣。

  • When it had batteries in it,

    要是產品有電池,

  • you had to charge it before you used it.

    你得先充電才能使用。

  • Well, Steve noticed that

    史蒂夫注意到了,

  • and he said,

    他說:

  • "We're not going to let that happen to our product."

    「我們不會讓這情況 出現在我們的產品上。」

  • So what did we do?

    我們怎麼做?

  • Typically, when you have a product that has a hard drive in it,

    一般,要是產品有硬碟,

  • you run it for about 30 minutes in the factory

    就要在工廠內 讓產品運行 30 分鐘

  • to make sure that hard drive's going to be working years later

    以確保出售後, 客戶拆開包裝之後,

  • for the customer after they pull it out of the box.

    硬碟仍能長期運作正常。

  • What did we do instead?

    我們又採取什麼辦法呢?

  • We ran that product for over two hours.

    我們讓產品運作超過 2 小時。

  • Why?

    為什麼?

  • Well, first off, we could make a higher quality product,

    首先,這樣我們可以生產 更高質量的產品,

  • be easy to test,

    讓產品易於測試,

  • and make sure it was great for the customer.

    並確保客戶喜歡這樣產品。

  • But most importantly,

    但最重要的是,

  • the battery came fully charged right out of the box,

    包裝裡的電池完全充滿電,

  • ready to use.

    隨時都可用。

  • So that customer, with all that exhilaration,

    這樣,充滿期待和歡喜的客戶

  • could just start using the product.

    就可以馬上使用產品。

  • It was great, and it worked.

    這辦法非常棒,很有效。

  • People liked it.

    人們很喜歡。

  • Today, almost every product that you get that's battery powered

    今天,幾乎所有帶電池的產品

  • comes out of the box fully charged,

    打開時,電池都是充滿電的,

  • even if it doesn't have a hard drive.

    即使產品沒有硬碟。

  • But back then, we noticed that detail and we fixed it,

    但在此之前,我們 注意到、處理了這個細節,

  • and now everyone else does that as well.

    而且現在所有人都這樣做。

  • No more, "Charge before use."

    不再有「用前請充電」。

  • So why am I telling you this?

    為什麼我要講這件事?

  • Well, it's seeing the invisible problem,

    這是關於看到無形的問題,

  • not just the obvious problem, that's important,

    不只是明顯的問題, 這很重要,

  • not just for product design, but for everything we do.

    不僅對產品設計很重要, 對我們做的所有事情都很重要。

  • You see, there are invisible problems all around us,

    大家看,我們身邊有無形的問題,

  • ones we can solve.

    我們可以解決的問題。

  • But first we need to see them, to feel them.

    但首先我們要 看到、感覺到這些問題。

  • So, I'm hesitant to give you any tips

    我不確定是否要向各位

  • about neuroscience or psychology.

    提供神經學或心理學上的小建議。

  • There's far too many experienced people in the TED community

    TED 的圈子裡有太多的能人異士,

  • who would know much more about that than I ever will.

    他們對這方面的了解 遠超我所能。

  • But let me leave you with a few tips that I do,

    但讓我留給大家 我的一些實踐建議,

  • that we all can do, to fight habituation.

    大家都可用這些建議 來對抗習慣化。

  • My first tip is to look broader.

    我的第一條建議是: 看得更廣。

  • You see, when you're tackling a problem,

    當你在處理問題時,

  • sometimes, there are a lot of steps that lead up to that problem.

    有時引發問題的步驟有很多。

  • And sometimes, a lot of steps after it.

    有時,問題出現後 又有很多其他步驟。

  • If you can take a step back and look broader,

    如果你可以退一步,看得更廣,

  • maybe you can change some of those boxes

    也許你可以在問題發生前

  • before the problem.

    改變其中一些元素。

  • Maybe you can combine them.

    也許你可以結合一些元素。

  • Maybe you can remove them altogether to make that better.

    也許你可以把它們一起摒棄。

  • Take thermostats, for instance.

    拿自動調溫器為例。

  • In the 1900s when they first came out, they were really simple to use.

    20 世紀初初次出現時, 調溫器相當易使。

  • You could turn them up or turn them down.

    你可以調節溫度。

  • People understood them.

    大家都會用。

  • But in the 1970s,

    但在 20 世紀 70 年代,

  • the energy crisis struck,

    能源危機降臨,

  • and customers started thinking about how to save energy.

    顧客開始考慮如何節能。

  • So what happened?

    然後怎樣?

  • Thermostat designers decided to add a new step.

    調溫器設計師 決定插入一個新步驟。

  • Instead of just turning up and down,

    你不能簡單調節溫度,

  • you now had to program it.

    你得事先設定調溫器。

  • So you could tell it the temperature you wanted at a certain time.

    你可以設定某個時間段的理想溫度。

  • Now that seemed great.

    聽上去很棒。

  • Every thermostat had started adding that feature.

    所有調溫器都開始添加這功能。

  • But it turned out that no one saved any energy.

    但是結果沒人真正節能。

  • Now, why is that?

    為什麼?

  • Well, people couldn't predict the future.

    大家無法預測未來。

  • They just didn't know how their weeks would change season to season,

    大家不知道幾週內 會發生什麼改變,

  • year to year.

    季節不同,年份不同。

  • So no one was saving energy,

    因此沒有人真正在節能,

  • and what happened?

    然後呢?

  • Thermostat designers went back to the drawing board

    調溫器設計師回歸原來的設計,

  • and they focused on that programming step.

    專注於溫度設定這一步。

  • They made better U.I.s,

    他們做了更好的用戶界面,

  • they made better documentation.

    做了更好的記錄。

  • But still, years later, people were not saving any energy

    但數年之後,人們仍然沒有節能,

  • because they just couldn't predict the future.

    因為他們就是不能預測未來。

  • So what did we do?

    我們採取了什麼辦法?

  • We put a machine-learning algorithm in instead of the programming

    我們添加了一個機器學習算法, 而不是設定程式,

  • that would simply watch when you turned it up and down,

    這個算法會簡單觀察 你什麼時候調高溫、低溫

  • when you liked a certain temperature when you got up,

    什麼時候你喜歡什麼溫度, 你起床時,