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  • When I was nine years old,

    在我九歲的時候

  • my mom asked me what I would want my house to look like,

    媽媽問我想要什麼樣的房子?

  • and I drew this fairy mushroom.

    於是我畫了這個小精靈的磨菇屋

  • And then she actually built it.

    然後,她讓這棟房子成真了

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I don't think I realized this was so unusual at the time,

    我當時並沒瞭解到這件事有多特別

  • and maybe I still haven't,

    也許我現在仍不覺得

  • because I'm still designing houses.

    因為我依然在設計房子

  • This is a six-story bespoke home on the island of Bali.

    這是一棟六層樓量身打造的家,位於峇里島

  • It's built almost entirely from bamboo.

    幾乎整棟都是由竹子建造的

  • The living room overlooks the valley from the fourth floor.

    四樓的起居室能俯瞰山谷

  • You enter the house by a bridge.

    而你得跨越一座橋才能進入房子

  • It can get hot in the tropics,

    熱帶地區非常炎熱

  • so we make big curving roofs to catch the breezes.

    所以我們做了大型曲面屋頂把引進微風

  • But some rooms have tall windows to keep the air conditioning in

    而有些房間是以落地窗讓空氣流入

  • and the bugs out.

    把蟲子檔在外面

  • This room we left open.

    我們要讓這間房間維持開放性

  • We made an air-conditioned, tented bed.

    因而做了有空調的帳篷床

  • And one client wanted a TV room in the corner of her living room.

    有位業主希望起居室的角落有電視間

  • Boxing off an area with tall walls just didn't feel right,

    但我們覺得以高牆圍住這個空間,十分不對勁

  • so instead, we made this giant woven pod.

    所以,我們做了這個巨大的編織艙

  • Now, we do have all the necessary luxuries, like bathrooms.

    現在,我們擁有了所有必備的舒適享受,例如廁所

  • This one is a basket in the corner of the living room,

    這個籃子般的空間位於起居室一角

  • and I've got tell you, some people actually hesitate to use it.

    我必須跟你們說,有些人不太敢用這個廁所

  • We have not quite figured out our acoustic insulation.

    我們還沒解決隔音問題

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So there are lots of things that we're still working on,

    所以還有很多事仍待我們去解決

  • but one thing I have learned

    但我學到一件事

  • is that bamboo will treat you well if you use it right.

    只要你找到對的使用方法,竹子是很好用的

  • It's actually a wild grass.

    竹子其實是種野草

  • It grows on otherwise unproductive land --

    長在比較貧瘠的土地上

  • deep ravines, mountainsides.

    在溪谷深處,或山腰上

  • It lives off of rainwater, spring water, sunlight,

    只要供給雨水、山泉、陽光,竹子就能生生不息

  • and of the 1,450 species of bamboo that grow across the world,

    竹子的品種有1450種之多,遍及全世界

  • we use just seven of them.

    而我們只用了其中七種

  • That's my dad.

    這是我父親

  • He's the one who got me building with bamboo,

    是他鼓勵我用竹子蓋房子的

  • and he is standing in a clump of Dendrocalamus asper niger

    他正站在一叢"馬來麻竹"裡面

  • that he planted just seven years ago.

    這些竹子是他七年前才種下的

  • Each year, it sends up a new generation of shoots.

    每一年,麻竹會抽出新芽

  • That shoot, we watched it grow a meter in three days just last week,

    我們上禮拜才目睹那支新芽在三天之內抽高了一公尺,

  • so we're talking about sustainable timber in three years.

    所以這是能在三年內成材的永續建材

  • Now, we harvest from hundreds of family-owned clumps.

    現在,我們收成數以百計家族經營的竹叢

  • Betung, as we call it, it's really long,

    我們稱呼這是"Betung" (馬來語「竹子」之意),它很長

  • up to 18 meters of usable length.

    可供使用的部分長達18公尺

  • Try getting that truck down the mountain.

    卡車正要下山

  • And it's strong: it has the tensile strength of steel,

    這種竹子十分強韌,具有鋼材般的抗拉強度

  • the compressive strength of concrete.

    也具有混凝土的抗壓強度

  • Slam four tons straight down on a pole,and it can take it.

    竹子能承受四噸重的軸向加速載重

  • Because it's hollow, it's lightweight,

    因為它是空心的,所以非常輕

  • light enough to be lifted by just a few men,

    輕到幾個男人就能抬起來

  • or, apparently, one woman.

    或者,顯然的,一個女人也能做到

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    (笑聲)(掌聲)

  • And when my father built Green School in Bali,

    當我父親在峇里島建造 Green School 的時候

  • he chose bamboo for all of the buildings on campus,

    他以竹子當做校內建築物的建材

  • because he saw it as a promise.

    因為他從中看到前景

  • It's a promise to the kids.

    這個材料是孩子們未來的希望

  • It's one sustainable material that they will not run out of.

    竹子是永遠不會短缺,能夠永續經營的材料

  • And when I first saw these structures under construction about six years ago,

    六年前,我第一次看到這些結構體正在建設中

  • I just thought, this makes perfect sense.

    我想,這太完美了

  • It is growing all around us.

    竹子容易取得

  • It's strong. It's elegant. It's earthquake-resistant.

    強度高,優雅,耐震

  • Why hasn't this happened sooner, and what can we do with it next?

    怎麼沒有早一點拿竹子做建材呢? 那接下來我們能做什麼?

  • So along with some of the original builders of Green School,

    因此,我與 Green School 的創始者們

  • I founded Ibuku.

    一起創立了 Ibuku

  • Ibu means "mother," and ku means "mine," so it represents my Mother Earth,

    Ibu 是「母親」 , ku 是「我的」,所以這代表了 「大地之母」之意

  • and at Ibuku, we are a team of artisans, architects and designers,

    在 Ibuku 這個團隊裡,有工匠、建築師、設計師

  • and what we're doing together is creating a new way of building.

    我們一起開創新的建造方法

  • Over the past five years together,

    我們合作的五年間

  • we have built over 50 unique structures, most of them in Bali.

    蓋了超過五十棟的獨特建築,大部分位於峇里島

  • Nine of them are at Green Village --

    其中九棟座落在 Green Village

  • you've just seen inside some of these homes --

    你剛才看的就是其中一些房子的室內空間

  • and we fill them with bespoke furniture,

    房子裡放的是訂製的家具

  • we surround them with veggie gardens,

    周圍還環繞著蔬果花園

  • we would love to invite you all to come visit someday.

    誠摯地邀請大家來拜訪我們

  • And while you're there, you can also see Green School --

    你來訪的時候,還能參觀Green School

  • we keep building classrooms there each year --

    我們每年仍持續增建校舍

  • as well as an updated fairy mushroom house.

    還有這個新版的精靈磨菇屋

  • We're also working on a little house for export.

    我們也試著蓋小房子外銷

  • This is a traditional Sumbanese home that we replicated,

    這是我們複製出來的傳統 Sumbanese (松巴人的傳統家屋)

  • right down to the details and textiles.

    考究細節和編織手法

  • A restaurant with an open-air kitchen.

    有著露天廚房的餐廳

  • It looks a lot like a kitchen, right?

    看起來應該很像廚房吧?

  • And a bridge that spans 22 meters across a river.

    這座橋以22公尺的跨距,橫越一條河

  • Now, what we're doing, it's not entirely new.

    我們所做並非全然前所未有

  • From little huts to elaborate bridges like this one in Java,

    從小茅屋,到精心設計的橋,裡如這座爪哇島的橋

  • bamboo has been in use across the tropical regions of the world for literally tens of thousands of years.

    竹子的使用遍及全世界的熱帶地區,已經好幾萬年了

  • There are islands and even continents that were first reached by bamboo rafts.

    人們第一次抵達某些島嶼、甚至大陸,就是乘著竹筏

  • But until recently,

    但直到最近以前,

  • it was almost impossible to reliably protect bamboo from insects,

    幾乎無法讓竹子免於蟲害

  • and so, just about everything that was ever built out of bamboo is gone.

    因此,幾乎所有曾用竹子建造的東西都消失了

  • Unprotected bamboo weathers.

    未受保護的竹子會風化

  • Untreated bamboo gets eaten to dust.

    未經處理的竹子會被蟲蛀得一乾二淨

  • And so that's why most people, especially in Asia, think that

    這也就是為什麼大多數人,尤其在亞洲,會認為

  • you couldn't be poor enough or rural enough to actually want to live in a bamboo house.

    應該沒人會窮到、鄉下到竟然想住在竹子屋裡

  • And so we thought,

    因此,我們思考

  • what will it take to change their minds, to convince people that

    要怎麼樣才能讓他們改觀? 說服他們

  • that bamboo is worth building with, much less worth aspiring to?

    竹子非常適合建設用途,更不用說是值得探究的構築材料

  • First, we needed safe treatment solutions.

    第一,我們需要安全的處理手法

  • Borax is a natural salt.

    硼砂是天然的鹽類

  • It turns bamboo into a viable building material.

    能把竹子轉變成耐受性高的建築材料

  • Treat it properly, design it carefully,

    適當地處理,用心地設計

  • and a bamboo structure can last a lifetime.

    這樣一來竹子構造就能使用一輩子

  • Second, build something extraordinary out of it. Inspire people.

    第二,用竹子蓋出一些獨特的建築,讓人們驚艷

  • Fortunately, Balinese culture fosters craftsmanship. It values the artisan.

    幸運的是,峇里人的文化鼓勵工藝技術、重視工匠

  • So combine those with the adventurous outliers

    同時結合一些愛創新、冒險的人們

  • from new generations of locally trained architects and designers and engineers,

    包括在地訓練的新生代建築師、設計師和工程師

  • and always remember that you are designing

    再加上不斷地提醒自己: 你正在設計的是

  • for curving, tapering, hollow poles.

    彎曲的、錐形的中空管

  • No two poles alike, no straight lines, no two-by-fours here.

    每一根竹子都是獨特的,沒有直線,這裡沒有2x4系統模矩(工業化的木構造工法)

  • The tried-and-true, well-crafted formulas and vocabulary of architecture do not apply here.

    行之有效的、精製的設計方法和建築語彙,這裡都不適用

  • We have had to invent our own rules.

    我們必須找到自己的方式

  • We ask the bamboo what it's good at, what it wants to become,

    我們問竹子,它最在行的是什麼? 它想變成什麼?

  • and what it says is: respect it, design for its strengths,

    它說: 尊重它,用它的優點來設計

  • protect it from water, and to make the most of its curves.

    做好防水,並且充分利用它的曲線

  • So we design in real 3D,

    我們採用實體的3D來做設計

  • making scale structural models

    製作成比例的建築模型

  • out of the same material that we'll later use to build the house.

    模型所用的材料,和之後蓋房子要用的建材一模一樣

  • And bamboo model-making, it's an art,

    用竹子做模型,根本是一門藝術

  • as well as some hardcore engineering.

    也是很費力的工程

  • So that's the blueprint of the house.

    這就是房子的設計藍圖

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And we bring it to site,

    我們帶模型去工地,

  • and with tiny rulers, we measure each pole,

    用縮小比例尺,度量每一根竹棒

  • and consider each curve, and we choose a piece of bamboo from the pile

    考慮每一道弧線,從竹堆裡挑出適合的那一根竹子

  • to replicate that house on site.

    然後,在現場複製出這棟房子

  • When it comes down to the details, we consider everything.

    到了細部設計階段時,我們必須全面考量

  • Why are doors so often rectangular?

    為什麼門總是矩形的?

  • Why not round?

    為什麼不是圓形?

  • How could you make a door better?

    怎麼做出一扇更好的門?

  • Well, its hinges battle with gravity,

    門絞鏈和地心引力一直在戰鬥 (重力使門絞鏈變形)

  • and gravity will always win in the end,

    而地心引力總是戰勝

  • so why not have it pivot on the center where it can stay balanced?

    既然如此,何不把門軸放在中間,門就能維持平衡?

  • And while you're at it, why not doors shaped like teardrops?

    當你這麼做了,又想,那為什麼不把門做成淚滴型呢?

  • To reap the selective benefits and work within the constraints of this material,

    為了從這個材料的的限制中,充分利用每一個優點

  • we have really had to push ourselves,

    我們必須一直鞭策自己

  • and within that constraint, we have found space for something new.

    而在竹子的限制性當中,我們找到一些新契機

  • It's a challenge, how do you make a ceiling if you don't have any flat boards to work with?

    挑戰一下: 在沒有任何平板材料的情況下,你要怎麼做天花板?

  • Let me tell you, sometimes I dream of sheet rock and plywood.

    說真的,有時候我會希望我可以用石膏板或合板

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But if what you've got is skilled craftsmen

    但如果你只有技巧精湛的工匠

  • and itsy bitsy little splits,

    和精細小巧的竹片

  • weave that ceiling together,

    那就把天花板織起來

  • stretch a canvas over it, lacquer it.

    上面用展開的帆布覆蓋,上漆

  • How do you design durable kitchen countertops

    如何設計耐用的廚房檯面

  • that do justice to this curving structure you've just built?

    才不辜負你剛蓋好的彎曲建築物呢?

  • Slice up a boulder like a loaf of bread,

    把大圓石像麵包一樣切成片

  • hand-carve each to fit the other,

    手工雕琢讓他們一片片接合起來

  • leave the crusts on,

    並保留石頭外殼表面

  • and what we're doing, it is almost entirely handmade.

    我們幾乎所有東西都是手工製作

  • The structural connections of our buildings are reinforced by steel joints,

    建築物的結構接頭用鋼接頭強化,

  • but we use a lot of hand-whittled bamboo pins.

    但我們也用了很多手工削成的竹製插梢

  • There are thousands of pins in each floor.

    每一層樓都有幾千個插梢

  • This floor is made of glossy and durable bamboo skin.

    這個地板是由光亮且強韌的竹子皮做成的

  • You can feel the texture under bare feet.

    你可以赤足感受它的紋理

  • And the floor that you walk on, can it affect the way that you walk?

    你的腳踩在哪一種地板上,會不會影響你走路的方式?

  • Can it change the footprint that you'll ultimately leave on the world?

    它會不會改變你最終留在這世界上的足跡呢?

  • I remember being nine years old

    我記得我九歲的時候

  • and feeling wonder, and possibility,

    感受到驚奇,和各種可能性

  • and a little bit of idealism.

    還有一點點理想主義

  • And we've got a really long way to go,

    我們還有很長的路要走

  • there's a lot left to learn,

    還有許多要學習的

  • but one thing I know is that with creativity and commitment,

    但我知道,以創造力和決心,

  • you can create beauty and comfort

    你可以創造出美麗、舒適

  • and safety and even luxury

    安全,甚至是豪華的空間

  • out of a material that will grow back.

    全出自於這種能夠再生的材料

  • Thank you.

    謝謝

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

When I was nine years old,

在我九歲的時候

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 竹子 房子 材料 設計 峇里島

【TED】伊蘿拉•哈迪: 竹子建造的魔法屋 (Magical houses, made of bamboo | Elora Hardy)

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    Katiee 發佈於 2016 年 01 月 06 日
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