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  • When I wrote my memoir,

    我在寫我的回憶錄時,

  • the publishers were really confused.

    出版商都覺得很困惑。

  • Was it about me as a child refugee,

    他們不確定這本書 是要談我童年的難民故事,

  • or as a woman who set up a high-tech software company back in the 1960s,

    是要談一個女人如何在 60 年代 創辦一家高科技軟體公司,

  • one that went public

    公開上市,

  • and eventually employed over 8,500 people?

    並聘用超過 8500 名員工?

  • Or was it as a mother of an autistic child?

    是要談自閉症小孩母親的心路歷程?

  • Or as a philanthropist that's now given away serious money?

    又或是談一個慈善家為何捐出大把家產?

  • Well, it turns out, I'm all of these.

    結果是以上皆是。

  • So let me tell you my story.

    現在就讓我來談談我的故事。

  • All that I am stems from when I got onto a train in Vienna,

    一切都得從我在維也納 跳上一班火車開始,

  • part of the Kindertransport that saved nearly 10,000 Jewish children

    那班火車是孩童援救計劃之一, 從納粹佔領的歐洲拯救了

  • from Nazi Europe.

    近一萬名猶太兒童。

  • I was five years old, clutching the hand of my nine-year-old sister

    我那時候五歲,緊緊抓著我九歲姊姊的手。

  • and had very little idea as to what was going on.

    我根本不知道發生什麼事。

  • "What is England and why am I going there?"

    「什麼是英國?為什麼要去哪裡?」

  • I'm only alive because so long ago, I was helped by generous strangers.

    我之所以能存活,是因為很久以前 我受到慷慨陌生人的幫助。

  • I was lucky, and doubly lucky to be later reunited

    我很幸運,超級幸運,

  • with my birth parents.

    才能在日後與我的親生父母重聚。

  • But, sadly, I never bonded with them again.

    但難過的是,我們之間 沒辦法再建立緊密的親情聯結。

  • But I've done more in the seven decades since that miserable day

    從那苦難日,我媽媽把我送上火車之後,

  • when my mother put me on the train

    70 年來,我做過很多事情,

  • than I would ever have dreamed possible.

    遠遠超過我的想像。

  • And I love England, my adopted country,

    我喜愛英國,這個接納我的國家。

  • with a passion that perhaps only someone who has lost their human rights can feel.

    這種熱愛, 或許只有喪失過人權的人才能感受。

  • I decided to make mine a life that was worth saving.

    我決定讓我的人生有意義, 才能回報救過我的人,

  • And then, I just got on with it.

    誰知道後來有點欲罷不能。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Let me take you back to the early 1960s.

    讓我從 1960 年代早期開始講起。

  • To get past the gender issues of the time,

    因為當時有性別歧視的問題,

  • I set up my own software house at one of the first such startups in Britain.

    我成立了自己的軟體公司。 英國第一批軟體公司之一。

  • But it was also a company of women, a company for women,

    這家公司只有女性員工, 提供女性就業機會,

  • an early social business.

    算是早期的社會企業。

  • And people laughed at the very idea because software, at that time,

    人們覺得這種作法很可笑,因為當時

  • was given away free with hardware.

    軟體是隨硬體贈送的產品。

  • Nobody would buy software, certainly not from a woman.

    沒有人會買軟體, 當然更不會跟婦女買。

  • Although women were then coming out of the universities with decent degrees,

    雖然當時婦女開始取得體面的大學學歷,

  • there was a glass ceiling to our progress.

    玻璃天花板對婦女的職業生涯 仍是一道無形阻隔。

  • And I'd hit that glass ceiling too often,

    我自己也不斷面臨這無形的障礙,

  • and I wanted opportunities for women.

    所以我想提供女性工作機會。

  • I recruited professionally qualified women who'd left the industry on marriage,

    我招募專業且能力優秀, 卻因為結婚而離職的女性,

  • or when their first child was expected

    或是因為懷孕生子而離職的女性,

  • and structured them into a home-working organization.

    讓婦女可以在家完成工作。

  • We pioneered the concept of women going back into the workforce

    我們用前瞻性的想法讓女性在職業中斷後,

  • after a career break.

    可以再回到工作崗位。

  • We pioneered all sorts of new, flexible work methods:

    我們提倡各類新穎、靈活的工作方法:

  • job shares, profit-sharing, and eventually, co-ownership

    工作分擔,利潤分紅, 員工進而成為公司的股東。

  • when I took a quarter of the company into the hands of the staff

    我將公司股權的四分之一

  • at no cost to anyone but me.

    無償交給除了我之外的員工。

  • For years, I was the first woman this, or the only woman that.

    多年來,我是第一位 也是唯一這麼做的女性。

  • And in those days, I couldn't work on the stock exchange,

    當時,我無法在證券交易所工作,

  • I couldn't drive a bus or fly an airplane.

    我不能開巴士或是開飛機。

  • Indeed, I couldn't open a bank account without my husband's permission.

    甚至沒有我老公的同意, 我就不能開立銀行帳號。

  • My generation of women fought the battles for the right to work

    我們這個年代的女性為工作權,

  • and the right for equal pay.

    為薪資平等權而奮戰。

  • Nobody really expected much from people at work or in society

    當時沒有人在工作職場或社會上 對女性有很高的期望

  • because all the expectations then

    因為當時對女性的期待是

  • were about home and family responsibilities.

    家務和家庭責任。

  • And I couldn't really face that,

    我實在無法接受這樣的現況,

  • so I started to challenge the conventions of the time,

    因此我開始挑戰當時的傳統,

  • even to the extent of changing my name from "Stephanie" to "Steve"

    甚至在商務書信上,

  • in my business development letters,

    將我的名字由「斯蒂芬妮」改為「史蒂夫」,

  • so as to get through the door before anyone realized

    在有人發現我是女非男之前,

  • that he was a she.

    就先打開商業交易的大門。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • My company, called Freelance Programmers, and that's precisely what it was,

    我的公司名稱是「自由程式設計者」, 這實在是名符其實。

  • couldn't have started smaller: on the dining room table,

    我創業的地點小到不能再小, 從我的餐桌開始

  • and financed by the equivalent of 100 dollars in today's terms,

    創業資金相當於今天的 100 美元。

  • and financed by my labor and by borrowing against the house.

    這資金是我工作膁來的錢, 再加上房子的抵押貸款

  • My interests were scientific, the market was commercial --

    我的興趣是科學技術, 但要有市場就要懂商 --

  • things such as payroll, which I found rather boring.

    像薪資之類的事情,我覺得相當無聊。

  • So I had to compromise with operational research work,

    但我必須在研發工作上讓步,

  • which had the intellectual challenge that interested me

    在我有興趣,充滿智力挑戰的工作上讓步,

  • and the commercial value that was valued by the clients:

    轉而了解客戶所重視的商業價值:

  • things like scheduling freight trains,

    如安排貨運火車、

  • time-tabling buses, stock control, lots and lots of stock control.

    了解巴士時刻表、控制庫存量, 許多的庫存管理工作。

  • And eventually, the work came in.

    最後我們終於接到訂單。

  • We disguised the domestic and part-time nature of the staff

    我們以產品固定價格來掩飾 我們是在家創業的小公司,

  • by offering fixed prices, one of the very first to do so.

    而且員工都是兼職, 我們首創固定價格的先例。

  • And who would have guessed that the programming

    有誰會想到

  • of the black box flight recorder of Supersonic Concord

    協和號超音速客機的 飛行記錄黑盒子的程式

  • would have been done by a bunch of women working in their own homes.

    是由一群在家工作的女性所設計。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • All we used was a simple "trust the staff" approach

    我們的作法很簡單,就是「相信員工」

  • and a simple telephone.

    加上一台普通的電話。

  • We even used to ask job applicants, "Do you have access to a telephone?"

    我們甚至問求職者, 「你有電話可以用嗎?」

  • An early project was to develop software standards

    早期的專案是發展管理控制協議的

  • on management control protocols.

    軟體標準。

  • And software was and still is a maddeningly hard-to-control activity,

    軟體一直是難以控制到令人發狂的東西,

  • so that was enormously valuable.

    因此極有價值。

  • We used the standards ourselves,

    我們的程式碼使用自己的軟體標準,

  • we were even paid to update them over the years,

    多年來我們收取軟體更新服務費,

  • and eventually, they were adopted by NATO.

    後來,北大西洋公約組織採用這套軟體標準

  • Our programmers -- remember, only women,

    我們的程式設計師 -- 別忘了,她們全是女性,

  • including gay and transgender --

    包括同性戀和變性人--

  • worked with pencil and paper to develop flowcharts

    以紙筆設計程式流程圖

  • defining each task to be done.

    來定義每項必項完成的任務。

  • And they then wrote code, usually machine code,

    接著寫程式碼,通常是寫機械碼,

  • sometimes binary code,

    有時寫二進制編碼,

  • which was then sent by mail to a data center

    以郵件寄到資料中心,

  • to be punched onto paper tape or card

    把程式碼打在紙帶或卡片上 以便讓計算機讀取該程式碼

  • and then re-punched, in order to verify it.

    然後再打一次程式碼在卡片上, 以確保所輸入的程式碼是正確的。

  • All this, before it ever got near a computer.

    這些都是電腦出現以前的做法。

  • That was programming in the early 1960s.

    這是 1960 年代編寫程式碼的方式。

  • In 1975, 13 years from startup,

    1975 年,公司創立後第 13 年,

  • equal opportunity legislation came in in Britain

    英國通過就業機會平等法規,

  • and that made it illegal to have our pro-female policies.

    我們再也不能只僱用女性。

  • And as an example of unintended consequences,

    所以發生一個料想不到的結果,

  • my female company had to let the men in.

    我們這家女性公司,不得不聘用男性。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • When I started my company of women,

    當我開始創立我的女性公司時,

  • the men said, "How interesting, because it only works because it's small."

    男人的回應是,真有趣, 這公司能持續運作,是因為規模小。

  • And later, as it became sizable, they accepted, "Yes, it is sizable now,

    後來,當公司愈來愈有規模, 他們又說,是啊!是有點規模,

  • but of no strategic interest."

    但是毫無戰略利益

  • And later, when it was a company valued at over three billion dollars,

    後來,當公司市值超過 30 億美金

  • and I'd made 70 of the staff into millionaires,

    而且我的 70 位員工都成為百萬富翁,

  • they sort of said, "Well done, Steve!"

    他們有點不情不願地說: 「幹得好,史蒂夫!」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • You can always tell ambitious women by the shape of our heads:

    你可以依頭型分辨出有野心的女人:

  • They're flat on top for being patted patronizingly.

    她們頭是平的, 因為不時要屈尊俯就讓人拍打。

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    (笑聲)(掌聲)

  • And we have larger feet to stand away from the kitchen sink.

    我們有較大的腳丫子 讓我們可以走出廚房。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Let me share with you two secrets of success:

    我跟各位分享成功的二個秘密:

  • Surround yourself with first-class people and people that you like;

    跟優秀且你喜歡的人一起合作;

  • and choose your partner very, very carefully.

    及小心謹慎地選擇合作夥伴。

  • Because the other day when I said, "My husband's an angel,"

    幾天前,我說「我的老公是天使,」

  • a woman complained -- "You're lucky," she said,

    有個女人抱怨道,「你真幸運,」

  • "mine's still alive."

    「我的老公還活著。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • If success were easy, we'd all be millionaires.

    如果成功垂手可得, 那我們都會是百萬富翁。

  • But in my case, it came in the midst of family trauma and indeed, crisis.

    就我而言,我的成功 夾雜著家庭創傷和危機。

  • Our late son, Giles, was an only child, a beautiful, contented baby.

    我已過世的獨子賈爾斯 是一個美麗,隨遇而安的小孩。

  • And then, at two and a half,

    在他二歲半的時候,

  • like a changeling in a fairy story,

    像是童話故事裡被仙女偷換的小孩,

  • he lost the little speech that he had

    他不再說話

  • and turned into a wild, unmanageable toddler.

    變成一個任性、不聽話的小孩。

  • Not the terrible twos;

    他不是一般可怕的兩歲小孩;

  • he was profoundly autistic and he never spoke again.

    他有嚴重的自閉症, 而且從此不再開口說話。

  • Giles was the first resident in the first house of the first charity that I set up

    我為自閉症患者設立了第一所慈善機構

  • to pioneer services for autism.

    賈爾斯是第一位入住者。

  • And then there's been a groundbreaking Prior's Court school

    後來我們還開創先例為自閉症孩童

  • for pupils with autism

    設立特殊學校,

  • and a medical research charity, again, all for autism.

    同時也為自閉症患者成立醫療研究慈善機構。

  • Because whenever I found a gap in services, I tried to help.

    只要我發現有服務不足的地方 我就會盡力幫忙。

  • I like doing new things and making new things happen.

    我喜歡創新並實現創新的想法。

  • And I've just started a three-year think tank for autism.

    我最近剛為自閉患者成立了一個為期三年的智囊團。

  • And so that some of my wealth does go back to the industry from which it stems,

    我把一些財富回饋給社會,

  • I've also founded the Oxford Internet Institute

    我也成立牛津網路研究所

  • and other IT ventures.

    投資其他資訊科技創投產業。

  • The Oxford Internet Institute focuses not on the technology,

    牛津網路研究所不只關注科技議題,

  • but on the social, economic, legal and ethical issues of the Internet.

    也關注網路上社會、經濟、法律以及道德議題。

  • Giles died unexpectedly 17 years ago now.

    17 年前,賈爾斯意外過世。

  • And I have learned to live without him,

    我已學會習慣沒有他在身邊的日子,

  • and I have learned to live without his need of me.

    我學會習慣他不再需要我的的日子。

  • Philanthropy is all that I do now.

    現在我把重心放在慈善事業上。

  • I need never worry about getting lost

    我從不會擔心迷路

  • because several charities would quickly come and find me.

    因為有許多慈善機構很快就會找到我。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • It's one thing to have an idea for an enterprise,

    有創業的想法是一回事,

  • but as many people in this room will know,

    但在座的各位也知道,

  • making it happen is a very difficult thing

    要實現想法是件很困難的事

  • and it demands extraordinary energy, self-belief and determination,

    我們需要超乎常人的精力, 要有自信和決心,

  • the courage to risk family and home,

    承擔家庭問題風險的勇氣,

  • and a 24/7 commitment that borders on the obsessive.

    全年無休地獻身在自己的事業上。

  • So it's just as well that I'm a workaholic.

    所以幸好我是個工作狂。

  • I believe in the beauty of work when we do it properly and in humility.

    我相信工作的美好 只要我們能以正確和謙卑的心將工作做好。

  • Work is not just something I do when I'd rather be doing something else.

    工作並不是你不能不忍受的某件事

  • We live our lives forward.

    生活要往前看。

  • So what has all that taught me?

    所以,我的這些經歷經教了我什麼?

  • I learned that tomorrow's never going to be like today,

    我學到明天將不同於今日,

  • and certainly nothing like yesterday.

    當然也不會跟昨天一樣。

  • And that made me able to cope with change,

    這樣的觀念幫助我應付所有的變化,

  • indeed, eventually to welcome change,

    最後甚至擁抱改變,

  • though I'm told I'm still very difficult.

    雖然有人說,我還是很固執

  • Thank you very much.

    謝謝各位。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

When I wrote my memoir,

我在寫我的回憶錄時,

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 TED 女性 程式碼 軟體 公司 工作

【TED】黛姆·斯蒂芬妮·雪莉: 為什麼有野心的女性,頭頂是平的? (Dame Stephanie Shirley: Why do ambitious women have flat heads?)

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    CUChou 發佈於 2015 年 06 月 29 日
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