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  • Twenty-five years ago, scientists at CERN created the World Wide Web.

    25 年前,歐洲核子研究組織的科學家 創造了全球資訊網。

  • Since then, the Internet has transformed the way we communicate,

    自此之後,網路改變了我們溝通、

  • the way we do business, and even the way we live.

    做生意,甚至是生活的方式。

  • In many ways,

    從很多方面來說,

  • the ideas that gave birth to Google, Facebook, Twitter, and so many others,

    這個概念也催生了谷歌、 臉書、推特和無數網站,

  • have now really transformed our lives,

    同時也改變了我們的生活,

  • and this has brought us many real benefits such as a more connected society.

    並帶給我們許多實質上的助益, 例如關係更緊密的社會。

  • However, there are also some downsides to this.

    然而,網路也有些壞處。

  • Today, the average person has an astounding amount

    現在一般人放在 網路上的個資多得嚇人,

  • of personal information online,

    只要我們每次在臉書貼文、

  • and we add to this online information every single time we post on Facebook,

    在谷歌上搜尋,

  • each time we search on Google,

    或是寄封信 都會在網路上添加一筆個資。

  • and each time we send an email.

    大多數人可能會想,

  • Now, many of us probably think,

    一封電子郵件而已, 裡面沒什麼資料吧?

  • well, one email, there's nothing in there, right?

    但是如果你評估一整年的電郵,

  • But if you consider a year's worth of emails,

    或甚至是一輩子的電郵,

  • or maybe even a lifetime of email,

    加總起來透露的訊息非常多。

  • collectively, this tells a lot.

    可以透露我們去了哪裡、 和誰見了面,

  • It tells where we have been, who we have met,

    甚至能從許多方面了解 我們在想什麼。

  • and in many ways, even what we're thinking about.

    更恐怖的是現在 我們的資料會永存於世,

  • And the more scary part about this is our data now lasts forever,

    所以你的資料能夠也將會 比你活得還要久。

  • so your data can and will outlive you.

    現況是我們幾乎無法控制

  • What has happened is that we've largely lost control over our data

    自己的資料和隱私。

  • and also our privacy.

    因此網路誕生滿 25 年的今年,

  • So this year, as the web turns 25,

    很重要的是我們應該要花點時間

  • it's very important for us to take a moment

    思考這代表了什麼意義。

  • and think about the implications of this.

    我們必須認真思考。

  • We have to really think.

    我們失去了隱私,沒錯,

  • We've lost privacy, yes,

    但其實我們也失去了 「隱私」這個概念。

  • but actually what we've also lost is the idea of privacy itself.

    如果你仔細一想,

  • If you think about it,

    在座大多數人應該都記得 還沒有網路的生活是什麼樣子,

  • most of us here today probably remember what life was like before the Internet,

    但現在有一群新世代

  • but today, there's a new generation

    從很小的時候就學會上網分享大小事,

  • that is being taught from a very young age to share everything online,

    這個世代不會記得 有隱私資料的年代是什麼樣子。

  • and this is a generation that is not going to remember when data was private.

    再這樣下去二十年後,

  • So we keep going down this road, 20 years from now,

    「隱私」兩字就會有全然不同的意義,

  • the word 'privacy' is going to have a completely different meaning

    與你我所知的大不相同。

  • from what it means to you and I.

    因此現在我們該花點時間思考,

  • So, it's time for us to take a moment and think,

    有辦法能改變現況嗎?

  • is there anything we can do about this?

    我相信有辦法。

  • And I believe there is.

    我們來看看現在世界上 最普遍的溝通方式:

  • Let's take a look at one of the most widely used forms of communication

    電子郵件。

  • in the world today: email.

    在電子郵件發明前, 我們大多靠信件連繫,

  • Before the invention of email, we largely communicated using letters,

    過程很簡單。

  • and the process was quite simple.

    你會先在一張紙上寫些訊息,

  • You would first start by writing your message on a piece of paper,

    然後放進信封中密封,

  • then you would place it into a sealed envelope,

    在寄出前

  • and from there, you would go ahead and send it

    你只要貼郵票、寫地址就可以了。

  • after you put a stamp and address on it.

    不幸的是,現在

  • Unfortunately, today,

    我們寄的其實是電郵,而非信函。

  • when we actually send an email, we're not sending a letter.

    從多方面來看, 你寄的其實是明信片,

  • What you are sending, in many ways, is actually a postcard,

    這張明信片每個人都看得到,

  • and it's a postcard in the sense that everybody that sees it

    從你的電腦寄出 到收信人收到的這段時間,

  • from the time it leaves your computer to when it gets to the recipient

    每個人都看得到全文。

  • can actually read the entire contents.

    解決方式已廣為人知一段時間了,

  • So, the solution to this has been known for some time,

    還有許多嘗試處理的方法。

  • and there's many attempts to do it.

    最基本的解決方式是加密,

  • The most basic solution is to use encryption,

    道理很簡單。

  • and the idea is quite simple.

    首先,將你的電腦 和電郵伺服器間的連結加密,

  • First, you encrypt the connection

    然後資料擱在伺服器的時候 也要加密資料。

  • between your computer and the email server.

    但會出現一個問題是

  • Then, you also encrypt the data as it sits on the server itself.

    電郵伺服器也有加密金鑰,

  • But there's a problem with this,

    因此你有個超級大鎖, 鑰匙就放在旁邊。

  • and that is, the email servers also hold the encryption keys,

    不只是這樣,所有政府都能依法要求

  • so now you have a really big lock with a key placed right next to it.

    並取得資料的鑰匙,

  • But not only that, any government could lawfully ask for

    而且你完全不會察覺。

  • and get the key to your data,

    我們解決這個問題的方法 其實很簡單,從理論上講,

  • and this is all without you being aware of it.

    你給每個人專屬鑰匙,

  • So the way we fix this problem is actually relatively easy, in principle:

    然後確保伺服器沒有鑰匙。

  • You give everybody their own keys,

    這看起來就像常識,對吧?

  • and then you make sure the server doesn't actually have the keys.

    問題來了, 為何到現在都還做不到?

  • This seems like common sense, right?

    如果我們仔細想想,

  • So the question that comes up is, why hasn't this been done yet?

    會發現當代的網路商業模式

  • Well, if we really think about it,

    其實無法和隱私共存。

  • we see that the business model of the Internet today

    只要看網路上最大的幾個網站,

  • really isn't compatible with privacy.

    你就會發現廣告扮演極大的角色。

  • Just take a look at some of the biggest names on the web,

    事實上,它們光是今年 廣告費就花了 1370 億美元,

  • and you see that advertising plays a huge role.

    為了讓我們看到的廣告 效果發揮最大功效,

  • In fact, this year alone, advertising is 137 billion dollars,

    廠商就要對我們無所不知。

  • and to optimize the ads that are shown to us,

    他們必須知道我們住在哪、

  • companies have to know everything about us.

    年紀多大、喜歡什麼、討厭什麼,

  • They need to know where we live,

    還有他們能得手的所有訊息。

  • how old we are, what we like, what we don't like,

    仔細想想,

  • and anything else they can get their hands on.

    要得到這些訊息的最好方法 其實就是侵犯我們的隱私。

  • And if you think about it,

    所以這些公司才不會給我們隱私。

  • the best way to get this information is really just to invade our privacy.

    如果你想要在網路上擁有隱私,

  • So these companies aren't going to give us our privacy.

    就必須自己挺身而出、去爭取。

  • If we want to have privacy online,

    多年來,談到電子郵件隱私的時候,

  • what we have to do is we've got to go out and get it ourselves.

    解決方式就只有 良好隱私密碼法 (PGP),

  • For many years, when it came to email,

    不僅十分複雜, 而且只有科技達人才會懂。

  • the only solution was something known as PGP,

    這份圖表基本上顯示出

  • which was quite complicated and only accessible to the tech-savvy.

    加密與解密訊息的過程。

  • Here's a diagram that basically shows

    不用說,這個方法不是人人適用,

  • the process for encrypting and decrypting messages.

    而且其實還是問題的一部分,

  • So needless to say, this is not a solution for everybody,

    因為當你思考「溝通」,

  • and this actually is part of the problem,

    定義上來說, 就是要和另一個人溝通。

  • because if you think about communication,

    因此良好隱私密碼法 如期發揮強大功效的同時,

  • by definition, it involves having someone to communicate with.

    對方卻不知道該怎麼使用,

  • So while PGP does a great job of what it's designed to do,

    那麼私下溝通就根本不存在。

  • for the people out there who can't understand how to use it,

    這是我們必須解決的問題。

  • the option to communicate privately simply does not exist.

    如果我們想要在網路上擁有隱私,

  • And this is a problem that we need to solve.

    唯一可行的方法 就是讓全世界都參與,

  • So if we want to have privacy online,

    而唯一可能的方式 就是我們打破入門的藩籬。

  • the only way we can succeed is if we get the whole world on board,

    我想這正是科技界的關鍵挑戰。

  • and this is only possible if we bring down the barrier to entry.

    我們該做的是付出行動, 並讓隱私不再遙不可及。

  • I think this is actually the key challenge that lies in the tech community.

    因此去年夏天, 愛德華.史諾登事件爆發,

  • What we really have to do is work and make privacy more accessible.

    我和幾位同事決定看看 我們能不能讓這件事成真。

  • So last summer, when the Edward Snowden story came out,

    當時我們在歐洲核子研究組織工作,

  • several colleagues and I decided to see if we could make this happen.

    在世界上最大的粒子對撞機裡, 附帶一提,那會撞擊質子。

  • At that time, we were working at the European Organization for Nuclear Research

    我們都是科學家, 所以我們運用自己的科學創造力

  • at the world's largest particle collider, which collides protons, by the way.

    為我們的計畫想出非常有創意的名稱:

  • We were all scientists, so we used our scientific creativity

    質子信箱 (ProtonMail)。 (笑聲)

  • and came up with a very creative name for our project:

    當代許多新創公司 都是從某個人的車庫

  • ProtonMail. (Laughter)

    或地下室起步。

  • Many startups these days actually begin in people's garages

    我們不太一樣。

  • or people's basements.

    我們起步的地方是在 歐洲核子研究組織的自助餐廳,

  • We were a bit different.

    其實這很讚,因為你看,

  • We started out at the CERN cafeteria,

    你想要的食物和水這裡都有。

  • which actually is great, because look,

    而且更棒的是

  • you have all the food and water you could ever want.

    每天中午十二點到下午兩點, 不用收費,就能與

  • But even better than this is that every day

    歐洲核子研究組織自助餐廳裡 幾千個科學家和工程師談話,

  • between 12 p.m. and 2 p.m., free of charge,

    這些人基本上知道所有問題的解答。

  • the CERN cafeteria comes with several thousand scientists and engineers,

    我們就在這樣的環境中開始工作。

  • and these guys basically know the answers to everything.

    其實我們想要做的是將你的電子郵件

  • So it was in this environment that we began working.

    轉變為某種看起來像這樣的東西,

  • What we actually want to do is we want to take your email

    但更重要的是,

  • and turn it into something that looks more like this,

    我們想採取你察覺不到的方式。

  • but more importantly, we want to do it in a way

    要實現這個,

  • that you can't even tell that it's happened.

    我們需要結合科技和設計。

  • So to do this, we actually need a combination of technology

    我們要怎麼做才能做到這樣?

  • and also design.

    不把鑰匙放在伺服器上 大概是個好主意。

  • So how do we go about doing something like this?

    因此我們做的是 在你的電腦上產生加密金鑰,

  • Well, it's probably a good idea not to put the keys on the server.

    不只是一把鑰匙,而是一對鑰匙,

  • So what we do is we generate encryption keys on your computer,

    所以會有一把 RSA 私密金鑰 和一把 RSA 公開金鑰,

  • and we don't generate a single key, but actually a pair of keys,

    這些金鑰都完全相連。

  • so there's an RSA private key and an RSA public key,

    我們來看看多人溝通時的運作過程。

  • and these keys are mathematically connected.

    鮑勃和艾莉絲想要私下聯絡,

  • So let's have a look and see how this works

    關鍵挑戰是如何取得鮑勃的訊息,

  • when multiple people communicate.

    並在交給艾莉絲的過程中, 讓伺服器無法讀取訊息。

  • So here we have Bob and Alice, who want to communicate privately.

    因此我們要做的是加密,

  • So the key challenge is to take Bob's message

    甚至在鮑勃送出前就加密,

  • and to get it to Alice in such a way that the server cannot read that message.

    有個招術是我們用艾莉絲的公鑰加密。

  • So what we have to do is we have to encrypt it

    這份加密資料 透過伺服器送給艾莉絲,

  • before it even leaves Bob's computer,

    因為訊息是用艾莉絲的公鑰加密,

  • and one of the tricks is, we encrypt it using the public key from Alice.

    現在唯一能解密的就是艾莉絲的私鑰,

  • Now this encrypted data is sent through the server to Alice,

    而艾莉絲就是唯一擁有這把鑰匙的人。

  • and because the message was encrypted using Alice's public key,

    所以現在我們已經完成這項目標,

  • the only key that can now decrypt it is a private key that belongs to Alice,

    就是讓訊息在鮑勃 送給艾莉絲的過程中,

  • and it turns out Alice is the only person that actually has this key.

    伺服器無法讀取內容。

  • So we've now accomplished the objective,

    其實我在這裡放的是非常簡化的圖片。

  • which is to get the message from Bob to Alice

    真實情況複雜多了,

  • without the server being able to read what's going on.

    需要很多軟體,看起來有點像這樣。

  • Actually, what I've shown here is a highly simplified picture.

    真正關鍵的設計挑戰在於:

  • The reality is much more complex

    我們如何把這些複雜性和軟體,

  • and it requires a lot of software that looks a bit like this.

    以使用者看不到的方式操作。

  • And that's actually the key design challenge:

    我想在質子信箱上, 我們已經做到非常接近的程度了。

  • How do we take all this complexity, all this software,

    我們來看實務操作的情況。

  • and implement it in a way that the user cannot see it.

    這裡同樣是鮑勃和艾莉絲,

  • I think with ProtonMail, we have gotten pretty close to doing this.

    他們也想要對話有保障。

  • So let's see how it works in practice.

    他們只要在質子信箱上建立帳號,

  • Here, we've got Bob and Alice again,

    很簡單,只要一下子就好了,

  • who also want to communicate securely.

    所有的金鑰加密和產生

  • They simply create accounts on ProtonMail,

    就在鮑勃建立帳號的同時, 會自動在後臺啟動。

  • which is quite simple and takes a few moments,

    帳號建立好後,他只要點選「寫信」,

  • and all the key encryption and generation

    現在他就可以像平常一樣寫信。

  • is happening automatically in the background

    他輸入訊息後,

  • as Bob is creating his account.

    只要再點選「送出」,

  • Once his account is created, he just clicks "compose,"

    就像那樣,不需要了解密碼學,

  • and now he can write his email like he does today.

    只要用和現在完全一樣的方式寫信,

  • So he fills in his information,

    鮑勃就能送出加密訊息。

  • and then after that, all he has to do is click "send,"

    現在這只是第一步,

  • and just like that, without understanding cryptography,

    但是我們就能看到:只要改良科技,

  • and without doing anything different from how he writes email today,

    擁有隱私就不會太難, 也不需要搞破壞。

  • Bob has just sent an encrypted message.

    如果我們改變目標, 將增加廣告收益改為保護資料,

  • What we have here is really just the first step,

    我們就真的能擁有隱私。

  • but it shows that with improving technology,

    我知道每個人心裡都有一個疑問,

  • privacy doesn't have to be difficult, it doesn't have to be disruptive.

    好啦,保護隱私,這是遠大目標,

  • If we change the goal from maximizing ad revenue to protecting data,

    但是沒有廣告給你的大筆收入,

  • we can actually make it accessible.

    你還能不能做到?

  • Now, I know a question on everybody's minds is,

    我想答案是肯定的,

  • okay, protecting privacy, this is a great goal,

    因為現在我們已經做到

  • but can you actually do this

    讓世界各地的人都了解隱私有多重要,

  • without the tons of money that advertisements give you?

    當你擁有了這樣的觀念, 任何事都可能。

  • And I think the answer is actually yes,

    今年初,

  • because today, we've reached a point

    質子信箱的使用者多到 讓我們耗盡資源,

  • where people around the world really understand how important privacy is,

    因此,我們的使用者共同

  • and when you have that, anything is possible.

    捐了五十萬美元。

  • Earlier this year,

    這只是一個案例,讓你看見

  • ProtonMail actually had so many users that we ran out of resources,

    當你帶領社群一起實現共同目標 會有什麼可能。

  • and when this happened, our community of users got together

    我們也能影響世界。

  • and donated half a million dollars.

    現在,

  • So this is just an example of what can happen

    有 25 萬人在質子信箱註冊,

  • when you bring the community together towards a common goal.

    這些人來自世界各地,

  • We can also leverage the world.

    顯示了隱私

  • Right now,

    不只是歐美的議題,

  • we have a quarter of a million people that have signed up for ProtonMail,

    而是影響我們每個人的全球議題。

  • and these people come from everywhere,

    這是我們確實必須關心並實踐的問題。

  • and this really shows that privacy

    那麼我們應該怎麼解決這個問題?

  • is not just an American or a European issue,

    首先,

  • it's a global issue that impacts all of us.

    我們要支持不同的網路商業模式,

  • It's something that we really have to pay attention to going forward.

    支持不完全依賴廣告

  • So what do we have to do to solve this problem?

    收益和成長的模式。

  • Well, first of all,

    我們確實需要建立新網路,

  • we need to support a different business model for the Internet,

    將我們的隱私與管控資料的能力 擺在第一順位的新網路。

  • one that does not rely entirely on advertisements

    但更重要的是

  • for revenue and for growth.

    我們必須建立新網路, 其中隱私不再只是一個選項,

  • We actually need to build a new Internet

    而是預設值。

  • where our privacy and our ability to control our data is first and foremost.

    我們已經用質子信箱完成第一步,

  • But even more importantly,

    但這其實只是漫長旅程的第一步。

  • we have to build an Internet where privacy is no longer just an option

    今天我可以和大家分享的好消息,

  • but is also the default.

    這個讓人興奮的消息是 這條路上我們不孤獨。

  • We have done the first step with ProtonMail,

    保護大眾隱私和網路自由的運動

  • but this is really just the first step in a very, very long journey.

    日益壯大,

  • The good news I can share with you guys today,

    現在世界各地都有許多計畫

  • the exciting news, is that we're not traveling alone.

    共同協助強化我們的隱私。

  • The movement to protect people's privacy and freedom online

    這些計畫保護的範圍 從網路聊天室到語音通話,

  • is really gaining momentum,

    也包含了我們檔案儲存、線上搜尋,

  • and today, there are dozens of projects from all around the world

    線上瀏覽和許多事情。

  • who are working together to improve our privacy.

    這些計畫沒有大筆廣告費贊助,

  • These projects protect things from our chat to voice communications,

    而是確實獲得到大眾支持,

  • also our file storage, our online search,

    就像你我一樣來自 世界各地的個人捐助。

  • our online browsing, and many other things.

    這很重要,因為最終

  • And these projects are not backed by billions of dollars in advertising,

    隱私取決於我們每一個人,

  • but they've found support really from the people,

    我們現在必須保護隱私, 因為我們的線上資料

  • from private individuals like you and I from all over the world.

    不只是 0 和 1 的組合,

  • This really matters, because ultimately,

    重要性遠甚於此。

  • privacy depends on each and every one of us,

    那關乎我們的生命、個人故事、

  • and we have to protect it now because our online data

    我們的朋友、家人,

  • is more than just a collection of ones and zeros.

    在許多方面也和 我們的希望、抱負有關。

  • It's actually a lot more than that.

    現在我們需要花時間 確實保護我們的權利,

  • It's our lives, our personal stories,

    只和我們想分享隱私的對象分享,

  • our friends, our families,

    因為沒有了隱私, 我們就無法擁有自由社會。

  • and in many ways, also our hopes and our aspirations.

    現在我們應該一起站起來說:

  • We need to spend time now to really protect our right

    是的!我們想要生活在 有線上隱私的社會;

  • to share this only with people that we want to share this with,

    是的!我們可以共同合作, 讓願景成真。

  • because without this, we simply can't have a free society.

    謝謝。

  • So now's the time for us to collectively stand up and say,

    (掌聲)

  • yes, we do want to live in a world with online privacy,

  • and yes, we can work together to turn this vision into a reality.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

Twenty-five years ago, scientists at CERN created the World Wide Web.

25 年前,歐洲核子研究組織的科學家 創造了全球資訊網。