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  • Time makes sense in small pieces.

    一小段的時間很容易理解。

  • But when you look at huge stretches of time,

    但當你思索超長尺度的時間,

  • it’s almost impossible to wrap your head around things.

    理解事物則變得近乎不可能。

  • So let’s start small

    讓我們從小開始,

  • with minutes, hours, days.

    由分鐘到小時,再到日。

  • You probably spent the last 24 hours mostly sleeping and working,

    你過去的24小時很可能都用在睡覺和工作,

  • with some coffee in there somewhere.

    間中享受一下咖啡。

  • Please watch less TV.

    請少看一點電視。

  • Now let’s look at 2013: relatively unnoticed,

    現在讓我們看看2013年:

  • Hitler’s bodyguard died at the age of 96

    不很受注目地,

  • while in June, Edward Snowden started the NSA scandal.

    希特拉的保鏢去世,終年96歲;

  • Moving back a bit, the 21st century is still pretty young and largely shaped

    愛德華·斯諾登於六月踢爆美國國安局的監聽醜聞。

  • by the attacks on 9/11 that ultimately led to the third Iraq war.

    再過去一點,21世紀還是相當年輕,而主導它的則是

  • Oh, and Facebook and smartphones took over our lives.

    九一一襲擊和其引致的伊拉克戰爭。

  • But were just getting started:

    Facebook和智能手機則大舉進佔我們的生活。

  • Let’s back up further!

    但這只是開頭,讓我們再往後退!

  • The 20th century has seen its share of conflicts too.

    20世紀也有它自己的衝突。

  • After two devastating World Wars,

    在兩次毀滅性的世界大戰後,

  • the Cold War lasted for almost the whole second half of it.

    20世紀的後半差不多都在冷戰中度過。

  • An average human lifespan covers most of this stuff

    普通人的壽命也足夠長去見證這些事。

  • as well as the birth of the internet and the beginning of the information age.

    當然還有互聯網的誕生,以及資訊時代的開始。

  • The oldest living person on Earth is currently Misao Okawa,

    現時世上最年長的人瑞是生於1898年的大川美佐緒;

  • who was born in 1898, which means that her birth was closer to

    這代表拿破崙統治歐洲比起今天 更接近她的出生。

  • Napoleon ruling Europe than to the current day.

    人類的生活方式在過去500年

  • The last 500 years of human history

    發生了翻天覆地的變化。

  • brought enormous changes to our lifestyles:

    工業革命帶來諸如共產主義等新意念,

  • Industrialisation gave rise to new ideas like communism,

    農民變成工人,而傳播知識變得更容易了。

  • farmers became workers and knowledge became easier to distribute.

    進化論改變了我們對自己以至這個世界的看法。

  • The theory of evolution changed how we saw ourselves and the world we live in.

    這都是在數百年間的事!

  • All in a few hundred years!

    15世紀經歷了不少大事:

  • The 15th century was very eventful:

    哥倫布「發現」新大陸和君士坦丁堡的淪陷

  • Columbus’s “discoveryof America and the fall of Constantinople

    標誌著中世紀的結束。

  • mark the end of the Middle Ages.

    中世紀的人熱衷於領土和宗教戰爭;

  • People in the Middle Ages where super into war over territory and religion

    但論殺人,戰爭遠及不上黑死病:

  • but the Black Plague was far more efficient than war,

    瘟疫在六年間就抹去了歐洲三分之一的人口。

  • killing every third European in six years.

    讓我們在整個公元之下,再看看現代:

  • Arriving in the Common Era, let’s take a look where we came from!

    21世紀看起來非常狹小,

  • Our current century is tiny, and 2013 is barely visible.

    而2013年則近乎看不見。

  • This is recorded human history.

    這就是人類信史。

  • The pyramids were constructed 4,500 years ago,

    金字塔是在4500年前建成的;

  • the peak of the Roman Empire was 2,000 years ago,

    2000年前,羅馬帝國正如日中天。

  • so to the Romans the pyramids were as old as the Romans are to us today.

    所以我們看羅馬人有多久遠, 羅馬人看金字塔就有多久遠。

  • History starts with writing. But what happened before that?

    歷史始於文字記載,但在有文字之前呢?

  • About 12,000 years ago, the agricultural revolution took place.

    大約12000年前,農業革命發生了。

  • Mankind began farming, which gave rise to

    人類開始耕作,促成了城市和大型社會的誕生。

  • the existence of cities and larger communities.

    而這正是人類稱霸地球的開始。

  • The dominance of the human species over planet Earth really started here.

    9萬年前,人類和尼安德特人在歐洲共存。

  • 90,000 years ago, neanderthals and humans coexist in Europe.

    小知識:這大概是一架現代太空船

  • Fun fact: this is roughly the time period a modern spacecraft

    要到達最接近的恆星所需的時間。

  • would need to reach the nearest star.

    智人,也就是現代人類,早於20萬年前進化出來。

  • Homo sapiens, the modern human, evolved 200,000 years ago.

    看著整個人類歷史,所謂公元也顯得相當渺小。

  • Looking at all of human history, what we call AD seems pretty small, doesn’t it?

    人類和黑猩猩的共同祖先

  • 6,000,000 years ago, our ancestors

    最後出現於600萬年前,

  • and the modern chimpanzee shared a common ancestor for the last time,

    而石器的潮流足足持續了275萬年。

  • and for 2,750,000 years, stone tools were all the rage.

    6500萬年前,恐龍時代結束於一場巨大的爆炸。 (*隕石很可能只是恐龍滅絕的其中一個原因)

  • A mere 65,000,000 years ago, the age of the dinosaurs ended in

    留給哺乳類崛起的機會。

  • an enormous explosion, which paved the way for the rise of mammals.

    但其實恐龍統治了地球一段極長的時間:

  • But the dinosaurs ruled the Earth for an incredibly long time:

    超過1億6500萬年!

  • over 165,000,000 years!

    這段時間長得讓一隻生活的6500萬年前的暴龍,

  • That’s so long that it means a T. rex that lived 65,000,000 years ago

    距離一場麥莉·希拉(Miley Cyrus)的演唱會

  • is closer to seeing a live Miley Cirus concert

    更接近於一隻劍龍!

  • than to seeing a live stegosaurus!

    動物早於6億年前出現:

  • Animal life on this planet started 600,000,000 years ago:

    最早的動物是魚和其他簡單的海洋生物;

  • the earliest animals were fish and other small simple sea creatures,

    然後是昆蟲,再來是爬蟲類;

  • then came insects, then reptiles,

    最後,大概2億年前,

  • and finally, around 200,000,000 years ago,

    哺乳類也加入了動物界!

  • mammals join the party!

    生命的起源則要早很多,在36億年前。

  • Life itself began much further back:

    在動物還沒出現的24億年間,

  • 3,600,000,000 years ago.

    「生命」就意味著微生物:

  • Before any animals appeared, there were 2,400,000,000 years

    無數的單細胞細菌。

  • when life consisted only of tiny microbes,

    在30億年間,地球上的生物都是肉眼看不到的。

  • countless single-cell bacteria.

    單細胞生物能夠進化為 諸如魚和樹懶等複雜生物

  • For 3,000,000,000 years, all life on Earth was invisible to the naked eye.

    是一件很難理解的事;

  • It’s hard to understand how single-cell organisms

    但其原因只是時間。很長的時間:

  • could develop into complex life forms like fish or sloths.

    生命有足足24億年去用!

  • The answer is time, a whole lot of time:

    46億年前,太陽在一場巨大爆炸的遺骸中誕生;

  • 2,400,000,000 years is lot of time to work with!

    地球則形成於6千萬年後。

  • 4,600,000,000 years ago, the Sun was born from the remnants of a giant explosion,

    年少的地球經常被彗星和隕石撞擊;這帶來了海洋,

  • 60,000,000 years later, Earth formed.

    還有一個我們可以送太空船去的月球。

  • In those early years, frequent bombardment by comets and asteroids

    可是對比起整個宇宙,

  • supplied the Earth with large oceans and a moon to send spaceships to.

    太陽系還算是新事物。

  • But as far as the whole universe goes, our Solar system is pretty new.

    宇宙誕生於137億5千萬年前,

  • 13,750,000,000 years ago, the universe was born, and

    6億年後,數十億顆恆星組成了我們的銀河系。

  • 600,000,000 years later, our own galaxy formed from billions of stars,

    但在大爆炸之前呢?

  • but what was before the Big Bang?

    事實上,我們還不知道,可能永遠也不會知道。

  • The truth is, we don’t know that yet, and maybe we never will.

    所以這裡寫著「古怪的無時間地帶」。 (「奇異點」只是「我們沒有頭緒」的縮寫)

  • But we gave it some colours so at least we have that.

    各位觀眾,這就是「過去」。

  • And there you have it:

    現在看看我們對未來知道些什麼。

  • the past.

    大約10億年後,

  • Now let’s take a look at what we know about the future.

    太陽會變得太熱,導致地球不再適合生命;

  • In roughly 1,000,000,000 years,

    再過40億年,太陽系會隨 太陽死亡而步向終結。

  • the Sun will be so hot that life on Earth becomes impossible.

    OK,沒有太陽系了。

  • The death of the Sun 4,000,000,000 years later marks the end of the Solar system.

    但之後呢?

  • OK, so no more Solar system.

    數萬億年後,新的恆星不再誕生。

  • And what happens after that?

    終有一日,最後一顆恆星會迎來終結。

  • A few trillions years from now, star production will cease

    宇宙會變得黑暗,只剩下黑洞。

  • and one day the last star in the universe will die.

    到最後一個黑洞也蒸散了,然後再過很久很久,

  • The universe will turn dark,

    宇宙也來到其最終階段:「熱寂」。

  • inhabited only by black holes.

    事物不會再轉變,於是

  • Long after the last black hole has evaporated,

    宇宙

  • our universe reaches its final stage,

    死了

  • something called heat death.

    永遠地。

  • Nothing changes anymore,

    你現在感覺怪怪的,覺得不是味兒,對不對?

  • the universe

    我們也是。

  • is dead

    這也很正常。

  • forever.

    而好消息是:

  • Now youre feeling some pretty weird feelings right now, aren’t you?

    這一切都很遙遠,很遙遠。

  • We are too.

    重要的只有當下!

  • It’s only natural.

    你喜歡的那個女孩,

  • The good news is:

    去約她吧!

  • this is all far, far away.

    時間很寶貴,

  • The only time that actually matters is now!

    要用得其所!

  • That cute girl you like,

    由 Amara.org 社群提供的字幕

  • ask her out!

  • Time is precious,

  • make it count!

  • Subtitles by the Amara.org community

Time makes sense in small pieces.

一小段的時間很容易理解。

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 宇宙 恆星 人類 地球 太陽系 時間

七分鐘了解整個宇宙的過去與未來 (The History and Future of Everything -- Time)

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    羅紹桀 發佈於 2015 年 06 月 12 日
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