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  • Thinking of getting a tattoo?

    想要來個刺青嗎?

  • Decorating your birthday suit would add another personal story

    裝飾你的身體,可以為至少8000年的紋身歷史中

  • to a history of tattoos stretching back at least 8000 years.

    增添另一道個人故事

  • Tattooed mummies from around the world attest to the universality

    世界各地的紋身木乃伊證實了

  • of body modification across the millennia,

    幾千年以來修改身體的普遍性

  • and to the fact that you really were stuck with it forever

    也證實了如果你的文明沒有成功發明雷射去除手術

  • if your civilization never got around to inventing laser removal.

    刺青真的會永遠地跟著你

  • A mummy from the Chinchorro culture in pre-Incan Peru

    一個在秘魯前印加文明的新克羅文化的木乃伊

  • has a mustache tattooed on his upper lip.

    在他的上唇有個鬍子的刺青

  • Ötzi, mummified iceman of the Alps, has patterned charcoal tats along his spine,

    Ötzi,被木乃伊化的阿爾卑斯山冰人,沿著他的脊椎

  • behind his knee and around his ankles,

    膝蓋後方及腳踝周圍都有木炭刺青的圖騰

  • which might be from an early sort of acupuncture.

    這可能是早期針灸的結果

  • The mummy of Amunet, a priestess in Middle Kingdom Egypt,

    名為Amunet的埃及中王國時期女祭司的木乃伊

  • features tattoos thought to symbolize sexuality and fertility.

    則是因被認為象徵性慾及生殖能力的紋身而著名

  • Even older than the mummies,

    遠在木乃伊出現以前

  • figurines of seemingly tattooed people,

    就有看似紋身人物的小雕像

  • and tools possibly used for tattooing date back tens of thousands of years.

    以及可能用來紋身的工具,其歷史可追朔到好幾萬年前

  • Tattoos don't have one historical origin point that we know of,

    就我們所知,紋身並沒有單一的歷史起源

  • but why do we English speakers call them all tattoos?

    但是為何在英文裡統稱他們為tattoos?

  • The word is an anglophonic modification of "tatao,"

    這個字是由在大溪地使用的玻里尼西亞字 tatao

  • a Polynesian word used in Tahiti,

    修改而成的英文

  • where English captain James Cook landed in 1769

    英國船長James Cook在1769年登陸大溪地

  • and encountered heavily tattooed men and women.

    並且遇到身上佈滿紋身的男男女女

  • Stories of Cook's findings and the tattoos his crew acquired

    Cook船長故事裡的發現,以及他船員們所紋的刺青

  • cemented our usage of "tattoo" over previous words like

    確立了我們對 tattoo 這個字的使用

  • "scarring," "painting," and "staining,"

    而不是 scarring, painting, staining 這些字

  • and sparked a craze in Victorian English high society.

    並且引起了英國維多莉亞時期的上流社會一陣瘋狂

  • We might think of Victorians having Victorian attitudes

    雖然我們可能認為維多莉亞時期的人

  • about such a risque thing,

    對這種妨礙風俗的事物,有種「維多莉亞態度」

  • and you can find such sentiments, and even bans, on tattooing throughout history.

    你可以從整個紋身的歷史中,發現相似的想法甚至是禁令

  • But while publicly some Brits looked down their noses at tattoos,

    儘管有些英國人公開的貶低紋身

  • behind closed doors and away from their noses, lots of people had them

    但私底下卻有很多人紋身

  • Reputedly, Queen Victoria had a tiger fighting a python,

    據說維多莉亞女王甚至有個老虎大戰蟒蛇的刺青

  • and tattoos became very popular among Cook's fellow soldiers,

    而且紋身在Cook的同儕士兵中廣為盛行

  • who used them to note their travels.

    他們用紋身來記錄他們的旅途

  • You crossed the Atlantic? Get an anchor.

    你橫越了大西洋? 來個錨的刺青吧

  • Been south of the Equator? Time for your turtle tat.

    曾到過赤道以南? 是時候來個烏龜的刺青了

  • But Westerners sported tattoos long before meeting

    但西方人早在遇到南太平洋上的

  • the Samoans and Maori of the South Pacific.

    薩摩亞人跟毛利人之前,就開始紋身了

  • Crusaders got the Jerusalem Cross so if they died in battle,

    如果十字軍在戰鬥時陣亡,他們會被紋上耶路薩冷十字

  • they'd get a Christian burial.

    並以基督教喪禮下葬

  • Roman soldiers on Hadrian's Wall had military tattoos

    駐守在哈德良長城上的羅馬士兵有著軍事紋身

  • and called the Picts beyond it "Picts," for the pictures painted on them.

    他們因為長城外皮克特人身上有著圖案,而稱其為 Picts

  • There's also a long tradition of people being tattooed unwillingly.

    還有在人們不情願的情況下紋身的悠久歷史

  • Greeks and Romans tattooed slaves and mercenaries to discourage

    古希臘和羅馬人都會在他們的奴隸跟傭人身上刺青

  • escape and desertion.

    來阻礙他們的逃亡

  • Criminals in Japan were tattooed as such as far back as the 7th century.

    最早在7世紀的時候,日本的罪犯就會被紋身

  • Most infamously, the Nazis tattooed numbers on the chest or arms

    最惡名昭彰的就是納粹在奧斯威辛集中營內的猶太人及其他囚犯的

  • of Jews and other prisoners at the Auschwitz concentration camp

    胸膛、或是手臂上刺上編號

  • in order to identify stripped corpses.

    以便辨認赤裸的屍體

  • But tattoos forced on prisoners and outcasts can be redefined

    但是隨著人們接受囚犯跟被放逐的人們的身分及過往

  • as people take ownership of that status or history.

    他們身上的紋身可被賦予新的意義

  • Primo Levi survived Auschwitz and wore short sleeves to Germany after the war

    Primo Levi在奧斯威辛集中營中存活下來,並在戰後德國穿著短袖

  • to remind people of the crime his number represented.

    好讓人們記得他手上號碼代表的罪行

  • Today, some Holocaust survivors' descendants

    時至今日,有部分大屠殺受害者的後代子孫們

  • have their relatives numbers' tattooed on their arms.

    都會把他們親戚的號碼刺在他們的手臂上

  • The Torah has rules against tattoos,

    希伯來聖經有條文禁止紋身

  • but what if you want to make indelible what you feel should never be forgotten?

    但是如果你想要銘記那些永不想忘記的事情怎麼辦?

  • And those criminals and outcasts of Japan, where tattooing was eventually outlawed

    雖然在19世紀中期至二戰後的這段時間內

  • from the mid-19th century to just after World War II,

    紋身在日本是會被取締的

  • added decoration to their penal tattoos,

    但是那些罪犯及流亡者們仍會在他們受刑紋身上

  • with designs borrowed from woodblock prints, popular literature

    加上有浮世繪、通俗文學

  • and mythical spirtual iconography.

    及心靈信仰圖像設計的裝飾

  • Yakuza gangs viewed their outsider tattoos as signs of lifelong loyalty and courage.

    日本極道組織視外人入會的紋身為一生的忠心及勇氣的表現

  • After all, they lasted forever and it really hurt to get them.

    畢竟,它們會永久地存在,而且要獲得刺青真的很痛

  • For the Maori, whose tattoos were an accepted mainstream tradition.

    對毛利人來說,紋身是個被接受的主流文化

  • If you shied away from the excruciating chiseling in of your moko design,

    如果你逃避這痛苦的毛利圖騰的鑿入過程

  • your unfinished tattoo marked your cowardice.

    你未完成的紋身就是你懦弱的標記

  • Today, unless you go the traditional route,

    今日,除非你採取傳統的方法

  • your tattoo artist will probably use a tattoo machine

    你的紋身工作者大概會使用一個刺青的機器

  • based on the one patented by Samuel O'Reilly in 1891,

    由Samuel O'Reilly在1891年的專利改造而來

  • itself based on Thomas Edison's stencil machine from 1876.

    這專利則是由1876年Thomas Edison的模印機改良而來

  • But with the incredibly broad history of tattoos giving you so many options,

    廣闊無比的歷史給了你這麼多選擇

  • what are you going to get?

    那你要刺什麼圖案呢?

  • This is a bold-lined expression of who you are,

    紋身是個用粗線表現自我

  • or you want to appear to be.

    或是表現你心中理想自我的方法

  • As the naturalist aboard Cook's ship said of the tataoed Tahitians,

    就如登上Cook船的博物學家針對紋身的大溪地人所說的一樣

  • "Everyone is marked, thus in different parts of his body,

    「每個人都有標記,或許根據他的幽默

  • according maybe to his humor or different circumstances of his life."

    也或許根據他的人生境遇,而在他身上不同的地方留下記錄」

  • Maybe your particular humor and circumstances

    或許你特定的幽默及境遇

  • suggest getting a symbol of cultural heritage,

    促使你刺個文化遺產的圖騰

  • a sign of spirituality, sexual energy,

    或是代表靈性、性能量的圖騰

  • or good old-fashioned avant-garde defiance.

    甚至是復古與前衛對立的圖騰

  • A reminder of a great accomplishment,

    或是對某個偉大成就的回憶

  • or of how you think it would look cool if Hulk Hogan rode a Rhino.

    或者是刺Hul Hogan(美國職業摔角選手)騎著犀牛,如果你認為這看起來會很酷的話

  • It's your expression, your body, so it's your call.

    這是你的表達方式、你的身體,所以這操之在你

  • Just two rules:

    只有兩個法則

  • you have to find a tattooist who won't be ashamed to draw your idea,

    你得找個不會因畫出你想法而感到羞愧的紋身工作者

  • and when in doubt, you can never go wrong with "Mom."

    另外一點就是,當你心有懷疑時,刺個「媽媽」永遠都不會錯

Thinking of getting a tattoo?

想要來個刺青嗎?

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 木乃伊 歷史 長城 毛利人 集中營

【TED-Ed】紋身的歷史 (The history of tattoos - Addison Anderson)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2016 年 02 月 21 日
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