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  • In the northwest corner of the United States,

    在美國的西北部

  • right up near the Canadian border,

    鄰近加拿大邊界處

  • there's a little town called Libby, Montana.

    有一個小鎮叫做Libby 位於蒙大拿州

  • And it's surrounded by pine trees and lakes,

    這座小鎮周圍環繞著松樹以及湖泊

  • and just amazing wildlife,

    有著美不勝收的自然風情

  • and these enormous trees that scream up into the sky.

    高聳的林木直上雲霄

  • And in there is a little town called Libby,

    隱於其中的小鎮 就叫做Libby

  • which I visited,

    我曾經到過那裏

  • which feels kind of lonely, a little isolated.

    那是一個帶有孤寂和與世隔絕味道的地方

  • And in Libby, Montana,

    就是在這個小鎮 蒙大拿的Libby鎮

  • there's a rather unusual woman named Gayla Benefield.

    住著一個不平常的女性Gayla Benefield

  • She always felt a little bit of an outsider,

    她總覺得自己與周遭格格不入

  • although she's been there almost all her life,

    即使她大半輩子都住在那

  • a woman of Russian extraction.

    一個有著俄羅斯血統的女子

  • She told me that when she went to school,

    她告訴我當她還在念書時

  • she was the only girl who ever chose to do mechanical drawing.

    她是唯一的女生去選修機械製圖的

  • Later in life, she got a job going house to house

    之後她就在鄰里間工作

  • reading utility meters, gas meters, electricity meters.

    整天對著電表和水表

  • And she was doing the work in the middle of the day.

    有天中午她正工作著

  • And one thing particularly caught her notice, which was,

    有一件不寻常的事情引起她的注意 那就是

  • in the middle of the day, she met a lot of men who were at home,

    在這大白天 她發現有許多男人都待在家中

  • middle-aged, late middle-aged,

    中年或著中老年

  • and a lot of them seemed to be on oxygen tanks.

    而且這些人都帶著氧氣鋼瓶

  • Struck her as strange.

    這讓她覺得相當奇怪

  • Then, a few years later, her father died at the age of 59,

    之後又過了幾年 她的父親在59歲時去世了

  • five days before he was due to receive his pension.

    剛好在他可以領到退休金的五天前

  • "He'd been a miner," she thought,

    "他是個礦工" 她想

  • "he must just have been worn out by the work."

    "他只是被他的工作給消耗殆盡了"

  • But then, a few years later,

    但又過了幾年

  • her mother died,

    她的母親也走了

  • and that seemed stranger still,

    一樣帶點不尋常的味道

  • because her mother came from a long line of people

    因為她的母親來自於一個

  • who just seemed to live forever.

    相當長壽的家族

  • In fact, Gayla's uncle is still alive to this day and learning how to waltz.

    事實上Gayla的舅舅到現在都還活得好好的 正學著如何跳華爾滋

  • It didn't make sense

    這實在沒有道理

  • that Gayla's mother should die so young.

    為什麼Gayla的母親會如此早逝

  • It was an anomaly,

    這不正常

  • and she kept puzzling over those anomalies,

    於是她開始拼湊起不正常的地方

  • and as she did, other ones came to mind.

    當她開始這麼做時 另一件不尋常的事情浮上了她的心頭

  • She remembered, for example, when her mother had broken a leg

    她記得她的母親曾經斷了條腿

  • and went in the hospital, and she had a lot of X-rays.

    那時在醫院時她照了許多X光

  • Two of them were leg X-rays, which made sense,

    有兩張是腿部X光 很正常

  • but six of them were chest X-rays, which didn't.

    但是有六張卻是胸部X光 這就不正常了

  • She puzzled and puzzled over every piece of her life and her parent's life,

    她開始一點一點的拼湊她與她的父母過去一起生活的片段

  • trying to understand what she was seeing.

    試著找出整件事情的全貌

  • She thought about her town.

    她想到了她生活的小鎮

  • The town had a vermiculite mine in it.

    那個小鎮有著一座蛭石礦

  • Vermiculite was used for soil conditioners,

    蛭石在以前被用作土質改良劑

  • to make plants grow faster and better.

    它可以讓作物生長得更快更好

  • Vermiculite was used to insulate lofts;

    蛭石也曾被作為房子的隔溫層

  • huge amounts of it, put under the roof

    大量的蛭石 被充填在屋簷底下

  • to keep houses warm during the long Montana winters.

    為了讓房子內部能保持溫暖 好度過蒙大拿漫長的冬天

  • Vermiculite was in the playground,

    蛭石也被用在戶外遊樂場

  • it was in the football ground, it was in the skating rink.

    在足球場下 在滑冰場內都有蛭石存在

  • What she didn't learn until she started working this problem,

    一開始她並沒有想通 直到她把一切拼湊在一起

  • is vermiculite is a very toxic form of asbestos.

    蛭石也許是一種具有高度毒性的石棉

  • When she figured out the puzzle,

    當她想通這一切

  • she started telling everyone she could.

    她竭盡所能地告訴每一個人

  • What had happened, what had been done to her parents,

    事情的來龍去脈 以及發生在她父母身上的事情

  • and to the people that she saw on oxygen tanks,

    她也告訴那些帶著氧氣鋼瓶的人們

  • at home, in the afternoons.

    家家戶戶 許多個下午

  • But she was really amazed,

    在那個當下 她相當的興奮

  • she thought: "When everybody knows, they will want to do something."

    她這麼想 "如果每個人都知道這件事 那大家一定會希望做點什麼來改變現況"

  • But actually, nobody wanted to know.

    但實際上 沒有人想要了解

  • In fact, she became so annoying, as she kept insisting on telling this story

    甚至她變得不受歡迎 因為她無時無刻都在談論這個話題

  • to her neighbours, to her friends, to other people in the community,

    告訴她的鄰居 她的朋友 社區中的每一個人

  • that eventually, a bunch of them got together, and they made a bumper sticker

    到最後那些人甚至聚在一塊 一起做了一個保險桿貼紙

  • which they proudly displayed on their cars, which said:

    他們高傲的貼在車上到處展示 貼紙上寫著:

  • "Yes, I'm from Libby, Montana, and no, I don't have asbestosis."

    "沒錯 我來自蒙大拿的 Libby鎮 但很抱歉我可沒有什麼石綿問題"

  • But Gayla didn't stop.

    不過 Gayla 仍未放棄

  • She kept doing research.

    她不斷研究這件事情

  • The advent of the Internet definitely helped her.

    網路的普及幫了她大忙

  • She talked to anybody she could.

    她盡可能的跟每一個人討論

  • She argued and argued, and finally she struck lucky

    她費盡口舌 直到幸運來敲門

  • when a researcher came through town studying the history of mines in the area.

    一位學者來到鎮上 他正在研究礦脈的歷史

  • And she told him her story,

    她告訴他整件事情

  • and at first, of course, like everyone, he didn't believe her,

    當然一開始他並不相信她

  • but he went back to Seattle, and he did his own research,

    但是等他回到西雅圖展開他的研究時

  • and he realised that she was right.

    他發現她是對的

  • So, now, she had an ally.

    這一刻起她有了盟友

  • Nevertheless, people still didn't want to know.

    然而人們還是不願去了解

  • They said things like: "Well, if it were really dangerous,

    他們總是說著類似的言語: "如果這真的有那麼危險"

  • someone would have told us."

    "早該有人來告訴大家這件事了"

  • "If that's really why everyone was dying,

    "如果大家真的因此而死"

  • the doctors would have told us."

    "醫生早該跳出來告訴我們了"

  • Some of the guys used to very heavy jobs said:

    一部分已經習慣粗重工作的人說道:

  • "I don't want to be a victim, I can't possibly be a victim,

    "我一點都不想當一個受害者 我才不可能是一個受害者"

  • and anyway, every industry has its accidents."

    "而且不管是什麼工作總會有意外嘛"

  • But still, Gayla went on,

    即使如此Gayla還是堅持著

  • and finally succeeded in getting a federal agency to come to town

    終於她成功的請到聯邦政府部門來到鎮上

  • and to screen the inhabitants of the town,

    來調查小鎮的生活環境

  • 15,000 people.

    15,000個人生活於此

  • And what they discovered

    經調查後他們發現

  • was that the town had a mortality rate

    小鎮的死亡率

  • 80 times higher than anywhere in the United States.

    相較於美國其他地方要高出八十倍

  • That was in 2002,

    那是在2002

  • and even at that moment,

    即使事已至此

  • no one raised their hand to say:

    仍沒有半個人舉起他的手說:

  • "Gayla, look in the playground where your grandchildren are playing.

    "Gayla 看看你的孫兒們正在玩耍的戶外遊戲場"

  • It's lined with vermiculite."

    "地面上鋪滿了蛭石"

  • This wasn't ignorance.

    這已經不是無知了

  • It was willful blindness.

    這是選擇性忽視

  • Willful blindness is a legal concept,

    選擇性忽視是一個法律上的概念

  • which means if there's information that you could know and you should know,

    它的意思是如果有一些訊息是你可以知道並且應該知道的

  • but you somehow manage not to know,

    但你不論因為什麼原因就是不知道

  • the law deems that you are willfully blind,

    那法律上就會將你視為選擇性忽視 (刻意忽視)

  • you have chosen not to know.

    你蓄意不去了解

  • There's a lot of willful blindness around these days.

    近來出現了許多選擇性忽視的例子

  • You can see willful blindness in banks,

    你可以在銀行業中看到選擇性忽視

  • when thousands of people sold mortgages to people who couldn't afford them.

    數以千計的人將抵押貸款放給無力償還者

  • You could see them in banks when interest rates were manipulated,

    利率升降時裡你可以看到這些人坐在銀行裡

  • and everyone around knew what was going on,

    這些人都了解這是怎麼一回事

  • but everyone studiously ignored it.

    但所有人就是固執的不去看

  • You can see willful blindness in the Catholic Church,

    你可以看到選擇性無視發生在天主教堂中

  • where decades of child abuse went ignored.

    數十年來兒童被凌虐的事件不斷發生

  • You could see willful blindness

    你可以看到選擇性無視發生

  • in the run-up to the Iraq war.

    就在愈加激烈的伊拉克戰爭中

  • Willful blindness exists on epic scales like those,

    選擇性無視發生在上述那些著名的事件中

  • and it also exists on very small scales,

    但它也會發生在平凡日常的事件中

  • in people's families, in people's homes and communities,

    在人們的家庭中 房子內以及社區裡

  • and particularly, in organizations and institutions.

    特別是在企業和機構中

  • Companies that had been studied for willful blindness,

    企業一直以來被作為選擇性無視研究的對象

  • can be asked questions like:

    研究過程中可能會問一些問題像是:

  • "Are there issues at work

    "在工作上是否有些議題"

  • that people are afraid to raise?"

    "是人們不敢提出來討論的"

  • And when academics have done studies like these

    當學術機構在做這類調查時

  • of corporations in the United States,

    美國的企業中

  • what they find is 85% of people say yes.

    他們發現有85%的人回答是

  • 85% of people know there's a problem,

    85%的人知道有問題

  • but they won't say anything.

    但他們寧願保持沉默

  • And when I duplicated the research in Europe,

    而當我將同樣的研究拿到歐洲進行時

  • asking all the same questions,

    問的問題完全相同

  • I found exactly the same number,

    我得到不多不少同樣的比例

  • 85%.

    85%

  • That's a lot of silence.

    如此多的人選擇沉默

  • It's a lot of blindness.

    如此大量的刻意無視

  • And what's really interesting

    而真正有趣的是

  • is that when I go to companies in Switzerland, they tell me,

    當我到了瑞士的公司 他們告訴我

  • "This is a uniquely Swiss problem."

    "這是瑞士特有的問題"

  • And when I go to Germany they say,

    當我到了德國 他們說

  • "Oh yes, this is the German disease."

    "對啊 這就是德國的病態"

  • And when I go to companies in England, they say:

    當我到了英國的企業時 他們說

  • "Oh yeah, the British are really bad at this."

    "是啊 英國人在這方面做得真的不好"

  • And the truth is

    但事實上

  • this is a human problem.

    這是人類的問題

  • We're all,

    我們所有人

  • under certain circumstances,

    都處在這樣的問題當中

  • willfully blind.

    選擇性的忽視

  • What the research shows is that some people are blind out of fear,

    研究顯示一部分人選擇無視是因為害怕

  • they're afraid of retaliation,

    他們害怕受到報復

  • and some people are blind because they think:

    另一部分人選擇性無視則是因為他們覺得

  • "Well, seeing anything is just futile, nothing's ever going to change.

    "看出問題一點用都沒有 什麼事都改變不了的"

  • If we make a protest, if we protest against the Iraq war,

    如果我們上街遊行 如果我們抗議伊拉克戰爭

  • nothing changes, so why bother?

    一點用都沒有 那我們為何要如此麻煩?

  • Better not to see this stuff at all."

    最好一開始就眼不見為淨

  • And the recurrent theme that I encounter all the time is people say:

    不斷重複發生的一幕 就是我總是會碰到人們這樣說:

  • "Well you know, the people who do see, they're whistleblowers,

    "你知道的 有些人確實看出了問題 就是那些告密者"

  • and we all know what happens to them."

    "我們都清楚告密的下場"

  • So there's this profound mythology around whistleblowers,

    對於告密者的迷思是如此的根深蒂固

  • which says, first of all, they're all crazy.

    甚至有這樣的說法 告密者全是神經病

  • But what I've found going around the world and talking to whistleblowers

    但是在我走遍世界並與這些告密者談過後 我發現

  • is, actually, they're very loyal

    事實上 他們相當忠誠

  • and quite often, very conservative people.

    並且通常是相當保守謹慎的人

  • They're hugely dedicated to the institutions that they work for,

    他們全心全意地投身於他們工作的機構

  • and the reason that they speak up, the reason they insist on seeing,

    他們無法視而不見的原因

  • is because they care so much about the institution

    是因為他們實在太在乎他們所在的團體

  • and want to keep it healthy.

    他們希望團體能穩定向上

  • And the other thing that people often say about whistleblowers

    還有一些人們常套在告密者身上的說法

  • is: "Well, there's no point

    像是 "嘿 沒必要這樣好嗎"

  • because you see what happens to them,

    "你知道告密者的下場的"

  • they're crushed, they're destroyed.

    "他們被摧毀了 他們體無完膚"

  • Nobody would want to go through something like that."

    "沒有人想跟他們落得同樣下場"

  • And yet, when I talk to whistleblowers,

    然而當我與告密者們談過後

  • the recurrent tone that I hear, is pride.

    我不斷看到同一種神情 那就是自豪

  • I think of Joe Darby.

    我想到Joe Darby

  • We all remember the photographs of Abu Ghraib,

    我們都還記得 Abu Ghraib 拍下的照片

  • which so shocked the world

    那些震驚世界的照片

  • and showed the kind of war that was being fought in Iraq.

    告訴我們正在伊拉克進行的是怎樣的一場戰爭

  • But I wonder who remembers Joe Darby,

    但我不禁懷疑誰還記得Joe Darby

  • the very obedient, good soldier

    那個十分服從的好士兵

  • who found those photographs

    是他發現了那些照片

  • and handed them in.

    並將那些照片上呈

  • And he said:

    他說

  • "You know, I'm not the kind of guy to rat people out,

    "其實我並不是那種會打小報告的人"

  • but some things just cross the line.

    "但有些事情已經太超過"

  • Ignorance is bliss, they say,

    "無知是一種幸福 人們如此說"

  • but you can't put up with things like this."

    "但你絕對無法對這樣的事情視而不見"

  • I talked to Steve Bolsin, a British doctor,

    我和Steve Bolsin談過 他是一位英國醫生

  • who fought for five years

    他奮鬥了整整五年

  • to draw attention to a dangerous surgeon

    使人們認識到一種帶有危險性的手術

  • who was killing babies.

    那種手術可能會導致嬰兒死亡

  • And I asked him why he did it, and he said:

    當我問他為什麼要這麼做 他回答

  • "Well, it was really my daughter who prompted me to do it.

    "其實是我的女兒促使我這麼做的"

  • She came up to me one night and she just said:

    "有一天晚上她跑來跟我說"

  • "Dad, you can't let the kids die."

    "爸 你不能讓那些孩子死去"

  • Or I think of Cynthia Thomas,

    我又想到一個例子 Cynthia Thomas

  • a really loyal army daughter and army wife,

    一位忠誠的軍人兼女兒 也是軍人兼妻子

  • who, as she saw her friends and relations coming back from the Iraq war,

    當她迎接從伊拉克戰場上歸來的親友們回歸家鄉時

  • was so shocked by their mental condition,

    她對他們的精神狀況感到震驚

  • and the refusal of the military to recognise and acknowledge

    軍方卻拒絕承認這樣的事情存在

  • Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome,

    PTSD 創傷後壓力症候群

  • that she set up a café

    於是她創立了一間咖啡店

  • in the middle of a military town

    就在鄰近軍營的城鎮中

  • to give them legal, psychological, and medical assistance.

    只為了給予那些軍人合法的 心理上的以及醫療上的援助

  • And she said to me:

    她這樣告訴我

  • "You know Margaret, I always used to say

    "你知道的Margaret 過去的我總是這樣說"

  • I didn't know what I wanted to be when I grow up,

    "我不知道我將來長大後要做些什麼"

  • but I found myself in this course

    "但在我現在做的事情中 我找到了自己 "

  • and I'll never be the same."

    "我已經和過去大不相同"

  • We all enjoy so many freedoms today,

    現在的我們都享有許多自由

  • hard-won freedoms:

    得來不易的自由

  • the freedom to write and publish without fear of censorship,

    可以盡情書寫出版而不需要擔心被監控的自由

  • a freedom that wasn't here the last time I came to Hungary.

    一項在我上次到匈牙利這裡時 還未存在的自由

  • A freedom to vote,

    投票的自由

  • which women in particular had to fight so hard for.

    那是許多女性努力爭取的自由

  • The freedom for people of different ethnicities,

    人們應得的自由 即便是不同種族

  • and cultures, and sexual orientation,

    不同文化 以及不同性向

  • to live the way that they want.

    都有權過他們想要過的生活

  • But freedom doesn't exist,

    但自由並不會憑空出現

  • if you don't use it.

    如果你不使用它

  • And what whistleblowers do,

    而這些告密者們做的

  • and what people like Gayla Benefield do,

    Gayla Benefield 這一類人所做的

  • is they use the freedom that they have.

    正是使用他們所擁有的自由

  • And what they're very prepared to do

    他們都已經做好準備

  • is recognize that "yes, this is going to be an argument,

    他們知道即將發生的事情 "沒錯 這會引起爭論"

  • and yes, I'm going to have a lot of rouse

    "但是我仍要試著喚醒這些人"

  • with my neighbours and my colleagues and my friends.

    "包括我的鄰居 我的同事以及我的朋友"

  • But I'm going to become very good at this conflict.

    "但我會在這場爭論中逐漸取得贏面"

  • I'm going to take on the naysayers

    "我會接受那些拒絕承認問題存在的人的挑戰"

  • because they'll make my argument better and stronger.

    "因為他們只會使我的論點變得更完美更穩固"

  • I can collaborate with my opponents

    "我甚至可以和那些反對者合作"

  • to become better at what I do."

    "只為了能做得更多"

  • These are people of immense persistence,

    這些人都有著堅忍不拔的特質

  • incredible patience,

    無與倫比的耐性

  • and an absolute determination

    以及豪不動搖的決心

  • not to be blind

    拒絕視而不見

  • and not to be silent.

    拒絕沉默以對