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  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • [Ted N' Ed's Carnival; open daily - all day long; Yew Chube Common - Entrance off the Google highway]

    [Ted N' Ed 的嘉年華會;每日開放 – 開放一整天;Yew Chube Common – Google 高速道路入口]

  • [John Lloyd's Inventory of the Invisible]

    [John Lloyd 隱形物的清單]

  • [Adapted from a TEDTalk given by John Lloyd in 2009]

    [改編自 2009 年John Lloyd 的TED 演說]

  • Now our next speaker has spent his whole career eliciting that sense of wonder.

    我們接下來的講者已經用他一整個 職業生涯探索這種奇妙的感覺,

  • Please welcome John Lloyd. (Applause)

    請歡迎 John Lloyd。(掌聲)

  • Question is: what is invisible?

    問題是: 什麼是那不可見之物?

  • There's more of it than you think, actually.

    事實上,在你可以想見的之外 還存在許多物質。

  • Everything, I would say -- everything that matters --

    一切,我會說,一切有關的物質,

  • Except every thing, and except matter.

    除了每個物質,以及,除了物質。

  • We can see matter

    我們可以看到問題,

  • but we can't see what's the matter.

    但我們不能看到關聯著這問題的是什麼,

  • We can see the stars and the planets but we can't see what holds them apart,

    我們可以可以見到恒星與行星, 但我們看不到是什麽使它們互相分隔,

  • or what draws them together.

    或者是什麼吸引它們在一起。

  • With matter as with people, we see only the skin of things,

    物質如同人類,我們只能看到表像,

  • we can't see into the engine room, we can't see what makes people tick,

    我們不能進入引擎室,我們看不到 關聯著人一舉一動之物是什麽,

  • at least not without difficulty,

    至少,這很困難,

  • and the closer we look at anything,

    當我們愈是近看所有一切,

  • the more it disappears.

    這一切消失地愈多。

  • In fact, if you look really closely at stuff, if you look at the basic substructure of matter,

    事實上,如果你真的密切注視一物, 如果你看看物質的基本構造,

  • there isn't anything there. Electrons disappear in a kind of fuzz, and there is only energy.

    那兒空無一物。電子會消失,只剩下能量。

  • One of the interesting things about invisibility is the things that we can's see,

    關於隱形之物的趣事 就是,我們若無法看到

  • we also can't understand.

    我們便無從理解。

  • Gravity is one thing that we can't see, and which we don't understand.

    重力即是如此,我們看不到它, 我們對它便一無所悉,

  • It's the least understood of all the four fundamental forces,

    它是所有四種基本力中最神秘的、

  • and the weakest, and nobody really knows what it is or why it's there.

    也是最弱的,並沒有人真正 知道它是什麼,或者它為何如此。

  • For what it's worth, Sir Isaac Newton, the greatest scientist who ever lived,

    信不信由你,最偉大的科學家以撒·牛頓爵士認為

  • he thought Jesus came to earth specifically to operate the levers of gravity.

    耶穌就是特地為了 操縱重力杠杆而來到地球的。

  • That's what he thought he was there for.

    那是他認為他在那兒的原因。

  • So, bright guy, could be wrong on that one, I don't know. (Laughter)

    所以,聰明的傢伙,可能 也會出錯,我不知道。(笑聲)

  • Consciousness. I see all your faces; I've no idea what any of you are thinking.

    意識。我看到你們的臉 , 卻不知道你們在想什麼。

  • Isn't that amazing? Isn't it incredible that we can't read each other's minds,

    我們無法讀取對方的心思, 那不是很棒、很妙的事嗎?

  • when we can touch each other, taste each other, perhaps, if we get close enough, but we can't read each other's minds.

    我們可以彼此接觸,嗯,或者, 品嘗彼此,在我們很接近彼此的時候, 但我們仍然無法閱讀對方的想法。

  • I find that quite astonishing.

    我覺得這相當奇特。

  • In the Sufi faith, this great Middle Eastern religion which some claim is the root of all religions,

    在蘇菲的信仰中,在這個偉大的、 被認為是所有宗教的根的中東宗教中,

  • Sufi masters are all telepaths, so they say,

    蘇菲的所有大師們都熟稔讀心術,於是他們說,

  • but their main exercise of telepathy is to send out powerful signals to the rest of us that it doesn't exist.

    他們主要行使的心靈感應能力 是發出強而有力的信號, 對我們剩下的所有不存在的人,

  • So that's why we don't think it exists; the Sufi masters working on us.

    這就是為什麼我們不覺得它存在; 我們不覺得蘇菲派大師對我們曾經做過努力。

  • In the question of consciousness and artificial intelligence,

    關於意識和人工智慧技術的問題,

  • artificial intelligence has really, like the study of consciousness,

    人工智慧真的就如同意識的研究,

  • gotten nowhere, we have no idea how consciousness works.

    我們毫無進展,我們仍然 不知道意識是如何運作的,

  • Not only have they not created artificial intelligence,

    他們不僅沒有創建人工智慧,

  • they haven't yet created artificial stupidity.

    他們也還沒造出人工愚蠢。

  • The laws of physics: invisible, eternal, omnipresent, all powerful.

    物理定律: 隱形之物,永恆,無所不在,無上至高的力量。

  • Remind you of anyone?

    這讓你想起誰嗎?

  • Interesting. I'm, as you can guess, not a materialist, I'm an immaterialist.

    有趣。如同你所猜到的,我不是 唯物主義者,我是一個非唯物主義者,

  • And I find a very useful new word -- ignostic. Okay? I'm an ignostic, [God?]

    而且我發現一個非常有用的新詞:不可知論者 (ignostic)。好嗎?我是不可知論者,[神?]

  • I refuse to be drawn on the question on whether God exists

    在有人正確地定義這個術語前,

  • until somebody properly defines the terms.

    我拒絕牽扯任何關於上帝存在與否的問題。

  • Another thing we can't see is the human genome.

    我們不能看到的另一件事,是人類基因組。

  • And this is increasingly peculiar, because about 20 years ago

    這變得越來越奇怪,因為大約 20 年前

  • when they started delving into the genome, they thought it would probably contain

    當他們開始探究基因圖譜時, 他們以為它可能會包含

  • around 100 thousand genes. Every year since,

    大約 10 萬個基因。打從那時開始,

  • it's been revised downwards. We now think there are likely to be just over 20 thousand genes

    每年它都被調低。現在我們認為, 在人類基因組中,可能恰恰包含了

  • in the human genome.

    二萬多一點點的基因。

  • This is extraordinary, because rice -- get this --

    這是相當非凡的,因為稻米,看看這,

  • rice is known to have 38 thousand genes.

    我們已知稻米含有三萬八千個基因,

  • Potatoes -- potatoes have 48 chromosomes, two more than people,

    馬鈴薯:馬鈴薯擁有 48 對染色體,比人多兩個,

  • and the same as a gorilla. (Laughter)

    但和一隻大猩猩相同。(笑聲)

  • You can't see these things, but they are very strange.

    你無法看到這些東西,但它們都很奇怪。

  • The stars by day, I always think that's fascinating.

    白天的星星,我總為之著迷。

  • The universe disappears. The more light there is, the less you can see.

    宇宙會消失。你看到的光越多, 你能夠見到的物質卻越少。

  • Time. Nobody can see time.

    時間。沒有人能夠看到時間。

  • I don't know if you know this. Modern physicists -- there's a big movement in modern physics

    我不知道是否你知道這點。現代物理學家 — — 有個現代物理學中的大運動

  • to decide that time doesn't really exist, because it's too inconvenient for the figures.

    確定時間並不真的存在, 因為它對數字來說太不方便了。

  • It's much easier if it's not really there.

    如果它並不真的存在,這便容易多了。

  • You can't see the future, obviously,

    很明顯,你見不到未來,

  • and you can't see the past, except in your memory.

    你也看不到過去,除了在你的記憶之中。

  • One of the interesting things about the past is you particularly can't see --

    關於過去的一個很有趣的事情之一, 就是你特別看不見 — —

  • my son asked me this the other day, he said Dad, can you remember what I was like when I was two?

    有天,我兒子問我說: 爸爸, 你還記得我兩歲時是什麼樣子嗎?

  • And I said yes. He said, why can't I?

    我說我記得。他問,為什麼我不能呢?

  • Isn't that extraordinary? You cannot remember what happened to you earlier than the age of two or three.

    這難道不奇特嗎?你無法 記得在你兩三歲之前所發生的事,

  • Which is great news for psychoanalysts, because otherwise they'd be out of a job.

    這對精神分析師們來說是個好消息, 因為,倘若真如此,他們會失去工作。

  • Because that's where all the stuff happens [laughter]

    因為那正是讓你成為你的時刻,

  • that makes you who you are.

    所有事物發生的時候 [笑]。

  • Another thing you can't see is the grid on which we hang.

    另一件你們看不到的 是我們所依附的網格。

  • This is fascinating. You probably know, some of you, that cells are continually renewed.

    這很令人著迷。你可能知道, 你們一些人當中的細胞不斷會更新。

  • Skin flakes off, hairs grow, nails, that kind of stuff --

    皮膚剝落,毛髮生長,指甲,這種東西 — —

  • but every cell in your body is replaced at some point.

    但在你的身體裡的每個細胞 在某些時候將會被替換

  • Taste buds, every 10 days or so.

    味蕾,每隔十天左右換一次,

  • Livers and internal organs take a bit longer.

    肝臟和其他內部器官的時間略長。

  • Spine takes several years.

    脊椎會需要幾年時間,

  • But at the end of seven years, not one cell in your body

    但七年後,在你的身體裡,沒有一個細胞

  • remains from what was there seven years ago.

    仍然和七年前一樣。

  • The question is: who then are we? What are we? What is this thing that we hang on?

    問題是: 然後我們又是誰呢? 我們是什麼?那維繫著我們的東西是什麼?

  • That is actually us?

    這實際上是我們嗎?

  • Atoms, can't see them. Nobody ever will. They're smaller than the wavelength of light.

    原子,我們看不到它們。 沒人看得到。它們比光的波長小得多。

  • Gas, can't see that. Interesting, somebody mentioned 1600 recently.

    瓦斯,我們看不到。這很有趣, 最近,在1600 年時有人提到它,

  • Gas was invented in 1600 by a Dutch chemist called Van Helmont.

    瓦斯是由荷蘭化學家 范•海爾蒙特在1600 年所發明的,

  • It's said to be the most successful ever invention of a word by a known individual.

    它被認為是最成功的 一個已知的個人所發明的字。

  • Quite good. He also invented a word called blas, meaning astral radiation.

    非常不錯。他還發明了一個 叫 blas 的字,意思是星的輻射。

  • Didn't catch on, unfortunately. (Laughter)

    不幸的是,沒抓到神韻。(笑聲)

  • But well done, Him. Light -- you can't see light.

    但他做得好。光 — — 你不能看見光。

  • When it's dark, in a vacuum, if a person shines a beam of light straight across your eyes, you won't see it.

    在黑暗的情況下,在真空中, 如果一個人在你的眼前 閃耀一束光,你看不到它。

  • Slightly technical, some physicists will disagree with this. But it's odd that you can't see the beam of light,

    更技術性地說,有些物理學家不會贊同這。 不過奇怪的是,你不能看見這束光,

  • you can only see what it hits.

    你只能看到它所擊中的東西。

  • Electricity, can't see that. Don't let anyone tell you they understand electricity, they don't.

    電力,你們看不到。別讓人 告訴你他們瞭解電力了,他們不。

  • Nobody knows what it is. (Laughter) You probably think the electrons in an electric wire move instantaneously

    沒有人知道它是什麼。(笑聲)你們可能認為,

  • down a wire, don't you, at the speed of light, when you turn the light on.

    當你打開燈時,電子在電線中 以光的速度瞬間移動,不是嗎?

  • They don't. Electrons bumble down the wire, about the speed of spreading honey, they say.

    不。他們說,電子遲緩如蜂蜜流淌。

  • Galaxies -- hundred billion of them, estimated in the universe. Hundred billion.

    銀河。他們估計宇宙有一千億個星系。一千億。

  • How many can we see? Five. Five, out of a hundred billion galaxies, with the naked eye.

    我們可以看到的有幾個?五個。 一千億星系中的五個,用肉眼。

  • And one of them's quite difficult to see, unless you've got very good eyesight.

    而其中一個是很難看得到的, 除非你有很好的視力。

  • Radio waves. There's another thing. Heinrich Hertz, when he discovered radio waves,

    無線電波。還有一件事。海因裡希 · 赫茲, 當他在 1887 年發現無線電波時,

  • in 1887, he called them radio waves because they radiated.

    他把它們稱為無線電波,因為它們以輻射樣貌傳遞。

  • Somebody said to him, well what's the point of these, Heinrich? What's the point of these radio waves

    有人對他說,嗯,海因裡希,這有什麼用處? 這些你所發現的無線電波有啥用途?

  • that you've found? And he said, well I've no idea, but I guess somebody'll find a use for them someday.

    他說,嗯,我也不知道,但我猜 有一天會有人知道怎麼使用它們。

  • The biggest thing that's invisible to us is what we don't know.

    我們所看不到的最大的東西 是那些我們所不知道的事物。

  • It is incredible how little we know.

    我們所知甚少,這真是令人難以置信。

  • Thomas Edison once said we don't know one percent of one millionth about anything.

    湯瑪斯 · 愛迪生曾說過, 我們只知道任何百萬事物之中的 1%。

  • And I've come to the conclusion --

    我的結論是 — —

  • because you ask this other question: what's another thing we can't see?

    因為你問了另一個問題: 有什麼其他物質是我們所看不到的呢?

  • The point, most of us. What's the point?

    重點,我們大多數人。什麼是這重點?

  • The point -- what I've got it down to is there are only two questions really worth asking.

    重點 — — 我把它縮減到只剩 兩個真的值得我們探究的問題。

  • Why we're here, and what should we do about it while we are?

    為什麼我們在這兒?以及, 我們在這兒時應當做些什麽?

  • To help you, I've got two things to leave you with, from two great philosophers,

    為了幫助你們,我從兩個偉大的 哲學家那兒,汲取兩個東西留給你們,

  • perhaps two of the greatest philosopher thinkers of the 20th century.

    他們也許是兩個二十世紀 最偉大的哲學家或思想家,

  • One a mathematician and engineer, and the other a poet.

    一位是數學家與工程師,另一位是詩人。

  • The first is Ludwig Wittgenstein, who said,

    第一位是路德維希•維根斯坦 (Ludwig Wittgenstein)。他說,

  • I don't know why we are here, but I am pretty sure it's not in order to enjoy ourselves.

    我不知道為什麼我們在這兒,但我確信的是, 我們在這兒不是為了享樂的。

  • He was a cheerful bastard, wasn't he? (Laughter)

    他真是一個性格開朗的混蛋,不是嗎?(笑聲)

  • And secondly, and lastly, W.H. Auden, one of my favorite poets

    第二,也是最後一個,是威斯坦•休•奥登 (W.H. Auden),他是我最喜歡的詩人之一。

  • who said, We are here on earth to help others. What the others are here for, I've no idea.

    他說,我們在地球上是爲了幫助他人。 至於其他人在這兒的原因是啥,我不知道。

  • [Get your souvenir photo here! Continue your journey into the unknown!]

    [來這兒合影留念!繼續你未知的旅程!]

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(音樂)

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【TED-Ed】何為不可見之物? 比你所想的還要多 (John Lloyd: An animated tour of the invisible)

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